- Comparing the effects of aromatherapy massage and inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety and pain in burn patients: A single-blind randomized clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Burns 2016 Aug 26.
Anxiety and pain are recognized as major problems of burn patients; because pharmaceutical treatments for controlling anxiety and pain symptoms lead to complications and an increase in health costs, nonpharmacological nursing interventions were considered for this group of patients. This led to the present study aimed at comparing the effect of aromatherapy massage with inhalation aromatherapy for anxiety and pain in burn patients.This single-blind clinical trial was carried out on 90 patients with burns <20%. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups, namely aromatherapy massage, inhalation aromatherapy, and control group. The patients assigned to the aromatherapy massage group received a massage for half an hour using a blend of lavender and almond oils, while a blend of rose and lavender aroma was used for the inhalation aromatherapy group. Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory was used for measuring anxiety and the visual analog scale (VAS) scale was used for measuring pain.The results showed that three groups were equal in terms of demographics, disease characteristics, and scores of anxiety and pain at the baseline. The mean decreases of anxiety scores were -0.04±5.08, 6.33±12.55, and 6.43±10.60 in the control group, aromatherapy massage group, and inhalation group, respectively (p=0.007). The mean decrease of pain scores were -0.10±0.96, 1.70±1.84, and 0.97±1.56 in the control group, aromatherapy massage group, and inhalation group, respectively (p<0.001).The study results showed the positive effect of aromatherapy massage and inhalation aromatherapy compared with the control group in reducing both anxiety and pain of burn patients. Therefore, both interventions, which are inexpensive, and noninvasive nursing tasks can be proposed for alleviating anxiety and pain of burn patients.
- Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. [Journal Article]
- Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2016 Jul-Aug; 21(4):397-401.
Surgery, as a treatment, is a stressful experience. The anxiety is more severe in open-heart surgery patients due to its risk and complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of lavender essence on the levels of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery.This was a single-blind clinical trial, a random allocation study with a control group conducted on 90 candidates for open-heart surgery in two groups of study and control. The study and control groups inhaled two drops of lavender and distilled water for 20 min, respectively. Spielberger questionnaire was filled by the patients. A 2 ml blood sample was taken to measure the cortisol level and patients' vital signs were recorded before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by chi-square in the form of mean, SD, and frequency distribution, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of P = 0.05 to modify the pre-test scores.Results showed a significant reduction in mean anxiety score from 56.73 (5.67) to 54.73 (5.42) after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group [1.11 (1.17)] (P < 0.001). There was also a higher difference in cortisol level in the study group compared to the control group [1.88 (0.56) vs. 0.42 (0.45)]. ANCOVA test showed that the 10.8% variance in anxiety score and 69.6% decrease in blood cortisol resulted from inhalation of lavender.Results showed the positive effect of lavender essence on anxiety and blood cortisol level among the patients. Aromatherapy with lavender is suggested to be considered as a nursing intervention in clinical settings.
- Both lavender fleur oil and unscented oil aromatherapy reduce preoperative anxiety in breast surgery patients: a randomized trial. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Anesth 2016 Sep.:243-9.
The objective of this study was to determine whether lavender fleur oil (LFO) aromatherapy would reduce anxiety when administered to women before undergoing breast surgery.This was a single-site, randomized study comparing the effect of LFO to unscented oil (UO).The study was conducted in the preoperative holding area of the ambulatory surgery department of NYU Langone Medical Center.Ninety three women, 18 years and older, scheduled for breast surgery. Women meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria were randomized to either LFO or UO aromatherapy and were blind to their assigned treatment.Subjects completed a Speilberger State Anxiety Inventory for Adults (STAI) before and after aromatherapy. Vital signs were recorded before and after aromatherapy.STAI-State questions were divided into positive and negative emotions for analysis. Before aromatherapy, there was no significant difference between groups by individual questions or overall average answer of either positive or negative questions. The use of both LFO and UO increased the positive STAI score totals, with the LFO group having a slightly, but statistically significant, greater increase. Both resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the negative score totals after treatment. There were no differences in vital signs between groups for either treatment. Following the conclusion of the trial LFO was analyzed and found to contain a very low content of the 2 major Lavandula angustifolia constituents.Both LFO and UO aromatherapy treatments lowered anxiety before surgery despite no significant changes in vital signs. LFO treatment generated a slight but statistically significant increase in positive feelings compared with UO treatment. It is probable that the beneficial effect observed was due to both aromatherapy with LFO and a placebo effect related to the added attention given to the patients.
- De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses. [Journal Article]
- Front Plant Sci 2016.:1129.
Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.
- Investigating the effect of rose essential oil in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. [Journal Article]
- Complement Ther Clin Pract 2016 Aug.:45-9.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of rose essential oil on primary dysmenorrhea.One hundred patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group D received diclofenac sodium (75 mg/im) and Group A administered diclofenac sodium with aromatherapy (2% rose essential oil). The visual analog scale (VAS) scores in all subjects at baseline, 10th min, and 30th min were recorded.When the two groups were compared before and after the treatment, there were significant decreases in VAS values at the 10 min and 30 min compared to baseline values in both groups (p < 0.001). However, the 30th min mean VAS value in Group D was higher than in Group A (p = 0.019).The present study suggests that aromatherapy with rose essential oil, which is a nonpharmacologic treatment method, as an adjuvant to conventional treatment methods may be beneficial for pain relief in individuals with primary dysmenorrhea.
- Anti-inflammatory and antiedematogenic activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil and its main compound estragole: In vivo mouse models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2016 Jul 26.:14-25.
The genus Ocimum are used in cooking, however, their essential oils are utilized in traditional medicine as aromatherapy. The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition and systemic anti-inflammatory activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EOOB) and its major component estragole, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. The Ocimum basilicum essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory action was verified using acute and chronic in vivo tests as paw edema, peritonitis, and vascular permeability and granulomatous inflammation model. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was analyzed by the participation of histamine and arachidonic acid pathways. The chemical profile analysis identified fourteen components present in the essential oil, within them: estragole (60.96%). The in vivo test results show that treatment with EOOB (100 and 50 mg/kg) and estragole (60 and 30 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran. The smallest doses of EOOB (50 mg/kg) and estragole (30 mg/kg) showed efficacy in the reduction of paw edema induced by histamine and arachidonic acid, vascular permeability inhibition and leukocyte emigration in the peritoneal fluid. Theses doses were capable of reducing the chronic inflammatory process. The results observed between the EOOB and estragole demonstrate efficacy in anti-inflammatory activity, however, the essential oil is more efficacious in the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory action. This study confirms the therapeutic potential of this plant and reinforces the validity of its use in popular medicine.
- The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health. [Journal Article, Review]
- Brain Sci 2016; 6(3)
This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.
- Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effect of musk in an animal model of depression: how it works. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anat Sci Int 2016 Jul 21.
Depression has become a common public health problem that is showing increasing prevalence. Slow onset of action, low response rates and drug resistance are potential limitations of the current antidepressant drugs. Alternative therapy using natural substances, specifically aromatherapy, is currently tried to treat depression. This work aimed to assess the efficacy of musk in relieving the behavioral, biochemical and hippocampal histopathological changes induced by exposure to chronic mild stress in mice and explore the possible mechanism behind this antidepressant-like effect. Forty male albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 10): control, a group exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and two groups exposed to CUMS and then treated with fluoxetine or musk. Behavioral changes and serum corticosterone levels were assessed at the end of the experiment. Protein and gene expressions of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus were assessed using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Histopathological examination of the hippocampus and immunohistochemical techniques using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, caspase-3, BDNF and GR were performed. Inhalation of musk had an antidepressant-like effect in an animal model of depression. Musk alleviated the behavioral changes and elevated serum corticosterone levels induced by exposure to chronic stress. It reduced the hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and stimulated neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Musk's action may be related to the upregulation of hippocampal GR and BDNF expressions. Musk is considered a potential antidepressant so it is advisable to assess its efficacy in treating depressed patient.
- Effect of lavender aromatherapy on menopause hot flushing: A crossover randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- J Chin Med Assoc 2016 Sep; 79(9):489-92.
Flushing is generally considered to be the primary symptom of menopause and is typically the most common complaint in menopausal women. Although flushing poses no danger to a woman's health, it decreases the quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lavender aromatherapy on menopause flushing.This double-blinded crossover clinical trial included 100 menopausal women 45-55 years of age who were referred to various health centers in Ardabil, Iran in 2013-2014. Samples were blocked randomly and divided into two intervention (lavender) and control (diluted milk) groups. Lavender aroma was smelled for 20 minutes twice a day, over a 12-week period. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, and flushing numbers were duly recorded. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) using the Chi-square and t test.The results of our investigation showed that both groups had no significant difference according to demographic characteristics (p > 0.05). Additionally, the flushing number significantly decreased in the intervention group than in the control group (p < 0.001).This study indicated that the use of lavender aromatherapy reduced menopause flushing. Given the impact of stress on flushing and the undesirable effects of menopause symptoms on the quality of life, it would appear that this simple, noninvasive, safe, and effective method can be used by menopausal women with noticeable benefits.