- A specifically designed aquatic exercise protocol to reduce chronic lower limb edema. [Journal Article]
- PPhlebology 2016 Oct 18
- CONCLUSIONS: A specifically designed aquatic protocol is able to positively impact chronic leg swelling offering a first line rehab for this medical condition.
- Effects of macrophyte development on the oxygen metabolism of an urban river rehabilitation structure. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2016 Oct 4; 574:1125-1130
- To compensate for fairway enlargements and the hydraulic impacts of navigation activity, an artificial rehabilitation structure was constructed in the urban, navigable River Spree in 2004. This wave-...
To compensate for fairway enlargements and the hydraulic impacts of navigation activity, an artificial rehabilitation structure was constructed in the urban, navigable River Spree in 2004. This wave-protected, shallow littoral zone proved to be highly effective in reducing vessel-induced waves and provided suitable conditions for the development of aquatic plants. However, in time it became less suitable for other aquatic organisms due to hypoxic conditions in late summer. This study aimed to comparatively calculate and analyze the oxygen balance of the rehabilitation structure and the main channel five years after the construction in 2009. In the rehabilitation structure, the production to respiration ratio ranged between 0.10 and 0.34 at the peak of vegetation density, while in the main channel in front of the rehabilitation structure it ranged between 0.67 and 0.86. Dense vegetation limited the water exchange and caused oxygen depletion. Thus, atmospheric oxygen input through the water surface and due to long-term water level changes became the most important supply processes for oxygen in the rehabilitation structure. Enhancing the oxygen supply to improve the suitability of the rehabilitation structure for other aquatic taxa requires an increase in water exchange with the main channel, e.g. by adaptively increasing the lateral connectivity.
- The influence of the aquatic environment on the control of postural sway. [Journal Article]
- GPGait Posture 2016 Sep 28; 51:70-76
- Balance training in the aquatic environment is often used in rehabilitation practice to improve static and dynamic balance. Although aquatic therapy is widely used in clinical practice, we still lack...
Balance training in the aquatic environment is often used in rehabilitation practice to improve static and dynamic balance. Although aquatic therapy is widely used in clinical practice, we still lack evidence on how immersion in water actually impacts postural control. We examined how postural sway measured using centre of pressure and trunk acceleration parameters are influenced by the aquatic environment along with the effects of visual information. Our results suggest that the aquatic environment increases postural instability, measured by the centre of pressure parameters in the time-domain. The mean velocity and area were more significantly affected when individuals stood with eyes closed in the aquatic environment. In addition, a more forward posture was assumed in water with eyes closed in comparison to standing on land. In water, the low frequencies of sway were more dominant compared to standing on dry land. Trunk acceleration differed in water and dry land only for the larger upper trunk acceleration in mediolateral direction during standing in water. This finding shows that the study participants potentially resorted to using their upper trunk to compensate for postural instability in mediolateral direction. Only the lower trunk seemed to change acceleration pattern in anteroposterior and mediolateral directions when the eyes were closed, and it did so depending on the environment conditions. The increased postural instability and the change in postural control strategies that the aquatic environment offers may be a beneficial stimulus for improving balance control.
- An Ai Chi-based aquatic group improves balance and reduces falls in community-dwelling adults: A pilot observational cohort study. [Journal Article]
- PTPhysiother Theory Pract 2016 Oct 6; :1-10
- CONCLUSIONS: Aquabalance was safe, well-attended, and acceptable to participants. A randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial is required.
- Shoulder joint moment, work and power during slow underwater scapular plane abduction/adduction. [Journal Article]
- APAnn Phys Rehabil Med 2016; 59S:e118
- CONCLUSIONS: The present results encourage the use of aquatic shoulder exercises so as to benefit the most from the upward lift of buoyancy. Surprisingly, at such a slow speed, buoyancy contribution is sufficiently high to elicit eccentric work during abduction, which is favorable to regain joint mobility at very little effort.
- Reliability and Accuracy of a Standardized Shallow Water Running Test to Determine Cardiorespiratory Fitness. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Strength Cond Res 2016 Sep 16
- A standardized fitness assessment is critical for the development of an individualized exercise prescription. Although the benefits of aquatic exercise have been well established, there remains the n...
A standardized fitness assessment is critical for the development of an individualized exercise prescription. Although the benefits of aquatic exercise have been well established, there remains the need for a standardized non-swimming protocol to accurately assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in shallow water. The present investigation was designed to assess: 1) reliability of a standardized Shallow Water Run (SWR) test of CRF; and 2) accuracy of a standardized SWR compared with a land-based treadmill test (LTM). Twenty-three healthy females (20 ± 3 yrs), body mass index (BMI) (23.5 ± 3 kg·m), performed two shallow water peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) running tests (SWRa & SWRb), and one VO2max LTM. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC's) indicated moderately-strong reliability for VO2peak (ml·kg·min (r=0.73, p<.01), HRpeak (b·min)(r=0.82; p<.01), and O2pulse (VO2 (ml·kg·min) · (HR(b·min)) (r=0.77, p<.01). Using paired t-tests and Pearson's correlations, SWR VO2peak and HRpeak were significantly lower than during LTM (p<.05), and showed moderate correlations of 0.60 and 0.58 (p<.001) to LTM. O2 pulse was similar (p>.05) for the SWR and LTM tests with a moderate correlation of 0.63. A standardized SWR test as a measure of CRF is a reliable, and to some degree, valid alternative to conventional protocols, and may be used by strength and conditioning professionals to measure program outcomes and monitor training progress. Furthermore, this protocol provides a water-based option for CRF assessment among healthy women, and offers insight toward the development of an effective protocol that can accommodate individuals with limited mobility, or those seeking less musculoskeletal impact from traditional land-based types of training.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND) , where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
- The effectiveness of aquatic exercise in improving lower limb strength in musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- APArch Phys Med Rehabil 2016 Sep 22
- CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the inadequate application of resistance in water is a significant contributor to the limited effectiveness of aquatic exercise interventions in improving hip and knee muscle strength in people with musculoskeletal conditions. Future research is needed to quantify resistance with aquatic exercises and to determine if utilizing opportunities for greater resistance in aquatic rehabilitation as well as appropriate resistance training principles can be more effective in improving muscle strength.
- Landing Technique Improvements after an Aquatic-Based Neuromuscular Training Program in Physically Active Females. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sport Rehabil 2016 Aug 24; :1-21
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings introduce evidence that an aquatic NTP improves landing technique and suggest improvements are retained over time. These results show promise of utilizing an aquatic NTP when there is a desire to reduce joint loading, such as early stages of rehabilitation, to improve biomechanics and reduce injury risk.
- Upper limb joint forces and moments during underwater cyclical movements. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biomech 2016 Aug 26
- Sound inverse dynamics modeling is lacking in aquatic locomotion research because of the difficulty in measuring hydrodynamic forces in dynamic conditions. Here we report the successful implementatio...
Sound inverse dynamics modeling is lacking in aquatic locomotion research because of the difficulty in measuring hydrodynamic forces in dynamic conditions. Here we report the successful implementation and validation of an innovative methodology crossing new computational fluid dynamics and inverse dynamics techniques to quantify upper limb joint forces and moments while moving in water. Upper limb kinematics of seven male swimmers sculling while ballasted with 4kg was recorded through underwater motion capture. Together with body scans, segment inertial properties, and hydrodynamic resistances computed from a unique dynamic mesh algorithm capable to handle large body deformations, these data were fed into an inverse dynamics model to solve for joint kinetics. Simulation validity was assessed by comparing the impulse produced by the arms, calculated by integrating vertical forces over a stroke period, to the net theoretical impulse of buoyancy and ballast forces. A resulting gap of 1.2±3.5% provided confidence in the results. Upper limb joint load was within 5% of swimmer׳s body weight, which tends to supports the use of low-load aquatic exercises to reduce joint stress. We expect this significant methodological improvement to pave the way towards deeper insights into the mechanics of aquatic movement and the establishment of practice guidelines in rehabilitation, fitness or swimming performance.
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- Peak Cardiorespiratory Responses of Patients with Subacute Stroke During Land and Aquatic Treadmill Exercise. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Phys Med Rehabil 2016 Aug 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Aquatic treadmill exercise elicited significantly better peak cardiorespiratory responses than land treadmill exercise and may be as effective for early intensive aerobic training in subacute stroke patients.