Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- Noninvasive and alternative management of chronic low back pain (efficacy and outcomes). [Journal Article]
- Neuromodulation 2014 Oct.:24-30.
The goal of this article is to provide a thorough literature review of available noninvasive and alternative treatment options for chronic low back pain. In particular, the efficacy of each therapy is evaluated and pertinent outcomes are described.A comprehensive search for available literature was done through PubMed and Cochrane data base for topics discussed in this paper.Relevant current and past references were reviewed and presented to reflect the efficacy of each therapy and related outcomes.There are a wide variety of noninvasive and alternative therapies for the treatment of chronic low back pain. Those with the strongest evidence in the literature for good efficacy and outcomes include exercise therapy with supervised physical therapy, multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation, and acupuncture. Therapies with fair evidence or moderately supported by literature include yoga, back schools, thermal modalities, acupressure, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Those therapies with poor evidence or little to no literature support include manipulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, low-level laser therapy, reflexology, biofeedback, progressive relaxation, hypnosis, and aromatherapy. Providers delivering care for patients with chronic low back pain must carefully evaluate these available treatment options related to their efficacy or lack thereof as well as relevant outcomes.
- The effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction: a randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Aug; 16(8):e15485.
Anxiety is an important mental health problem in patients with cardiac disease. Anxiety reduces patients' quality of life and increases the risk of different cardiac complications.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction.This was a randomized clinical trial conduced on 68 patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in coronary care units of a large-scale teaching hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2013. By using the block randomization technique, patients were randomly assigned to experimental (33 patients receiving inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma twice a day for two subsequent days) and control (35 patients receiving routine care of study setting including no aromatherapy) groups. At the beginning of study and twenty minutes after each aromatherapy session, anxiety state of patients was assessed using the Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. We used Chi-square, Fisher's exact, independent-samples T-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to analyze the study data.The study groups did not differ significantly regarding baseline anxiety mean and demographic characteristics. However, after the administration of aromatherapy, anxiety mean in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group.Inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma can reduce anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Consequently, healthcare providers, particularly nurses, can use this strategy to improve postmyocardial infarction anxiety management.
- Lavender-thymol as a new topical aromatherapy preparation for episiotomy: A randomised clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Obstet Gynaecol 2014 Nov 10.:1-4.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lavender-thymol in promoting episiotomy healing. This placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical trial involved 60 primiparous women. REEDA score was used to evaluate the outcome of the trial. On the 7th post-partum day, women in Placebo-treated group had worse Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation (REEDA) score of 3.93 ± 3.65 compared with those in Lavender-thymol-treated group (2.03 ± 1.7) with significant difference (P = 0.013). Visual analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain at episiotomy in Lavender-thymol-treated group was 3.5 ± 1.9, whereas in Placebo-treated group it was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.011) for dyschezia, 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.8 ± 1.6 in Placebo- and Lavender-thymol-treated women, respectively (p = 0.023). At 7th post-partum week, dyspareunia was more severe in Placebo-treated group compared with that in Lavender-thymol-treated group (5.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.5 and p < 0.001). Topical aromatherapy using lavender-thymol was highly effective, suitable and safe for episiotomy wound care with little or no expected side effects compared with that using placebo.
- Aromatherapy hand massage for older adults with chronic pain living in long-term care. [Journal Article]
- J Holist Nurs 2014 Dec; 32(4):314-5.
- Factors affecting the use of complementary and alternative medicine among Japanese university students. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Complement Integr Med 2014 Oct 21.
Abstract Background: Patients suffering from intractable diseases and individuals seeking relief from mild symptoms resort to treatments outside the modern medical paradigm, such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In order to improve doctor-patient communication about CAM, it is essential to evaluate CAM usage among social groups likely to choose it in the future. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate how university students - individuals highly subject to future CAM usage - perceive CAM and the factors affecting their choice of CAM use. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey with 1,096 Japanese university students not studying medical subjects. Results: The term CAM was known to 11% of the subjects. Modalities they most associated with CAM were art therapy (353 subjects), hot spring therapy (349), and aromatherapy (345). They had experience taking vitamins, trace elements, other supplements (498), and nutritional drinks (483). Several subjects wanted to experience shiatsu massage (373) and hot spring therapy (303). Multiple regression analysis of the modalities that the subjects wanted to experience revealed a 42% multiple coefficient of determination for prioritizing modalities that the subject associated with CAM, showing a large contribution of this deciding factor. Conclusions: Although most subjects were not familiar with the term CAM, many of them had decided to ingest substances in the CAM category on the basis of self-judgment and without adequate knowledge. Because such behavior can be detrimental to health, medical professionals should be aware of CAM usage among their patients and seek effective communication with them in order to enable safe CAM practice.
- Dental patient anxiety: Possible deal with Lavender fragrance. [Journal Article]
- J Res Pharm Pract 2014 Jul; 3(3):100-3.
The pure essence of plants (essential oils) provides both psychological and physiological benefits when used accurately and safely. Conventionally, Lavender oil is known for relaxing, carminative, and sedative effects. Hence, an attempt was made to know the effect of Lavender essential oil on dental patient anxiety.The present study included two comparison groups (Lavender and control group), each comprising five dental clinics. In Lavender group, the ambient odor of Lavender essential oil was maintained with the help of a candle warmer in the reception area and in the control group, candle warmer with normal water was used. A total of 597 patients, aged above 18 years were included. A questionnaire comprising demographic information, and a modified dental anxiety scale was given to the patients in waiting room, and data regarding anxiety levels was recorded.Student's t-test (unpaired) showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores of Lavender group compared with the control group. Analysis of variances test showed reduction in anxiety scores as age increased in Lavender group.Fragrance of Lavender oil at reception area may effectively reduce the patient's state or current anxiety. This practice on routine usage can improve the quality of dental treatments.
- Effects of Salvia sclarea on chronic immobilization stress induced endothelial dysfunction in rats. [Journal Article]
- BMC Complement Altern Med 2014.:396.
Although Salvia sclarea (clary sage) is widely used in aromatherapy and has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. We therefore assessed whether clary sage is effective in treating endothelial dysfunction induced by chronic immobilization stress in rats.Rats were intraperitoneally injected with almond oil, clary sage oil (5%, 10% or 20%), or nifedipine once daily, followed by immobilization stress (2 h/day) for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured, as were serum concentrations of corticosterone (CORT); a biomarker of chronic stress, malondialdehyde (MDA); a biomarker of oxidative stress. Nitric oxide production was assessed by nitrite assays, and eNOS level, a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, was measured by western blotting. Endothelial dysfunction was also assayed by measuring the effect of clary sage on the contraction of rat aortae.Treatment with 5% (p = 0.029), 10% (p = 0.008), and 20% (p = 0.008) clary sage significantly reduced SBP and treatment with 20% clary sage significantly reduced HR (p = 0.039) compared with the chronic immobilization stress group. Clary sage decreased CORT serum concentration (10%, p = 0.026; 20%, p = 0.012) and MDA (10%, p = 0.007; 20%, p = 0.027), findings similar to those observed with nifedipine. In addition, 20% clary sage significantly increased nitric oxide production (p <0.001) and eNOS expression level (p <0.001) and relaxed aortic rings in rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress.Clary sage treatment of rats subjected to immobilization stress contributed to their recovery from endothelial dysfunction by increasing NO production and eNOS level as well as by decreasing oxidative stress. Appropriate concentration of clary sage may result in recovery from endothelial dysfunction. These findings indicate that clary sage oil may be effective in the prevention and treatment of stress-induced cardiovascular diseases.
- [Changes in olfaction during ageing and in certain neurodegenerative diseases: Up-to-date.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Med Interne 2014 Oct 7.
Olfaction is a complex sensory system, and increasing interest is being shown in the link between olfaction and cognition, notably in the elderly. In this literature review, we revisit the specific neurophysiological features of the olfactory system and odorants that lead to a durable olfactory memory and an emotional memory, for which the implicit component produces subconscious olfactory conditioning. Olfaction is known to affect cognitive abilities and mood. We also consider the impairment of olfactory function due to ageing and to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, through anatomopathological changes in the peripheral and central olfactory structures. The high frequency of these olfactory disorders as well as their early occurrence in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are in favour of their clinical detection in subjects suffering from these two neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we analyse the impact of olfactory stimulation on cognitive performance and attention. Current observational data from studies in elderly patients with Alzheimer-type dementia are limited to multiple sensory stimulation methods, such as the Snoezelen method, and aromatherapy. These therapies have shown benefits for dementia-related mood and behaviour disorders in the short term, with few side effects. Since olfactory chemosensory stimulation may be beneficial, it may be proposed in patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer-type dementia, as a complementary or even alternative therapy to existing medical strategies.
- Effects of Citrus Aurantium (Bitter Orange) on the Severity of First-Stage Labor Pain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Iran J Pharm Res 2014; 13(3):1011-1018.
Considering that vaginal delivery is a painful process, the present study investigated the effects of Citrus aurantium on the severity of first-stage labor pain in primiparous women. This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted with 126 eligible primiparous patients. The pain severity of patients was measured at the time of enrolling in the study. In the intervention group, (aromatherapy) gauze squares were soaked in 4 ml of C. aurantium distillated water, and in the control group, gauze squares were soaked in 4 ml of normal saline; each gauze square was attached to the respective patients' collar. The intervention was repeated every 30 min. Pain severity was measured after the intervention at 3-4, 5-7, and 8-10 cm cervix dilatations. The two groups were standardized with regard to age, profession, education, desire to conceive, and number and severity of uterine contractions. The Bishop's score was also calculated. Before intervention, pain severity was the same for both groups, but following intervention, pain severity reduced in the intervention group at 3-4 centimeter (P < 0.05), 7-5 centimeter (P < 0.05), and 8-10 centimeter (P < 0.05) dilatations compared with that in the control group. The findings of the study revealed that aromatherapy using C. aurantium distillated water alleviates labor pain. This method is recommended because of its ease of use and low cost and because it is a non-aggressive method to reduce labor pain.
- The effect of self-aromatherapy massage of the abdomen on the primary dysmenorrhoea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Obstet Gynaecol 2014 Sep 25.:1-4.
Primary dysmenorrhoea (PD) is the most common gynaecological complaint that occurs in women. This study was a randomised controlled trial. The subjects were 75 students whose severity of pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS). Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: massage group with rose oil (n = 25) who applied self-massage with Rose damascene; a placebo group (n = 25) who performed self-massage with unscented almond oil and a no treatment control group (n = 25) who applied just self-massage. All three groups received the intervention in the first day of menstruation in two subsequent cycles. The severity of pain was self-reported by the students before and after intervention. All three groups were matched in demographic characteristics. The baseline pain reduced in the first cycle but this reduction was not significant in the groups (p > 0.05). In the second cycle, the menstrual pain was significantly lower in the rose oil group than in the other two groups after intervention (between massage with rose oil, almond oil p = 0.003 and massage with rose oil and just massage p = 0.000). Massage with aromatherapy reduces the severity of primary dysmenorrhoea, in comparison with massage therapy alone.