Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
arsenic trioxide [keywords]
- Co-treatment with arsenic trioxide and ganciclovir reduces tumor volume in a murine xenograft model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virol J 2013 May 16; 10(1):152.
We have previously shown that disruption of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) is sufficient to activate the EBV lytic cycle thus making infected cells susceptible to ganciclovir (GCV) mediated killing in vitro. Here we show that co-administration of GCV and arsenic trioxide (ATO), a PML NB disruptor, reduces tumor volume in a xenograft model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma utilizing CNE1 cells. When administered at pharmacologic levels, both GCV and ATO reduced tumor growth while co-treatment with GCV + ATO resulted in a diminution of tumor volume. Treatment with GCV or ATO individually resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells while co-treatment with GCV + ATO synergistically induced apoptosis. Treatment with ATO or co-treatment with GCV + ATO resulted in expression of EBV lytic proteins. These data suggest that co-treatment with GCV + ATO may provide an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.
- SUMO regulates proteasome-dependent degradation of FLASH/Casp8AP2. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Cycle 2013 May 13; 12(12)
FLASH/Casp8AP2 is a huge multifunctional protein involved in multiple cellular processes, reaching from death receptor signaling to regulation of histone gene transcription and histone mRNA processing. Previous work has shown that FLASH localizes to Cajal bodies and promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies. However, the function of its nuclear body association remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that murine FLASH is covalently modified by SUMO at Lys residue 1792. Interestingly, ectopic expression of SUMO results in proteasome-dependent degradation of FLASH. A point mutant of FLASH with a mutated SUMO acceptor lysine residue, FLASH (K1792R) , is resistant to SUMO-induced degradation. Finally, we show that arsenic trioxide, a drug known to potentiate SUMO modification and degradation of PML, triggers recruitment of FLASH to PML bodies and concomitant loss of FLASH protein. Our data suggest that SUMO targets FLASH for proteasome-dependent degradation, which is associated with recruitment of FLASH to PML bodies.
- Mechanisms of action and resistance to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O 3) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Hematol 2013 May 14.
Since the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the overall survival rate has improved dramatically. However, relapse/refractory patients showing resistance to ATRA and/or As2O3 are recognized as a clinically significant problem. Genetic mutations resulting in amino acid substitution in the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) ligand binding domain (LBD) and the PML-B2 domain of PML-RARα, respectively, have been reported as molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to ATRA and As2O3. In the LBD mutation, ATRA binding with LBD is generally impaired, and ligand-dependent co-repressor dissociation and degradation of PML-RARα by the proteasome pathway, leading to cell differentiation, are inhibited. The PML-B2 mutation interferes with the direct binding of As2O3 with PML-B2, and PML-RARα SUMOylation with As2O3 followed by multimerization and degradation is impaired. To overcome ATRA resistance, utilization of As2O3 provides a preferable outcome, and recently, a synthetic retinoid Am80, which has a higher binding affinity with PML-RARα than ATRA, has been tested in the clinical setting. However, no strategy attempted to date has been successful in overcoming As2O3 resistance. Detailed genomic analyses using patient samples harvested repeatedly may help in predicting the prognosis, selecting the effective targeting drugs, and designing new sophisticated strategies for the treatment of APL.
- Metallothionein prevention of arsenic trioxide-induced cardiac cell death is associated with its inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases activation in vitro and in vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol Lett 2013 May 9.
Cardiotoxicity induced by arsenic trioxide has become a serious blockade of clinical applications of this effective anticancer agent. The general mechanism responsible for arsenic cardiotoxicity has been attributed to its induction of oxidative stress. Metallothionein (MT) has been extensively proven to be a potent endogenous antioxidant that protects heart against oxidative stress-induced cardiac damage. To investigate whether and how MT protects against arsenic cardiotoxicity, MT-overexpressing H9c2 (MT-H9c2) cardiac cells and transgenic (MT-TG) mice with their corresponding controls were exposed to the clinical relevant dose of arsenic trioxide. Cardiac cell apoptosis was detected by molecular indices, including the cleavage of caspase 3 and caspase 12, Bax/Bcl2 expression ratio, CHOP expression and/or confirmed by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. Arsenic trioxide dose- and time-dependently induced cardiac cell death in H9c2 cells with a significant activation of major MAPK subfamily members such as ERK1/2, JNK and p38, but not in MT-H9c2 cells. Importantly, the protective effect of MT on arsenic trioxide-induced apoptotic cell death was completely recaptured in the heart of MT-TG with a significant prevention of MAPKs activation. These results indicate that arsenic trioxide-upregulated MAPKs might play important role in arsenic trioxide-induced apoptotic cell death in cardiac cells both in vivo and in vitro, and MT's suppression of arsenic trioxide apoptotic effect was associated with the inhibition of MAPK activation. Therefore, selective elevation of cardiac MT levels with pharmacological approaches may be a potential strategy for the prevention of arsenic cardiotoxicity.
- Salvianolic Acid B prevents arsenic trioxide-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and enhances its anticancer activity in vitro. [Journal Article]
- Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013.:759483.
Clinical attempts to reduce the cardiotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO) without compromising its anticancer activities remain to be an unresolved issue. In this study, we determined whether Sal B can protect against ATO-induced cardiac toxicity in vivo and increase the toxicity of ATO toward cancer cells. Combination treatment of Sal B and ATO was investigated using BALB/c mice and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. The results showed that the combination treatment significantly improved the ATO-induced loss of cardiac function, attenuated damage of cardiomyocytic structure, and suppressed the ATO-induced release of cardiac enzymes into serum in BALB/c mouse models. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and p-Akt in the mice treated with ATO alone were reduced, whereas those in the mice given the combination treatment were similar to those in the control mice. Moreover, the combination treatment significantly enhanced the ATO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis of HepG2 cells and HeLa cells. Increases in apoptotic marker cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and decreases in procaspase-3 expressions were observed through western blot. Taken together, these observations indicate that the combination treatment of Sal B and ATO is potentially applicable for treating cancer with reduced cardiotoxic side effects.
- Low-dose 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 combined with arsenic trioxide synergistically inhibits proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia cells by promoting apoptosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Rep 2013 May 9.
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown substantial efficacy in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, a specific subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, since not all patients can achieve remission after treatment, it is necessary to develop a novel method to overcome this problem. We investigated the anti-leukemic effect of low-dose 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in combination with As2O3 on the human AML cell lines HL-60 and K562. The cell viability was in reverse proportion to As2O3 or 1,25(OH)2D3 concentration. In both HL-60 and K562 cells, after the combination treatment with As2O3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 at a 10:1 ratio, the combination index (CI) values were <1 in all treatment groups. In the RT-PCR and western blot analysis, the combination treatment decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased Bax and caspase-3 expression more prominently than the single treatment. In the flow cytometric analysis performed in HL-60 cells, the proportion of late apoptotic cells was 4.9% in the control, 30.0% in cells treated with 1.0 µM As2O3, 8.1% in cells treated with 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3, and 64.3% in cells treated with 1.0 µM As2O3 plus 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3. In conclusion, low-dose 1,25(OH)2D3 combined with As2O3 synergistically inhibited proliferation of HL-60 and K562 cells. In addition, this combination activated the apoptosis pathway more prominently than the single‑drug treatment.
- Reciprocal Regulation of Cyclooxygenase 2 and Heme Oxygenase 1 upon Arsenic Trioxide Exposure in Normal Human Lung Fibroblast. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2013 May 6.
Detoxification enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and proinflammation enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) are key response proteins that function to promote the survival of cells exposed to arsenic trioxide (ATO). However, whether there is a cross-regulation between them in ATO-treated cells remains poorly investigated. In this study, concomitant upregulation of Cox-2 and HO-1 induced by ATO was observed in normal human lung fibroblasts. Cox-2 inhibitor NS398 suppressed the upregulation of HO-1, whereas HO-1 inhibitor protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) stimulated the expression of Cox-2. Both proteins were regulated by p38, and the feedback regulation of HO-1 on Cox-2 was mediated through p38. Our results confirmed the reciprocal regulations between Cox-2 and HO-1 in ATO-treated normal cells and shed light on the understanding of protecting cells from injury caused by ATO while simultaneously decreasing the inflammation responses, which may be related to the carcinogenicity of ATO.
- Azidothymidine hinders arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells by induction of p21 and attenuation of G2/M arrest. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Hematol 2013 May 5.
To enhance anticancer efficacy of the arsenic trioxide (ATO), the combination of ATO and azidothymidine (AZT), with convergence anti-telomerase activity, were examined on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line, NB4. In spite of an induction of apoptosis by both drugs separately and a synergistic effect of them on hTERT down-regulation and telomerase inhibition, the ATO-induced cytotoxicity was reduced when it was used in combination with AZT. AZT attenuated the ATO effects on viability, metabolic activity, DNA synthesis, and apoptosis. These observations, despite the deflection from the main goal of this study, dedicate an especial opportunity to elucidate the importance of some of the mechanisms that have been suggested by which ATO induces apoptosis. Cell cycle distribution, ROS level, and caspase-3 activation analyses suggest that AZT reduced the ATO-induced cytotoxic effect possibly via relative induction and diminution of cells accumulated in (G1, S) and (G2/M) phase, respectively, as well as through attenuation of ROS generation and subsequent caspase-3 inhibition. QRT-PCR assay revealed that induction of p21expression by the combined AZT/ATO compared to ATO alone could be a reason for the relative decline of cells accumulation in G2/M and the increase of cells in G1 and S phases. Therefore, the G2/M arrest and ROS generation are likely principle mediators for the ATO-induced apoptosis and can be used as a guide to design rational combinatorial strategies involving ATO and agents with G2/M arrest or ROS generation capacity to intensify ATO-induced apoptosis.
- A drug from poison: how the therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was discovered. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sci China Life Sci 2013 May 6.
It is surprising that, while arsenic trioxide (ATO) is now considered as "the single most active agent in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)", the most important discoverer remains obscure and his original papers have not been cited by a single English paper. The discovery was made during the Cultural Revolution when most Chinese scientists and doctors struggled to survive. Beginning with recipes from a countryside practitioner that were vague in applicable diseases, Zhang TingDong and colleagues proposed in the 1970s that a single chemical in the recipe is most effective and that its target is APL. More than 20 years of work by Zhang and colleagues eliminated the confusions about whether and how ATO can be used effectively. Other researchers, first in China and then in the West, followed his lead. Retrospective analysis of data from his own group proved that APL was indeed the most sensitive target. Removal of a trace amount of mercury chloride from the recipe by another group in his hospital proved that only ATO was required. Publication of Western replication in 1998 made the therapy widely accepted, though neither Western, nor Chinese authors of English papers on ATO cited Zhang's papers in the 1970s. This article focuses on the early papers of Zhang, but also suggests it worth further work to validate Chinese reports of ATO treatment of other cancers, and infers that some findings published in Chinese journals are of considerable value to patients and that doctors from other countries can benefit from the clinical experience of Chinese doctors with the largest population of patients.
- Down-regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 improves human acute myeloid leukemia-derived dendritic cell function. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Leuk Res 2013 Apr 27.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 inhibits dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and is constitutively activated in blasts of approximately half of AML patients. We investigated the correlation between STAT3 activity, DC maturation and the ability to stimulate T-cells in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-derived DCs. STAT3 knock-down by shRNAmir increased the ability of AML-DCs to stimulate T-cells. Treatment of AML-DC with arsenic trioxide, but not AG490, JSI-124 or NSC-74859, led to a more mature phenotype and enhanced T-cell stimulation, while having minimal effect on normal DC. We conclude that AML-DCs have improved immunogenicity after reducing STAT3.