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- Aromatherapy for dementia. [Journal Article]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014.:CD003150.
Complementary therapy has received great interest within the field of dementia treatment and the use of aromatherapy and essential oils is increasing. In a growing population where the majority of patients are treated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, the efficacy of treatment is short term and accompanied by negative side effects. Utilisation of complimentary therapies in dementia care settings presents as one of few options that are attractive to practitioners and families as patients often have reduced insight and ability to verbally communicate adverse reactions. Amongst the most distressing features of dementia are the behavioural and psychological symptoms. Addressing this facet has received particular interest in aromatherapy trials, with a shift in focus from reducing cognitive dysfunction to the reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia.To assess the efficacy of aromatherapy as an intervention for people with dementia.ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register, was searched on 26 November 2012 and 20 January 2013 using the terms: aromatherapy, lemon, lavender, rose, aroma, alternative therapies, complementary therapies, essential oils.All relevant randomised controlled trials were considered. A minimum length of a trial and requirements for follow-up were not included, and participants in included studies had a diagnosis of dementia of any type and severity. The review considered all trials using fragrance from plants defined as aromatherapy as an intervention with people with dementia and all relevant outcomes were considered.Titles and abstracts extracted by the searches were screened for their eligibility for potential inclusion in the review. For Burns 2011, continuous outcomes were estimated as the mean difference between groups and its 95% confidence interval using a fixed-effect model. For Ballard 2002, analysis of co-variance was used for all outcomes, with the nursing home being treated as a random effect.Seven studies with 428 participants were included in this review; only two of these had published usable results. Individual patient data were obtained from one trial (Ballard 2002) and additional analyses performed. The additional analyses conducted using individual patient data from Ballard 2002 revealed a statistically significant treatment effect in favour of the aromatherapy intervention on measures of agitation (n = 71, MD -11.1, 95% CI -19.9 to -2.2) and behavioural symptoms (n = 71, MD -15.8, 95% CI -24.4 to -7.2). Burns 2011, however, found no difference in agitation (n = 63, MD 0.00, 95% CI -1.36 to 1.36), behavioural symptoms (n = 63, MD 2.80, 95% CI -5.84 to 11.44), activities of daily living (n = 63, MD -0.50, 95% CI -1.79 to 0.79) and quality of life (n = 63, MD 19.00, 95% CI -23.12 to 61.12). Burns 2011 and Fu 2013 found no difference in adverse effects (n = 124, RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.15 to 6.46) when aromatherapy was compared to placebo.The benefits of aromatherapy for people with dementia are equivocal from the seven trials included in this review. It is important to note there were several methodological difficulties with the included studies. More well-designed, large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed before clear conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy for dementia. Additionally, several issues need to be addressed, such as whether different aromatherapy interventions are comparable and the possibility that outcomes may vary for different types of dementia.
- Self-prescribed complementary and alternative medicine use for back pain amongst a range of care options: Results from a nationally representative sample of 1310 women aged 60-65 years. [Journal Article]
- Complement Ther Med 2014 Feb; 22(1):133-40.
To examine the prevalence and characteristics of women who self-prescribe complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for back pain.A cross-sectional survey of a nationally-representative sample of women aged 60-65 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH).A significant number of women (75.2%, n=985) self-prescribed one or more CAM for back pain in the previous twelve months. Use of self-prescribed CAM for back pain was not associated with socio-economic status. The most common self-prescribed CAM used by women was supplements (n=776, 59.2%), vitamins/minerals (n=592, 45.2%), yoga/meditation (n=187, 14.3%), herbal medicines (n=172, 13.1%) and aromatherapy oils (n=112, 8.6%). Women who visited general practitioners (GPs) more than three times in the previous twelve months were 1.59 times (95% CI: 1.14, 2.22) more likely to self-prescribe CAM for back pain than those women who did not visit GPs. Women who visited a pharmacist three or more times in the previous twelve months were 2.90 times (95% CI: 1.65, 5.09) more likely to self-prescribe CAM for back pain than those women who did not visit a pharmacist.This study identifies substantial use of self-prescribed CAM by women for back pain regardless of their education, income or urban/rural residency. In order to ensure safe, effective practice it is important that all providing and managing health services for back pain sufferers remain mindful of patients' possible use of self-prescribed CAM.
- Contribution of anterior cingulate cortex and descending pain inhibitory system to analgesic effect of lemon odor in mice. [Journal Article]
- Mol Pain 2014.:14.
Affections are thought to regulate pain perception through the descending pain inhibitory system in the central nervous system. In this study, we examined in mice the affective change by inhalation of the lemon oil, which is well used for aromatherapy, and the effect of lemon odor on pain sensation. We also examined the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and descending pain inhibitory system to such regulation of pain.In the elevated plus maze, the time spent in the open arms was increased by inhalation of lemon oil. The pain behavior induced by injection of formalin into the hind paw was decreased. By inhalation of lemon oil, the number of c-Fos expression by formalin injection was significantly increased in the ACC, periaqueductal grey (PAG), nucleu raphe magnus (NRM) and locus ceruleus, and decreased in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). The destruction of the ACC with ibotenic acid led to prevent the decrease of formalin-evoked nocifensive behavior in mice exposed to lemon oil. In these mice, the change of formalin-induced c-Fos expression in the ACC, lateral PAG, NRM and SDH by lemon odor was also prevented. Antagonize of dopamine D1 receptor in the ACC prevented to the analgesic effect of lemon oil.These results suggest that the analgesic effect of lemon oil is induced by dopamine-related activation of ACC and the descending pain inhibitory system.
- Healthcare professional views and experiences of complementary and alternative therapies in obstetric practice in North East Scotland: a prospective questionnaire survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BJOG 2014 Feb 11.
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) therapy by UK healthcare professionals involved in the care of pregnant women, and to identify key predictors of use.A prospective survey.Maternity services in Grampian, North East Scotland.All healthcare professionals (135) involved in the care of pregnant women (midwives, obstetricians, anaesthetists).Questionnaire development, piloting, and distribution. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis.A response rate of 87% was achieved. A third of respondents (32.5%) had recommended (prescribed, referred, or advised) the use of CAMs to pregnant women. The most frequently recommended CAMs modalities were: vitamins and minerals (excluding folic acid) (55%); massage (53%); homeopathy (50%); acupuncture (32%); yoga (32%); reflexology (26%); aromatherapy (24%); and herbal medicine (21%). Although univariate analysis identified that those who recommended CAMs were significantly more likely to be midwives who had been in post for more than 5 years, had received training in CAMs, were interested in CAMs, and were themselves users of CAMs, the only variable retained in bivariate logistic regression was 'personal use of CAM', with an odds ratio of 8.26 (95% CI 3.09-22.05; P < 0.001).Despite the lack of safety or efficacy data, a wide variety of CAM therapies are recommended to pregnant women by approximately a third of healthcare professionals, with those recommending the use of CAMs being eight times more likely to be personal CAM users.
- A comparison of still point induction to massage therapy in reducing pain and increasing comfort in chronic pain. [Journal Article]
- Holist Nurs Pract 2014 Mar-Apr; 28(2):78-84.
A quantitative study was completed to determine whether complementary techniques provide pain relief and comfort in patients with chronic pain. Subjects participated in sessions including aromatherapy and music therapy. Massage or cranial still point induction was randomly assigned. Statistically significant improvement in pain and comfort was noted in both groups.
- Considering the senses in the diagnosis and management of dementia. [REVIEW]
- Maturitas 2014 Jan 18.
Associations between dementia and impairments in hearing, vision, olfaction and (to a lesser degree) taste have been identified. Hearing impairment has been shown to precede cognitive decline, but it is not clear if the hearing loss is an early marker of dementia or a modifiable risk factor. Olfactory impairment is seen in many neurodegenerative conditions, but it has been shown that those with dementia have particular difficulties with the recognition and identification of odours rather than the detection, suggesting a link to impairment of higher cognitive function. Olfactory impairment has been shown to be predictive of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease with 85.2% sensitivity. As cognitive function deteriorates, the world is experienced at a sensory level, with reduced ability to integrate the sensory experiences to understand the context. Thus, people with dementia are very sensitive to sensory experiences and their environment needs to be managed carefully to make it understandable, comfortable, and (if possible) therapeutic. Light can be used to stabilise the circadian rhythm, which may be disturbed in dementia. Music therapy, aromatherapy, massage and multisensory stimulation are recommended by NICE for the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), although the mechanisms behind such interventions are poorly understood and evidence is limited. Sensory considerations are likely to play a greater role in dementia care in the future, with the development of purpose-built dementia care facilities and the focus on non-pharmacological management strategies for BPSD.
- Controlled Breathing With or Without Peppermint Aromatherapy for Postoperative Nausea and/or Vomiting Symptom Relief: A Randomized Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- J Perianesth Nurs 2014 Feb; 29(1):12-9.
With little scientific evidence to support use of aromatherapy for postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV) symptoms, this study evaluated controlled breathing with peppermint aromatherapy (AR) and controllled breathing alone (CB) for PONV relief.A single blind randomized control trial design was used.On initial PONV complaint, symptomatic subjects received either CB (n = 16) or AR (n = 26) intervention based on randomization at enrollment. A second treatment was repeated at 5 minutes if indicated. Final assessment occurred 10 minutes post initial treatment. Rescue medication was offered for persistent symptoms.Among eligible subjects, PONV incidence was 21.4% (42/196). Gender was the only risk factor contributing to PONV symptoms (P = .0024). Though not statistically significant, CB was more efficacious than AR, 62.5% versus 57.7%, respectively.CB can be initiated without delay as an alternative to prescribed antiemetics. Data also support use of peppermint AR in conjunction with CB for PONV relief.
- A prospective randomized study of the effectiveness of aromatherapy for relief of postoperative nausea and vomiting. [Journal Article]
- J Perianesth Nurs 2014 Feb; 29(1):5-11.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a major concern for patients having surgery under general anesthesia as it causes subjective distress along with increased complications and delays in discharge from the hospital. Aromatherapy represents a complementary and alternative therapy for the management of PONV.The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of aromatherapy (QueaseEase, Soothing Scents, Inc, Enterprise, AL) versus an unscented inhalant in relieving PONV.One hundred twenty-one patients with postoperative nausea were randomized into a treatment group receiving an aromatic inhaler and a control group receiving a placebo inhaler to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy.Initial and follow-up nausea assessment scores in both treatment and placebo groups decreased significantly (P < .01), and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P = .03). Perceived effectiveness of aromatherapy was significantly higher in the treatment group (P < .001).Aromatherapy was favorably received by most patients and represents an effective treatment option for postoperative nausea.
- The anxiolytic effect of aromatherapy on patients awaiting ambulatory surgery: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013.:927419.
The aim of this study was to determine if aromatherapy could reduce preoperative anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients. A total of 109 preoperative patients were randomly assigned to experimental (bergamot essential oil) and control (water vapor) conditions and their responses to the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and vital signs were monitored. Patients were stratified by previous surgical experience, but that did not influence the results. All those exposed to bergamot essential oil aromatherapy showed a greater reduction in preoperative anxiety than those in the control groups. Aromatherapy may be a useful part of a holistic approach to reducing preoperative anxiety before ambulatory surgery.
- Complementary therapy provision in a London community clinic for people living with HIV/AIDS: a case study. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Complement Ther Clin Pract 2014 Feb; 20(1):65-9.
To present a case study of complementary therapy (CT) provision within a community HIV multi-agency service in a Northwest London deprived area.Anonymised routine service data were provided for all clients (n = 1030) August 2010 to October 2012. Face-to-face meetings provided feedback from volunteers (9 CT-using clients and 9 staff).CT-users were demographically similar to other clients. Support for coping with HIV was commonly cited as a service benefit. Over 26 months 1416 CT sessions were provided; 875 aromatherapy and 471 shiatsu. CT-users' most common concerns were pain (48%), stress (15%) and insomnia (13%), few had heard of or used CT before. Perceived mental and emotional benefits included relaxation,stress relief, relieving musculoskeletal aches and pains. Service challenges included time and funding, though staff felt CT may be cost-effective.CT may provide important support and treatment options for HIV disease, but cost effectiveness requires further evaluation.