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antilymphocyte globulin [keywords]
- Heart allograft tolerance induced and maintained by vascularized hind-limb transplant in rats. [Journal Article]
- Clin Dev Immunol 2013.:483856.
Organ/tissue transplantation has become an effective therapy for end-stage diseases. However, immunosuppression after transplantation may cause severe side effects. Donor-specific transplant tolerance was proposed to solve this problem. In this study, we report a novel method for inducing and maintaining heart allograft tolerance rats. First, we induced indefinite vascularized hind-limb allograft survival with a short-term antilymphocyte serum + Cyclosporine A treatment. Peripheral blood chimerism disappeared 6-7 weeks after immunosuppression was withdrawn. Then the recipients accepted secondary donor-strain skin and heart transplantation 200 days following vascularized hind-limb transplantation without any immunosuppression, but rejected third party skin allografts, a status of donor-specific tolerance. The ELISPOT results suggested a mechanism of clone deletion. These findings open new perspectives for the role of vascularized hind-limb transplant in the induction and maintenance of organ transplantation tolerance.
- Antithymocyte globulin/antilymphocyte globulin plus kidney-nourishing Chinese medicinal: effect on severe aplastic anemia. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2012 Dec; 32(4):604-8.
To explore the effect of antithymocyte globulin (ATG)/antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) plus kidney-nourishing Chinese medicinal (KNCM) on severe aplastic anemia (SAA).Twenty-five subjects of severe aplastic anemia were treated with ATG/ALD plus KNCM between 1992 and 2009, and the clinical data before and after treatment were collected and analyzed.Of the 25 patients, 9 were nearly cured, 6 were improved, 5 were in remission, and 5 failed. The overall effective rate was 80.0%. The 3-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year survival rate were respectively 98.6%, 97.3%, 97.3%, 67.5%, and median survival time was 180 months. Compared to the conditions before administering the medication of ATG/ ALG plus KNCM, after 2 weeks, reticulocyte was first improved (P = 0.001); one month later, followed by palette (P = 0.037); two months later, by neutrophil cell in peripheral blood (P = 0.001); three months later, then by the hemoglobin (P = 0.012). By conducting 1-year follow-up, 1 case of complication--paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) was identified and the patient still alive today.ATG/ALG plus KNCM had better effect on SAA and could improve patients' survival rate.
- Acute rejection characteristics from a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of early corticosteroid withdrawal. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Transplantation 2013 Feb 27; 95(4):573-9.
This report characterizes acute rejection and rejection outcomes in subjects randomized to continuous corticosteroid therapy (CCS) or early corticosteroid withdrawal (CSWD; 7 days after transplantation) in the Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial.The Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial was a 5-year, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of early CCS withdrawal in 386 kidney transplant recipients (195 CCS and 191 CSWD). Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were required as well as either rabbit antithymocyte globulin or interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction. Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) was grade 1A or higher by Banff criteria. This report also provides borderline changes (BL) that did not meet Banff grade 1A included with BCAR (BCAR+BL).BCAR+BL was 25 (12.8%) in CCS group and 42 (22.0%) in CSWD group (P=0.022). Early BCAR+BL (first 90 days after transplantation) was less frequent in CCS (n=5 [2.6%]) than in CSWD (n=22 [11.5%]; P<0.001). Among non-African-American subjects, early BCAR+BL occurred more often in CSWD (n=20 [12.7%]) versus CCS (n=2 [1.3%]; P<0.001). Late acute rejection (>2 years) occurred more often in African-American subjects in CCS (n=5 [13.9%]) than in CSWD (n=0; P=0.056). Risk factors were CSWD (hazard ratio [HR], 4.72; P<0.002) and human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.48; P<0.005) for early BCAR+BL and CSWD (HR, 1.9; P<0.02), human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.2; P<0.01), and age (HR, 0.97; P<0.002) for 5-year rejection. The HR for graft loss associated with BCAR+BL was 8.8.BCAR+BL may occur more frequently during the early period after transplantation under an early CSWD regimen with tacrolimus plus induction compared with CCS, particularly among non-African-Americans.
- Rabbit antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine as first-line therapy for children with acquired aplastic anemia. [Letter]
- Blood 2013 Jan 31; 121(5):862-3.
- Rapid activation of monocyte tissue factor by antithymocyte globulin is dependent on complement and protein disulfide isomerase. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Blood 2013 Mar 21; 121(12):2324-35.
Lymphocyte depletion with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) can be complicated by systemic coagulation activation. We found that ATG activated tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF PCA) on monocytic cells more potently than other stimuli that decrypt TF, including cell disruption, TF pathway inhibitor inhibition, and calcium ionophore treatment. Induction of TF PCA by ATG was dependent on lipid raft integrity and complement activation. We showed that ATG-mediated TF activation required complement activation until assembly of the C5b-7 membrane insertion complex, but not lytic pore formation by the membrane attack complex C5b-9. Consistently, induction of TF PCA by ATG did not require maximal phosphatidylserine membrane exposure and was not correlated with the magnitude of complement-induced lytic cell injury. Blockade of free thiols, an inhibitory monoclonal antibody to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and the small-molecule PDI antagonist quercetin-3-rutinoside prevented ATG-mediated TF activation, and C5 complement activation resulted in oxidation of cell surface PDI. This rapid and potent mechanism of cellular TF activation represents a novel connection between the complement system and cell surface PDI-mediated thiol-disulfide exchange. Delineation of this clinically relevant mechanism of activation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway during immunosuppressive therapy with ATG may have broader implications for vascular thrombosis associated with inflammatory disorders.
- Prognostic impact of immune status and hematopoietic recovery before and after fludarabine, IV busulfan, and antithymocyte globulins (FB2 regimen) reduced-intensity conditioning regimen (RIC) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). [Journal Article]
- Eur J Haematol 2013 Mar; 90(3):177-86.
This retrospective analysis aimed to assess hematopoietic and immune recovery in a cohort of 53 patients [males: n = 33; median age: 59 yr (range: 22-70)] who received a FB2 (fludarabine 120-150 mg/m² + IV busulfan 6.4 mg/kg + antithymocyte globulin thymoglobulin 5 mg/kg) reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allo-stem cells transplantations (SCT). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range: 2-53), the 2-yr overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), relapse incidence, and non-relapse mortality were 63%, 59.5%, 35%, and 6%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the factors correlated with a significantly higher 2-yr OS and DFS were a higher total circulating lymphocytes count at transplant (>730/mm(3) ; OS: 81% vs. 43%, P = 0.02; DFS: 73% vs. 45.5%, P = 0.03) and a higher recovery of leukocytes (>5300/mm(3) ) (2-yr OS: 81% vs. 44%, P = 0.007; 2-yr DFS: 72% vs. 46%, P = 0.08), neutrophils (>3200/mm(3) ) (2-yr OS: 76% vs. 50%, P = 0.03; 2-yr DFS: 67% vs. 52.0%, P = 0.1), and monocytes (>590/mm(3) ; 2-yr OS: 80% vs. 45%, P = 0.004; 2-yr DFS: 76% vs. 42%, P = 0.01) at day +30 post-transplant. In multivariate analysis, the only independent factors associated with a significantly higher OS and DFS were a better immune status at transplant (lymphocytes count >730/mm(3) ) and a higher monocytes count (>590/mm(3) ) at day +30 post-transplant. These results suggest that immune status and hematopoietic recovery before and after FB2 RIC allo-SCT can be significant predictors of outcome. This paves the way for future studies aiming to closely monitor the kinetics of immune recovery after RIC allo-SCT and to evaluate the impact of growth factors and other immunostimulatory cytokines in the setting of RIC allo-SCT.
- Simultaneous bone marrow and composite tissue transplantation in rats treated with nonmyeloablative conditioning promotes tolerance. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- Transplantation 2013 Jan 27; 95(2):301-8.
Approaches to safely induce tolerance in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) with chimerism through bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are currently being pursued. However, VCA was historically performed sequentially after donor chimerism was established. Delayed VCA is not clinically applicable due to the time constraints associated with procurement from deceased donors. A more clinically relevant approach to perform both BMT and VCA simultaneously was evaluated.Wistar Furth (RT1A) rats were treated with a short course of immunosuppressive therapy (anti-αβ-TCR monoclonal antibody, FK-506, and anti-lymphocyte serum). One day before BMT, rats were treated with varying doses of total body irradiation (TBI) followed by transplantation of heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flaps from hindlimbs of August Copenhagen Irish (RT1A) rats.Eighty percent of rats conditioned with 300 cGy TBI and 40% of rats receiving 400 cGy TBI accepted the VCA. Mixed chimerism was detected in peripheral blood at 1 month after VCA, but chimerism was lost in all transplant recipients by 4 months. Most peripheral donor cells originated from the BMT and not from the VCA. Acceptors of VCA were tolerant of a donor skin graft challenge and no anti-donor antibodies were detectable, suggesting a central deletional mechanism for tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Treg) from spleens of acceptors more potently suppressed lymphocyte proliferation than Treg from rejectors in the presence of donor stimulator cells.These studies suggest that simultaneous BMT and VCA may establish indefinite allograft survival in rats through Treg-mediated suppression and thymic deletion of alloreactive T cells.
- Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) differentially depletes naïve and memory T cells and permits memory-type regulatory T cells in nonobese diabetic mice. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Immunol 2012.:70.
ATG has been employed to deplete T cells in several immune-mediated conditions. However, whether ATG administration affects naïve and memory T cell differently is largely unknown. THE CONTEXT AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: In this study, we assessed how murine ATG therapy affected T cell subsets in NOD mice, based on their regulatory and naïve or memory phenotype, as well as its influence on antigen-specific immune responses.Peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells post-ATG therapy declined to their lowest levels at day 3, while CD4+ T cells returned to normal levels more rapidly than CD8+ T cells. ATG therapy failed to eliminate antigen-primed T cells. CD4+ T cell responses post-ATG therapy skewed to T helper type 2 (Th2) and possibly IL-10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells. Intriguingly, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were less sensitive to ATG depletion and remained at higher levels following in vivo recovery compared to controls. Of note, the frequency of Foxp3+ Tregs with memory T cell phenotype was significantly increased in ATG-treated animals.ATG therapy may modulate antigen-specific immune responses through inducing memory-like regulatory T cells as well as other protective T cells such as Th2 and IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.
- Serum sickness after antithymocyte globulin administration in a cardiac transplant patient. [Case Reports, Letter]
- Transplantation 2012 Dec 15; 94(11):e68-9.