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aquatic rehabilitation [keywords]
- Comparison of Cardiorespiratory Responses During Aquatic and Land Treadmill Exercise in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2014 Nov 18.
To investigate cardiorespiratory responses during exercise stress tests using an aquatic treadmill and a land-based treadmill in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).Twenty-one stable CAD patients were enrolled. All patients participated in 2 symptom-limited incremental exercise tests, using both an aquatic and a land treadmill. For the aquatic treadmill protocol, patients were submerged to the upper waist in 28°C water. The treadmill speed started at 2.0 km/h and increased 0.5 km/h every minute thereafter. For the land treadmill protocol, the speed and gradient were started at 2.4 km/h and 1.5%, respectively. The speed was increased by 0.3 km/h and grade by 1% every minute thereafter. Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and respiratory exchange ratio were measured continuously and peak values recorded. Rating of perceived exertion, percentage of age-predicted maximal HR, and total exercise duration were also recorded.Peak cardiorespiratory responses during both protocols were compared. The peak VO2 and peak HR did not show any significant differences. The peak respiratory exchange ratio was significantly greater using the land treadmill than the aquatic treadmill protocol. Rating of perceived exertion, age-predicted maximal HR percentage, and total exercise duration were similar for both protocols. There was a significant linear relationship between HR and VO2 with both protocols.This study demonstrated that aquatic treadmill exercise elicits similar peak cardiorespiratory responses compared with land treadmill exercise, suggesting that aquatic treadmill exercise may be effective for CAD patients in cardiac rehabilitation.
- The effects of aquatic therapy on mobility of individuals with neurological diseases: A systematic review. [REVIEW]
- Clin Rehabil 2014 Nov 13.
To summarize evidence on the effects of aquatic therapy on mobility in individuals with neurological diseases.MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CENTRAL, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, PsycBITE and OT Seeker were searched from inception to 15 September 2014. Hand-searching of reference lists was performed in the selected studies.The search included randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies that investigated the use of aquatic therapy and its effect on mobility of adults with neurological diseases. One reviewer screened titles and abstracts of retrieved studies from the search strategy. Two reviewers independently examined the full texts and conducted the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. A narrative synthesis of data was applied to summarize information from included studies. The Downs and Black Scale was used to assess methodological quality.A total of 116 articles were obtained for full text eligibility. Twenty studies met the specified inclusion criteria: four Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), four non-randomized studies and 12 before-and-after tests. Two RCTs (30 patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy groups), three non-randomized studies and three before-and-after studies showed "fair" evidence that aquatic therapy increases dynamic balance in participants with some neurological disorders. One RCT (seven patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy group) and two before-and-after tests (20 patients with multiple sclerosis) demonstrated "fair" evidence on improvement of gait speed after aquatic therapy.Our synthesis showed "fair" evidence supporting the use of aquatic therapy to improve dynamic balance and gait speed in adults with certain neurological conditions.
- Cardiovascular response during submaximal underwater treadmill exercise in stroke patients. [Journal Article]
- Ann Rehabil Med 2014 Oct; 38(5):628-36.
To evaluate the cardiovascular response during head-out water immersion, underwater treadmill gait, and land treadmill gait in stroke patients.Ten stroke patients were recruited for underwater and land treadmill gait sessions. Each session was 40 minutes long; 5 minutes for standing rest on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, 20 minutes for treadmill walking in water or on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, and 5 minutes for standing rest on land. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during each session. In order to estimate the cardiovascular workload and myocardial oxygen demand, the rate pressure product (RPP) value was calculated by multiplying systolic BP (SBP) by HR.SBP, DBP, mean BP (mBP), and RPP decreased significantly after water immersion, but HR was unchanged. During underwater and land treadmill gait, SBP, mBP, DBP, RPP, and HR increased. However, the mean maximum increases in BP, HR and RPP of underwater treadmill walking were significantly lower than that of land treadmill walking.Stroke patients showed different cardiovascular responses during water immersion and underwater gait as opposed to standing and treadmill-walking on land. Water immersion and aquatic treadmill gait may reduce the workload of the cardiovascular system. This study suggested that underwater treadmill may be a safe and useful option for cardiovascular fitness and early ambulation in stroke rehabilitation.
- Effect of different types of exercise on postural balance in elderly women: A randomized controlled trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2014 Aug 24.
Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (P<0.05) efficient in improving the postural balance of elderly women after 12 weeks of training. These results provide further evidence concerning exercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women.
- Molecular biomarkers in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) to evaluate pollutant exposure, health and immune status. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2014 Sep 11.
Grey seals as top-predators bioaccumulate contaminants and can be considered as sentinels of eco-system health. Pups are weaned after a short nursing period, characterised by an enormous lipid transfer and exposure to contaminants. This study established molecular biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system to help assess health and immune status. mRNA transcription of AHR, ARNT, PPARα and cytokine IL-2 and heat-shock-protein HSP70 was measured in blood of grey seal pups and adults in rehabilitation and permanent care using RT-qPCR and compared to rehabilitating harbour seal pups and haematology values. In pups highest levels at admission in xenobiotic biomarker, HSP70 and cytokine transcription may show contaminant exposure via lactation, stress during abandonment and dehydration. The significant decrease may be linked to diet, health improvement and adaptation. Adults showed higher levels and more variation in biomarker transcription and clear species-specific differences between harbour and grey seal pups were found.
- Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Sci Total Environ 2014 Oct 15.:257-63.
Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils.
- Aquatherapy for neurodegenerative disorders. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- J Huntingtons Dis 2014; 3(1):5-11.
Aquatherapy is used for rehabilitation and exercise; water provides a challenging, yet safe exercise environment for many special populations. We have reviewed the use of aquatherapy programs in four neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Results support the use of aquatherapy in Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, however further evidence is required to make specific recommendations in all of the aforementioned disorders.
- The effect of land versus aquatic exercise program on bone mineral density and physical function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2014 May-Jun; 16(3):319-25.
Osteoporosis is a multifactorial progressive skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mass. Exercise is widely recommended to reduce osteoporosis, falls and related fragility fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of land exercise (LE) and aquatic exercise (AE) on physical function and bone mineral density (BMD).Fifty-eight postmenopausal women, aged 50-70 years, diagnosed with osteoporosis according to BMD measures, enrolled in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (LE group) or the control group (AE group). Physical function and BMD were assessed in all subjects in both groups before and after 10 months of intervention. Muscle strength, flexibility, balance, gait time and pain were measured to assess physical function. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).There were no significant differences between the two groups in the baseline anthropometric data. The two groups were similar with respect to age, weight, height, and body mass index (p>0.05). After the exercise program, muscle strength, flexibility, gait time, pain, and bone density (p<0.001) improved significantly with LE compared to AE. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to balance at the 10-month follow-up.Significant improvements in physical function and BMD suggest that LE is a possible alternative for postmenopausal women with OP.
- Watersport hands. [Journal Article]
- Sports Health 2014 Jul; 6(4):360-2.
Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma is a newly described condition of the palms and soles characterized by hypopigmented papules and plaques, elicited after submersion in water. Symptoms include a burning pain and a tightening sensation in the palms, as well as hyperhidrosis. Initially thought to be rare, its frequent citation in the literature points to a more common entity. It is more often found in young women and has been linked to a number of medications and illnesses, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cystic fibrosis. It is typically self-limiting, but certain medications such as topical aluminum chloride or salicylic acid ointment have been found to be an effective treatment option. This case details a collegiate-level coxswain who presented to the university athletic training room with a typical presentation of aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma. For an aquatic athlete, aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma can be a distressing condition that can limit training and athletic participation. As such, the sports medicine physician should be knowledgeable about aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma to provide effective counseling and treatment options for the athlete.
- Effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the improvement of balance and corporal symmetry in stroke survivors. [Journal Article]
- Int J Clin Exp Med 2014; 7(4):1182-7.
One of the main problems associate with hemiparesis after stroke is the decrease in balance during static and dynamic postures which can highly affect daily life activities.To assess the effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the balance and quality of life (SS-QoL) of people with pos stroke.Chronic stroke participants received at total 18 individual sessions of aquatic physiotherapy using the principle of Halliwick (2x of 40 minutes per week). The outcomes measured were: Berg Balance scale, Timed up & go test (TUG), Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QoL) and baropodometric analysis. These assessment were performed before and one week after intervention.Fifteen participants were included in this study. The mean age was 58.5 and 54% was male. After intervention, participants had a significant improvement on their static balance measured by Berg Balance scale and TUG. Dynamic balance had a significant trend of improvement in mediolateral domain with eyes closed and during sit-to-stand. The mobility domain of the SS-QoL questionnaire was significant higher after intervention.Our results suggest that aquatic physiotherapy using the method of Halliwick can be a useful tool during stroke rehabilitation to improve balance. However, this improvement may not have significant impact of their quality of life.