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- Regulation of Specialized Metabolism by WRKY Transcription Factors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Plant Physiol 2014 Dec 10.
WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are well known for regulating plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, much less is known about how WRKY TFs affect plant-specialized metabolism. Analysis of WRKY TFs regulating production of specialized metabolites emphasizes the values of the family outside of traditionally accepted roles in stress tolerance. WRKYs with conserved roles across plant species seem to be essential in regulating specialized metabolism. Overall, the WRKY family plays an essential role in regulating biosynthesis of important pharmaceutical, aromatherapy, biofuel, and industrial components; thus, warranting considerable attention in the forthcoming years.
- The use of aromasticks at a cancer centre: A retrospective audit. [Journal Article]
- Complement Ther Clin Pract 2014 Nov; 20(4):203-6.
To consider the use of aromasticks in a cancer centre in the UK: the reasons for their use, the choice of essential oils used in them and the demographics of the patients to whom they were given.Aromasticks are personal aromatherapy inhaler devices, used in this hospital by the complementary therapy team to improve patients' well-being and quality of life by helping with symptom control.A retrospective audit of aromastick use covering a 28 month period from January 2011-April 2013.A total of 514 aromasticks were given out, to patients with a variety of cancer diagnoses and symptoms. The most common reasons for aromastick use were to alleviate nausea or to encourage relaxation. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), lemon (Citrus limon), frankincense (Boswellia carterii), bergamot (Citrus bergamia), orange sweet (Citrus sinensis) and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) were the essential oils used most often.
- Complementary and alternative medicine: a survey of its use in pediatric cardiology. [Journal Article]
- CMAJ Open 2014 Oct; 2(4):E217-24.
The use of complementary and alternative medicine is high among children and youth with chronic illnesses, including patients with cardiac conditions. Our goal was to assess the prevalence and patterns of such use among patients presenting to academic pediatric cardiology clinics in Canada.A survey instrument was developed to inquire about current or previous use of complementary and alternative medicine products and practices, including indications, beliefs, sources of information and whether this use was discussed with physicians. Between February and July 2007, the survey was administered to patients (or their parents/guardians) presenting to 2 hospital-based cardiology clinics: the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta, and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Ottawa, Ontario.At the Stollery Children's Hospital, 64.1% of the 145 respondents had used complementary and alternative medicine compared with 35.5% of the 31 respondents at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (p = 0.003). Overall, the most common products in current use were multivitamins (70.6%), vitamin C (22.1%), calcium (13.2%), unspecified "cold remedies" (11.8%) and fish oil or omega-3 fatty acids (11.8%). The most common practices in current use were massage (37.5%), faith healing (25.0%), chiropractic (20.0%), aromatherapy (15.0%) and Aboriginal healing (7.5%). Many patients (44.9%) used complementary and alternative medicine products at the same time as conventional prescription drugs. Concurrent use was discussed with physicians or pharmacists by 64.3% and 31.3% of respondents, respectively.Use of complementary and alternative medicine products and practices was high among patients seen in the pediatric cardiology clinics in our study. Most respondents believed that the use of these products and practices was helpful; few reported harms and many did not discuss this use with their physicians, increasing the potential for interactions with prescribed medications.
- Identification of odorants in frankincense (Boswellia sacra Flueck.) by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. [Journal Article]
- Phytochemistry 2015 Jan.:66-75.
Frankincense has been known, traded and used throughout the ages for its exceptional aroma properties, and is still commonly used in both secular and religious settings to convey a pleasant odor. Surprisingly, the odoriferous principle(s) underlying its unique odor profile have never been published. In this study, resin samples of Boswellia sacra Flueck. from both Somalia and Oman were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis. In a comprehensive, odor-activity guided approach both chemo-analytical and human-sensory parameters were used to identify odor active constituents of the volatile fraction of B. sacra. Among the key odorants found were α-pinene, β-myrcene, linalool, p-cresol and two unidentified sesquiterpenoids. Overall, a total of 23 odorants were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The majority of the identified odorant compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes, along with some relevant mono- and sesquiterpenes and only one diterpenoid substance. Several of these compounds were reported here for the first time as odorous constituents in B. sacra. Identifying bioactive compounds might support a better understanding with regard to the potential benefits of frankincense, for example in aromatherapy or ecclesial settings.
- Effectiveness of aromatherapy in decreasing maternal anxiety for a sick child undergoing infusion in a paediatric clinic. [Journal Article]
- Complement Ther Med 2014 Dec; 22(6):1019-26.
We examined whether aromatherapy involving inhalation of yuzu (Citrus ichangensis×Citrus reticulata) oil was effective in decreasing mothers' anxiety for her sick child receiving an infusion at a paediatric clinic.Controlled clinical trial.Mothers of sick children who arrived at the hospital were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. After a doctor examined the child and confirmed the necessity for infusion, the mothers who agreed to participate in our study were allocated to an aromatherapy or a control group.A diffuser was filled with yuzu oil before the subjects entered the aromatherapy room. The mother was shown how to use the aromatherapy diffuser while the child was receiving an infusion in the same room. Fifteen minutes after entering the room, the mothers were asked to complete an another questionnaire.We measured the mother's anxiety with the state anxiety score from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.There were 60 subjects in the aromatherapy group and 61 in the control group. Both groups were well balanced in terms of demographic characteristics. Using analysis of variance, we demonstrated a significant difference in two-factor interactions between the control and aromatherapy groups. Maternal state anxiety was significantly lower in the aromatherapy than in the control group.Inhalation of yuzu oil was shown to decrease maternal anxiety for a sick child. A multicentre randomized controlled trial or double-blind study is necessary to obtain objective evidence of this benefit of aromatherapy.
- Non-pharmacological interventions for agitation in dementia: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. [REVIEW]
- Br J Psychiatry 2014 Dec; 205(6):436-442.
Background Agitation in dementia is common, persistent and distressing and can lead to care breakdown. Medication is often ineffective and harmful. Aims To systematically review randomised controlled trial evidence regarding non-pharmacological interventions. Method We reviewed 33 studies fitting predetermined criteria, assessed their validity and calculated standardised effect sizes (SES). Results Person-centred care, communication skills training and adapted dementia care mapping decreased symptomatic and severe agitation in care homes immediately (SES range 0.3-1.8) and for up to 6 months afterwards (SES range 0.2-2.2). Activities and music therapy by protocol (SES range 0.5-0.6) decreased overall agitation and sensory intervention decreased clinically significant agitation immediately. Aromatherapy and light therapy did not demonstrate efficacy. Conclusions There are evidence-based strategies for care homes. Future interventions should focus on consistent and long-term implementation through staff training. Further research is needed for people living in their own homes.
- Noninvasive and alternative management of chronic low back pain (efficacy and outcomes). [Journal Article]
- Neuromodulation 2014 Oct.:24-30.
The goal of this article is to provide a thorough literature review of available noninvasive and alternative treatment options for chronic low back pain. In particular, the efficacy of each therapy is evaluated and pertinent outcomes are described.A comprehensive search for available literature was done through PubMed and Cochrane data base for topics discussed in this paper.Relevant current and past references were reviewed and presented to reflect the efficacy of each therapy and related outcomes.There are a wide variety of noninvasive and alternative therapies for the treatment of chronic low back pain. Those with the strongest evidence in the literature for good efficacy and outcomes include exercise therapy with supervised physical therapy, multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation, and acupuncture. Therapies with fair evidence or moderately supported by literature include yoga, back schools, thermal modalities, acupressure, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Those therapies with poor evidence or little to no literature support include manipulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, low-level laser therapy, reflexology, biofeedback, progressive relaxation, hypnosis, and aromatherapy. Providers delivering care for patients with chronic low back pain must carefully evaluate these available treatment options related to their efficacy or lack thereof as well as relevant outcomes.
- The effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction: a randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Aug; 16(8):e15485.
Anxiety is an important mental health problem in patients with cardiac disease. Anxiety reduces patients' quality of life and increases the risk of different cardiac complications.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction.This was a randomized clinical trial conduced on 68 patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in coronary care units of a large-scale teaching hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2013. By using the block randomization technique, patients were randomly assigned to experimental (33 patients receiving inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma twice a day for two subsequent days) and control (35 patients receiving routine care of study setting including no aromatherapy) groups. At the beginning of study and twenty minutes after each aromatherapy session, anxiety state of patients was assessed using the Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. We used Chi-square, Fisher's exact, independent-samples T-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to analyze the study data.The study groups did not differ significantly regarding baseline anxiety mean and demographic characteristics. However, after the administration of aromatherapy, anxiety mean in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group.Inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma can reduce anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Consequently, healthcare providers, particularly nurses, can use this strategy to improve postmyocardial infarction anxiety management.
- Lavender-thymol as a new topical aromatherapy preparation for episiotomy: A randomised clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Obstet Gynaecol 2014 Nov 10.:1-4.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lavender-thymol in promoting episiotomy healing. This placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical trial involved 60 primiparous women. REEDA score was used to evaluate the outcome of the trial. On the 7th post-partum day, women in Placebo-treated group had worse Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation (REEDA) score of 3.93 ± 3.65 compared with those in Lavender-thymol-treated group (2.03 ± 1.7) with significant difference (P = 0.013). Visual analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain at episiotomy in Lavender-thymol-treated group was 3.5 ± 1.9, whereas in Placebo-treated group it was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.011) for dyschezia, 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.8 ± 1.6 in Placebo- and Lavender-thymol-treated women, respectively (p = 0.023). At 7th post-partum week, dyspareunia was more severe in Placebo-treated group compared with that in Lavender-thymol-treated group (5.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.5 and p < 0.001). Topical aromatherapy using lavender-thymol was highly effective, suitable and safe for episiotomy wound care with little or no expected side effects compared with that using placebo.
- Factors affecting the use of complementary and alternative medicine among Japanese university students. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Complement Integr Med 2014 Oct 21.