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- Aromatherapy - A Step-By-Step Guide for Women Price Shirley Aromatherapy - A Step-By-Step Guide for Women 96pp £6.99 Hermes House 978 1 8430 9409 8 1843094096 [Formula: see text]. [Journal Article]
- Nurs Stand 2014 Jul 9; 28(45):30.
Written for women of all ages, Shirley Price shows how to use essential oils for improved health and vitality through all stages of life.
- Olfactory stimulatory with grapefruit and lavender oils change autonomic nerve activity and physiological function. [REVIEW]
- Auton Neurosci 2014 Jun 25.
This review summarizes the effects of olfactory stimulation with grapefruit and lavender oils on autonomic nerve activity and physiological function. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of grapefruit oil (GFO) increases the activity of sympathetic nerves that innervate white and brown adipose tissues, the adrenal glands, and the kidneys, decreases the activity of the gastric vagal nerve in rats and mice. This results in an increase in lipolysis, thermogenesis, and blood pressure, and a decrease in food intake. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of lavender oil (LVO) elicits the opposite changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. Olfactory stimulation with scent of limonene, a component of GFO, and linalool, a component of LVO, has similar effects to stimulation with GFO and LVO, respectively. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, abolishes all GFO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables, and the hitstamine H3-receptor antagonist, thioperamide, eliminates all LVO-induced changes. Lesions to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and anosmic treatment with ZnSO4 also abolish all GFO- and LVO-induced changes. These findings indicate that limonene and linalool might be the active substances in GFO and LVO, and suggest that the suprachiasmatic nucleus and histamine are involved in mediating the GFO- and LVO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables.
- Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. [Journal Article]
- J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2014 Jul; 15(7):638-48.
Objective:Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences.
Methods:Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white ('Houban Yingui', HBYG), yellow ('Liuye Jingui', LYJG), and orange ('Gecheng Dangui', GCDG) cultivars.
Results:Seventeen aroma-active compounds were detected among 54 volatiles. trans-β-Ocimene, trans-β-ionone, and linalool, which were major volatiles, were identified as aroma-active, while cis-3-hexenyl butanoate, γ-terpinene, and hexyl butanoate were also aroma-active compounds, although their contents were low. Analysis of the odors was based on the sum of the modified frequency (MF) values of aroma-active compounds in different odor groups. HBYG contained more herb odors, contributed by cis-β-ocimene and trans-β-ocimene, while LYJG had more woody/violet/fruity odors released by trans-β-ionone, α-ionone, and hexyl butanoate. In GCDG, the more floral odors were the result of cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, and linalool.
Conclusions:Aroma-active compounds were not necessarily only the major volatiles: some volatiles with low content also contributed to aroma. The aroma differences among the three cultivars resulted from variation in the content of different odor groups and in the intensities of aroma-active compounds.
- Alopecia Areata: An Evidence-Based Treatment Update. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Jul 8.
There is no cure for alopecia areata, nor is there any universally proven therapy that induces and sustains remission. Treatment choices are frequently based on disease duration, extent, and activity as well as the age of the patient.Our objective was to review all randomized controlled studies on the treatment of alopecia areata.We performed a search in the biomedical literature database PubMed, and used the terms 'alopecia areata treatment' and article type 'randomized controlled trials'.Following this algorithm, we reviewed, analyzed, and reported on 29 trials that examined the efficacy of anthralin, antidepressants, biologics, calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids (topical and systemic), minoxidil, prostaglandin analogs, sensitizers, and a miscellaneous group of topical and oral drugs with less scientific evidence (aromatherapy, photodynamic therapy, azelaic acid, garlic gel, bexarotene, triiodothyronine, inosiplex, and total glucosides of paeony).Using the American College of Physicians Guideline grading system, our assessment is that the majority of published randomized controlled studies of alopecia areata are only of moderate quality. A number of treatments were found to be effective, for example, topical and oral corticosteroids and the sensitizing agents diphenylcyclopropenone and dinitrochlorobenzene; however, most studies had major limitations that hinder the interpretation of these results.
- Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Insect Physiol 2014 Jul 1.:1-6.
Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT.
- A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sensory, psychological and behavioural interventions for managing agitation in older adults with dementia. [Journal Article]
- Health Technol Assess 2014 Jun; 18(39):1-226.
Agitation is common, persistent and distressing in dementia and is linked with care breakdown. Psychotropic medication is often ineffective or harmful, but the evidence regarding non-pharmacological interventions is unclear.We systematically reviewed and synthesised the evidence for clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for reducing agitation in dementia, considering dementia severity, the setting, the person with whom the intervention is implemented, whether the effects are immediate or longer term, and cost-effectiveness.We searched twice using relevant search terms (9 August 2011 and 12 June 2012) in Web of Knowledge (incorporating MEDLINE); EMBASE; British Nursing Index; the Health Technology Assessment programme database; PsycINFO; NHS Evidence; System for Information on Grey Literature; The Stationery Office Official Documents website; The Stationery National Technical Information Service; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; and The Cochrane Library. We also searched Cochrane reviews of interventions for behaviour in dementia, included papers' references, and contacted authors about 'missed' studies. We included quantitative studies, evaluating non-pharmacological interventions for agitation in dementia, in all settings.We rated quality, prioritising higher-quality studies. We separated results by intervention type and agitation level. As we were unable to meta-analyse results except for light therapy, we present a qualitative evidence synthesis. In addition, we calculated standardised effect sizes (SESs) with available data, to compare heterogeneous interventions. In the health economic analysis, we reviewed economic studies, calculated the cost of effective interventions from the effectiveness review, calculated the incremental cost per unit improvement in agitation, used data from a cohort study to evaluate the relationship between health and social care costs and health-related quality of life (DEMQOL-Proxy-U scores) and developed a new cost-effectiveness model.We included 160 out of 1916 papers screened. Supervised person-centred care, communication skills (SES = -1.8 to -0.3) or modified dementia care mapping (DCM) with implementing plans (SES = -1.4 to -0.6) were all efficacious at reducing clinically significant agitation in care home residents, both immediately and up to 6 months afterwards. In care home residents, during interventions but not at follow-up, activities (SES = -0.8 to -0.6) and music therapy (SES = -0.8 to -0.5) by protocol reduced mean levels of agitation; sensory intervention (SES = -1.3 to -0.6) reduced mean and clinically significant symptoms. Advantages were not demonstrated with 'therapeutic touch' or individualised activity. Aromatherapy and light therapy did not show clinical effectiveness. Training family carers in behavioural or cognitive interventions did not decrease severe agitation. The few studies reporting activities of daily living or quality-of-life outcomes found no improvement, even when agitation had improved. We identified two health economic studies. Costs of interventions which significantly impacted on agitation were activities, £80-696; music therapy, £13-27; sensory interventions, £3-527; and training paid caregivers in person-centred care or communication skills with or without behavioural management training and DCM, £31-339. Among the 11 interventions that were evaluated using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the incremental cost per unit reduction in CMAI score ranged from £162 to £3480 for activities, £4 for music therapy, £24 to £143 for sensory interventions, and £6 to £62 for training paid caregivers in person-centred care or communication skills with or without behavioural management training and DCM. Health and social care costs ranged from around £7000 over 3 months in people without clinically significant agitation symptoms to around £15,000 at the most severe agitation levels. There is some evidence that DEMQOL-Proxy-U scores decline with Neuropsychiatric Inventory agitation scores. A multicomponent intervention in participants with mild to moderate dementia had a positive monetary net benefit and a 82.2% probability of being cost-effective at a maximum willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life-year of £20,000 and a 83.18% probability at a value of £30,000.Although there were some high-quality studies, there were only 33 reasonably sized (> 45 participants) randomised controlled trials, and lack of evidence means that we cannot comment on many interventions' effectiveness. There were no hospital studies and few studies in people's homes. More health economic data are needed.Person-centred care, communication skills and DCM (all with supervision), sensory therapy activities, and structured music therapies reduce agitation in care-home dementia residents. Future interventions should change care home culture through staff training and permanently implement evidence-based treatments and evaluate health economics. There is a need for further work on interventions for agitation in people with dementia living in their own homes.The study was registered as PROSPERO no. CRD42011001370.The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
- Functional characterization of terpene synthases and chemotypic variation in three lavender species of section Stoechas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Physiol Plant 2014 Jun 18.
Lavandula pedunculata (Mill.) Cav. subsp. lusitanica, L. stoechas L. subsp. stoechas and L. viridis l'Hér. are three lavender taxa that belong to the botanical section Stoechas and are widely used as aromatherapy, culinary herb or folk medicine in many Mediterranean regions. The analysis of their bioactive volatile constituents revealed the presence of 124 substances, the most abundant being the bicyclic monoterpenes fenchone, camphor and 1,8-cineole that give these three species their respective chemotypes. Most noteworthy was fenchone which, with its reduced form fenchol, made 48% of the total volatile constituents of L. pedunculata whilst present at 2.9% in L. stoechas and undetectable in L. viridis. In order to provide a molecular explanation to the differences in volatile compounds of these 3 species, two monoterpene synthases (monoTPS) and one sesquiterpene synthase (sesquiTPS) were cloned in L. pedunculata and functionally characterized as fenchol synthase (LpFENS), α-pinene synthase (LpPINS) and germacrene A synthase (LpGEAS). The two other lavender species contained a single orthologous gene for each of these three classes of TPS with similar enzyme product specificities. Expression profiles of FENS and PINS genes matched the accumulation profile of the enzyme products unlike GEAS. This study provides one of the rare documented cases of chemotype modification during plant speciation via changes in the level of plant TPS gene expression, and not functionality.
- The Effectiveness of Interventions Aimed at Reducing Anxiety in Health Care Waiting Spaces: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Nonrandomized Trials. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anesth Analg 2014 Jun 17.
Reducing waiting anxiety is an important objective of patient-centered care. Anxiety is linked to negative health outcomes, including longer recovery periods, lowered pain thresholds, and for children in particular, resistance to treatment, nightmares, and separation anxiety. The goals of this study were (1) to systematically review published research aimed at reducing preprocedural waiting anxiety, and (2) to provide directions for future research and development of strategies to manage preprocedural waiting anxiety in health care environments.We performed a systematic review of the literature via ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Medline. Included in this review were studies describing measurable outcomes in response to interventions specifically intended to improve the waiting experience of patients in health care settings. Primary outcomes of interest were stress and anxiety. Exclusion criteria included (a) studies aimed at reducing wait times and management of waiting lists only, (b) waiting in non-health care settings, (c) design of health care facilities with nonspecific strategies pertaining to waiting spaces, (d) strategies to reduce pain or anxiety during the course of medical procedures, and (e) interventions such as massage, acupuncture, or hypnosis that require dedicated staff and/or private waiting environments to administer.We identified 8690 studies. Forty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. In adult populations, 33 studies were identified, wherein the effects of music (n = 25), aromatherapy (n = 6), and interior design features (n = 2) were examined. Eight pediatric studies were identified investigating play opportunities (n = 2), media distractions (n = 2), combined play opportunities and media distractions (n = 3), and music (n = 1). Based on results from 1129 adult participants in the 14 studies that evaluated music and permitted meta-analysis, patients who listened to music before a medical procedure exhibited a lowered-state anxiety (-5.1 ± 0.53 points on the State Trait Anxiety Scale) than those who received standard care. The efficacy of aromatherapy was inconclusive. Studies reporting on the impact of improved interior design of waiting areas, while positive, are minimal and heterogeneous. For children, insufficient evidence is available to corroborate the effectiveness of play opportunities, media distractions, and music for mitigating anxiety in children awaiting medical procedures.Music is a well-established means of decreasing anxiety in adult patients awaiting medical interventions. The effect of music on children's anxiety is not known. Limited studies and heterogeneity of interventions and methods in the areas of aromatherapy, interior design, digital media, and play opportunities (for children) suggest the need for future research.
- Optimizing methyl eugenol aromatherapy to maximize post-treatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Insect Sci 2014 Jun 17.
Methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy- 4 -(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 days after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 days post-treatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1 and 2 DPT. ME aromatherapy 1 or 2 DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1 and 2 DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1, 2 or 3 DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1d post treatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Cymbopogon martinii essential oil and geraniol at noncytotoxic concentrations exerted immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects in human monocytes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pharm Pharmacol 2014 Jun 16.
In traditional medicine, plants have formed the basis of sophisticated systems that have been in existence for thousands of years and still provide mankind with new remedies. Cymbopogon martinii, known as palmarosa, has been used in aromatherapy as a skin tonic due to its antimicrobial properties. It has also used in Ayurvedic medicine for skin problems and to relieve nerve pain. The immunomodulatory action of C. martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol was evaluated regarding the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10, respectively) by human monocytes in vitro.Monocyte cultures were incubated with EO or geraniol. After 18 h, cytotoxicity assays were performed using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method, and cytokine production was determined by ELISA.The variables showed no cytotoxic effects on monocytes. TNF-α production was not affected by C. martinii and geraniol, and only the concentration of 5 μg/ml of C. martinii stimulated its production. On the other hand, all concentrations of C. martinii and geraniol increased IL-10 production by human monocytes.Data showed that noncytotoxic concentrations of EO and geraniol exerted an anti-inflammatory action by increasing IL-10 production; moreover, geraniol seemed to be probably responsible for EO immunomodulatory activity in our assay condition.