aquatic rehabilitation [keywords]
- Qualitative perspectives on aquatic exercise initiation and satisfaction among persons with multiple sclerosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Disabil Rehabil 2016 Jun 26.:1-6.
To identify the individual and social experiences underlying the initiation and satisfaction with aquatic exercise among persons with MS.A convenience sample (n = 45) of persons aged ≥18 with MS who had engaged in water-based exercise within the previous six months completed a 60-90 min semi-structured telephone interview regarding their aquatic exercise experiences.An aquatic exercise history was not a prerequisite for the adoption of aquatic exercise. Rather, participants described aquatic exercise routines as stemming from recognition of a decline in physical function combined with encouragement and invitations to join aquatic programs. Despite regular visits, health care providers were not a common source of information regarding the feasibility of aquatic exercise. Participants' aquatic activities included MS-specific and generalized aquatics courses, with class satisfaction resting on the instructor, class "fit" and a feeling of acceptance.Communication regarding local aquatic opportunities is critical for ensuring aquatics engagement among persons with MS. Providers could play a stronger role in emphasizing the feasibility and benefits of aquatic programs. In addition, persons with MS should be encouraged to try local MS and more generalized aquatic programs in order to identify a program matching their social and physical goals. Implications for Rehabilitation Directed communication regarding aquatic opportunities is essential to prompting the initiation of aquatic exercise Both MS-specific and general aquatics classes can provide positive exercise experiences for persons with MS A history of regular exercise or aquatic experiences is not a prerequisite for the initiation of aquatic exercise among persons with MS Health care provider visits may represent missed opportunities for promoting aquatics; providers should consider the suitability of aquatics for all patients with MS, regardless of the patient's exercise history.
- Exercise Benefits for Chronic Low Back Pain in Overweight and Obese Individuals. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PM R 2016 Jun 23.
Overweight and obese individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP) struggle with the combined physical challenges of physical activity and pain interference during daily life; perceived disability increases, pain symptoms worsen, and performance of functional tasks and quality of life (QOL) decline. Consistent participation in exercise programs positively affects several factors including musculoskeletal pain, perceptions of disability due to pain, functional ability, QOL, and body composition. It is not yet clear, however, what differential effects occur among different easily accessible exercise modalities in the overweight-obese population with chronic LBP. This narrative review synopsizes available randomized and controlled, or controlled and comparative, studies of easily accessible exercise programs on pain severity, QOL, and other outcomes, such as physical function or body composition change, in overweight-obese persons with chronic LBP. We identified 16 studies (N = 1,351) of various exercise programs (aerobic exercise [AX], resistance exercise [RX], aquatic exercise [AQU], and yoga-Pilates) that measured efficacy on LBP symptoms, and at least one other outcome such as perceived disability, QOL, physical function, and body composition. RX, AQU, and Pilates exercise programs demonstrated the greatest effects on pain reduction, perceived disability, QOL, and other health components. The highest adherence rate occurred with RX and AQU exercise programs, indicating that these types of programs may provide a greater overall impact on relevant outcomes for overweight-obese LBP patients.
- Identifying knowledge gaps in seagrass research and management: An Australian perspective. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Environ Res 2016 Jun 16.
Seagrass species form important marine and estuarine habitats providing valuable ecosystem services and functions. Coastal zones that are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic development have experienced substantial declines in seagrass abundance around the world. Australia, which has some of the world's largest seagrass meadows and is home to over half of the known species, is not immune to these losses. In 1999 a review of seagrass ecosystems knowledge was conducted in Australia and strategic research priorities were developed to provide research direction for future studies and management. Subsequent rapid evolution of seagrass research and scientific methods has led to more than 70% of peer reviewed seagrass literature being produced since that time. A workshop was held as part of the Australian Marine Sciences Association conference in July 2015 in Geelong, Victoria, to update and redefine strategic priorities in seagrass research. Participants identified 40 research questions from 10 research fields (taxonomy and systematics, physiology, population biology, sediment biogeochemistry and microbiology, ecosystem function, faunal habitats, threats, rehabilitation and restoration, mapping and monitoring, management tools) as priorities for future research on Australian seagrasses. Progress in research will rely on advances in areas such as remote sensing, genomic tools, microsensors, computer modeling, and statistical analyses. A more interdisciplinary approach will be needed to facilitate greater understanding of the complex interactions among seagrasses and their environment.
- Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Manage 2016 Jun 13.
Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from $9.45 to $21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species-the 'iconization' of species in two of the three surveys-had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be $10 to $25 per species or $10 to $20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.
- Spatiotemporal, kinematic, force and muscle activation outcomes during gait and functional exercise in water compared to on land: A systematic review. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gait Posture 2016 May 16.:120-130.
Exercises replicating functional activities are commonly used in aquatic rehabilitation although it is not clear how the movement characteristics differ between the two environments. A systematic review was completed in order to compare the biomechanics of gait, closed kinetic chain and plyometric exercise when performed in water and on land.Databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Embase and the Cochrane library were searched. Studies were included where a functional lower limb activity was performed in water and on land with the same instructions. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for spatiotemporal, kinematic, force and muscle activation outcomes.28 studies included walking or running (19 studies), stationary running (three), closed kinetic chain exercise (two), plyometric exercise (three) and timed-up and go (one). Very large effect sizes showed self-selected speed of walking (SMD >4.66) and vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) (SMD >1.91) in water were less than on land, however, lower limb range of movement and muscle activity were similar. VGRF in plyometric exercise was lower in water when landing but more similar between the two environments in propulsion. Maximal speed of movement for walking and stationary running was lower in water compared to on land (SMD>3.05), however was similar in propulsion in plyometric exercise.Drag forces may contribute to lower self-selected speed of walking. Monitoring speed of movement in water assists in determining the potential advantages or limitations of aquatic exercise and the task specificity to land-based function.
- Effectiveness of an aquatic exercise program and low-level laser therapy on articular cartilage in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Connect Tissue Res 2016 May 24.:1-10.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic exercise program and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators on the articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA.Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: knee OA - without treatment (OA); OA plus exercise program group (OAE); OA plus LLLT (OAL); OA plus exercise program associated with LLLT (OAEL). Trained rats performed a water-jumping program carrying a load equivalent to 50-80 % of their body mass strapped to their chest. The laser irradiation was used either as the only method or after the exercise training had been performed, at 2 points contact mode (medial and lateral side of the left joint). The treatments started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks.The results revealed that all treated groups (irradiated or not) exhibited a better pattern of tissue organization, with less fibrillation and irregularities along the articular surface and improved chondrocytes organization. Also, a lower cellular density and structural damage (OARSI score) and higher thickness values were observed in all treated groups. Additionally, OAE and OAEL showed a reduced expression in IL-1β and caspase-3 as compared with OA. Furthermore, a statistically lower MMP-13 expression was only observed in OAEL as compared with OA.These results suggest that aquatic exercise program and LLLT were effective in preventing cartilage degeneration. Also, physical exercise program presented anti-inflammatory effects in the knees in OA rats.
- The Influence of the Aquatic Environment on Gait Initiation: A Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Motor Control 2016 May 24.
Aquatic therapies are used to restore step initiation in people with locomotor disabilities. However, there is lack of evidence of underlining mechanisms of gait initiation in water. We investigated center of pressure (CoP), vertical and anterior-posterior impulse forces, and kinematics of the first step performed in water in comparison to overground walking. The peaks of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) and the sections of CoP trajectories were longer in water than on land. Impulse forces were increased in water compared to land. Range of motion (ROM) of ankle joint increased in water while knee joint ROM did not change. We suggest that the aquatic environment may facilitate gait initiation training by allowing a longer step execution with greater stimuli and imposed resistance for the phases of gait initiation.
- Efficacy of progressive aquatic resistance training for tibiofemoral cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2016 May 19.
To study the efficacy of aquatic resistance training on biochemical composition of tibiofemoral cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis (OA).Eighty seven volunteer postmenopausal women, aged 60-68 years, with mild knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grades I/II and knee pain) were recruited and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 43) and control (n = 44) group. The intervention group participated in 48 supervised aquatic resistance training sessions over 16 weeks while the control group maintained usual level of physical activity. The biochemical composition of the medial and lateral tibiofemoral cartilage was estimated using single-slice transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC index). Secondary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness, isometric knee extension and flexion force and knee injury and OA outcome (KOOS) questionnaire.After 4-months aquatic training, there was a significant decrease in both T2 -1.2 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.3 to -0.1, P = 0.021) and dGEMRIC index -23 ms (-43 to -3, P = 0.016) in the training group compared to controls in the full thickness posterior region of interest (ROI) of the medial femoral cartilage. Cardiorespiratory fitness significantly improved in the intervention group by 9.8% (P = 0.010).Our results suggest that, in postmenopausal women with mild knee OA, the integrity of the collagen-interstitial water environment (T2) of the tibiofemoral cartilage may be responsive to low shear and compressive forces during aquatic resistance training. More research is required to understand the exact nature of acute responses in dGEMRIC index to this type of loading. Further, aquatic resistance training improves cardiorespiratory fitness.ISRCTN65346593.
- Determination of VO2-Intensity Relationship and MAOD in Tethered Swimming. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Sports Med 2016 May 13.
This study aimed to test the reproducibility of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) values and VO2-intensity relationship parameters as measured during tethered swimming. 9 swimmers performed an incremental test to determine the maximal aerobic force (MAF), 6 submaximal efforts to develop VO2-intensity relationship, and an exhaustive effort to determine MAOD. The tests were performed twice. The reproducibility of the measurements was tested using intraclass correlation (ICC), typical error (TE) and coefficient of variation (CV). High levels of reproducibility were observed for MAF (TE=2.6 N; CV=4.3%; ICC=0.98) and VO2-intensity relationship parameters, as intercept (TE=0.01 L.min(-1); CV=11.4%; ICC=0.97), slope (TE=0.002 L.min(-1).N(-1); CV=3.1%; ICC=0.97) and coefficient of determination (TE=0.02; CV=1.8%; ICC=0.47). The MAOD values measured during the test (2.9±1.1 L and 45.3±14.0 mL.Kg(-1)) and retests (2.9±1.1 L and 45.2±12.6 mL.Kg(-1)) were highly correlated (absolute values: ICC=0.93; relative to body mass values: ICC=0.89) and presented low values of TE (0.3 L and 4.3 mL.Kg(-1)) and CV (9.5% for absolute and 9.6% for relative to body mass values). Thus, we demonstrated the potential use of tethered swimming to assess anaerobic capacity in an aquatic environment.