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- Neutrophilic dermatosis after azathioprine exposure. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Dermatol 2013 May 1; 149(5):592-7.
IMPORTANCE Azathioprine hypersensitivity syndrome can present clinically and histopathologically like Sweet syndrome. Shared clinical features include fever, constitutional symptoms, prompt response to systemic corticosteroid therapy, neutrophilia, and abrupt onset of erythematous cutaneous lesions. Histologically, both azathioprine hypersensitivity syndrome and Sweet syndrome are rich in neutrophils. OBSERVATIONS An 81-year-old woman with Crohn disease presented with fever and an acute eruption of plaques on her extremities within 2 weeks of starting treatment with azathioprine. Laboratory evaluation was notable for leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Skin biopsy of an erythematous plaque on the thigh demonstrated a suppurative folliculitis. Azathioprine treatment was discontinued resulting in resolution of the clinical lesions within 5 days. Our case was compared with 18 cases with similar clinical features.
CONCLUSIONSAND RELEVANCE We report a case of azathioprine hypersensitivity syndrome and review the literature on azathioprine-induced eruptions with features of Sweet syndrome. Our patient's distribution of lesions on the extremities and the finding of suppurative folliculitis on histopathology were not classical for Sweet syndrome. Azathioprine hypersensitivity syndrome seems to be a neutrophil-driven dermatosis; therefore, many overlapping features with Sweet syndrome are not surprising. Due to the potential for anaphylaxis with azathioprine rechallenge, a better term for a Sweetlike presentation in the setting of azathioprine administration is azathioprine hypersensitivity syndrome.
- Successful Treatment of Class IV+V Lupus Nephritis with Combination Therapy of High-dose Corticosteroids, Tacrolimus and Intravenous Cyclophosphamide. [Journal Article]
- Intern Med 2013; 52(10):1125-30.
A substantial number of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) are refractory to conventional glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Although many of these patients respond to immunosuppressive drugs such as intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY), azathioprine (AZA), mizoribine, tacrolimus, cyclosporine A (CSA) and mycofenolate mofetil (MMF), some remain refractory to such therapies. Recent studies of multi-target therapies have reported effective outcomes for immunosuppression following renal transplantation and refractory LN when therapy consists of two or more immunosuppressive drugs with different mechanisms of action. We herein report a case of LN unresponsive to IVCY that was successfully treated with the addition of tacrolimus and discuss the usefulness of multi-target therapy for LN.
- Hepatoportal sclerosis (obliterative portal venopathy) and nodular regenerative hyperplasia in a patient with myasthenia gravis: A case report and review of the published work. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hepatol Res 2013 May 15.
Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) and hepatoportal sclerosis, also known as obliterative portal venopathy (OPV), are two causes of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH). NCPH is an increasingly recognized entity that can be seen in association with collagen vascular diseases and with the use of medications such as azathioprine and didanosine, but oftentimes the etiology remains unidentified. We herein report a case of NCPH occurring due to OPV and NRH in a 64-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis (MG), status post-thymectomy. Portal hypertension was diagnosed incidentally on computed tomography in the absence of predisposing factors. Extensive work-up to determine the etiology of any underlying liver disease was unrevealing. NRH and OPV were identified on liver biopsy. Subsequently, the patient had variceal bleeding that necessitated transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. A few similar cases of NCPH occurring in the setting of MG have been previously reported, suggesting that the immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of myasthenia may also have contributed to the development of NCPH.
- Therapeutic efficacy of the Qing Dai in patients with intractable ulcerative colitis. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 7; 19(17):2718-22.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that may become intractable when treated with conventional medications such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and azathioprine. The herbal medicine Qing Dai has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat UC patients, but there is a lack of published data on the efficacy of Qing Dai in UC treatment. We report several cases of patients with intractable UC who take Qing Dai in a retrospective observational study. Furthermore, we explore the mechanisms of action of Qing Dai. Nine patients with active UC who received conventional medications but wished to receive Qing Dai as an alternative medication were included in our analysis. The UC severity level was determined based on the clinical activity index (CAI). Additionally, 5 of the 9 patients were endoscopically evaluated according to the Matts grading system. Each patient received 2 g/d of Qing Dai orally and continued taking other medications for UC as prescribed. Electron spin resonance was applied to explore the mechanisms of action of Qing Dai. After 4 mo of treatment with Qing Dai, the CAI score decreased from 8.3 ± 2.4 to 2.4 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD; P < 0.001). Similarly, the endoscopic Matts grade decreased from 3.4 ± 0.5 to 2.2 ± 0.8 (P = 0.02). Six of 7 patients who were on prednisolone upon enrollment in the study were able to discontinue this corticosteroid. Electron spin resonance revealed that Qing Dai possesses strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Qing Dai showed significant clinical and endoscopic efficacy in patients who failed to respond to conventional medications. Scavenging of hydroxyl radicals appears to be a potential mechanism through which Qing Dai acts, but the significance of the scavenging ability of Qing Dai with respect to the anti-inflammatory effect in UC patients warrants further investigation.
- Clinical effects of adalimumab treatment with concomitant azathioprine in Japanese Crohn's disease patients. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 7; 19(17):2676-82.
To assess adalimumab's efficacy with concomitant azathioprine (AZA) for induction and maintenance of clinical remission in Japanese Crohn's disease (CD) patients.This retrospective, observational, single-center study enrolled 28 consecutive CD patients treated with adalimumab (ADA). Mean age and mean disease duration were 38.1 ± 11.8 years and 11.8 ± 10.1 years, respectively. The baseline mean Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and C-reactive protein were 177.8 ± 82.0 and 0.70 ± 0.83 mg/dL, respectively. Twelve of these patients also received a concomitant stable dose of AZA. ADA was subcutaneously administered: 160 mg at week 0, 80 mg at week 2, followed by 40 mg every other week. Clinical response and remission rates were assessed via CDAI and C-reactive protein for 24 wk.The mean CDAI at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 24 was 124.4, 120.2, 123.6, and 135.1, respectively. The CDAI was significantly decreased at weeks 2 and 4 with ADA and was significantly suppressed at 24 wk with ADA/AZA. Overall clinical remission rates at weeks 4 and 24 were 66.7% and 63.2%, respectively. Although no statistically significant difference in C-reactive protein was demonstrated, ADA with AZA resulted in a greater statistically significant improvement in CDAI at 24 wk, compared to ADA alone.Scheduled ADA with concomitant AZA may be more effective for clinical remission achievement at 24 wk in Japanese Crohn's disease patients.
- Giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a nine month old infant. [Journal Article]
- World J Hepatol 2013 Apr 27; 5(4):226-9.
Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) with autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare entity, limited to young children, with an unknown pathogenesis. We report the case of 9-mo old who presented with fever, diarrhea and jaundice four days before hospitalization. Physical examination found pallor, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly. The laboratory workup showed serum total bilirubin at 101 μmol/L, conjugated bilirubin at 84 μmol/L, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-C3d positive direct Coombs' test. The antinuclear, anti-smooth muscle and liver kidney microsomes 1 non-organ specific autoantibodies, antiendomisium antibodies were negative. Serological assays for viral hepatitis B and C, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and Epstein Barr virus were negative. The association of acute liver failure, Evan's syndrome, positive direct Coomb's test of mixed type (IgG and C3) and the absence of organ and non-organ specific autoantibodies suggested the diagnosis of GCH. The diagnosis was confirmed by a needle liver biopsy. The patient was treated by corticosteroids, immunomodulatory therapy and azathioprine but died with septicemia.
- Improved Method for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of 6-Thioguanine Nucleotides and 6-Methylmercaptopurine in Whole-Blood by LC/MSMS Using Isotope-Labeled Internal Standards. [Journal Article]
- Ther Drug Monit 2013 Jun; 35(3):313-21.
: Thiopurine drugs (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine) show wide interindividual variability and a narrow therapeutic range thus making therapeutic monitoring of their active metabolite 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) desirable. We improved the currently available laborious and complex methodology of therapeutic drug monitoring of 6-TGN and the metabolite 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) in washed erythrocytes (ery) based on a whole-blood method.: The analytes were hydrolyzed and extracted from 25-µL ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-anticoagulated whole-blood spiked with isotope labeled 6-TG-C2N and 6-MMP-d3 internal standards. Chromatography was performed in 5.1 minutes on a C18 reverse phase column followed by detection via electrospray interface-coupled API 4000 mass spectrometer set up in the positive multiple reaction monitoring mode. The hemoglobin concentration was measured in 20 µL of the original sample (AHD575 method), and the results were standardized to 120 g/L of hemoglobin.: Calibration curves were linear with r > 0.999 (6-TGN and 6-MMP up to 10,000 pmol/0.2 mL). The limit of quantification was 30 pmol/0.2 mL for 6-TGN and 6-MMP. Intraassay and interassay imprecision was <7.5% at 3 tested levels for 6-TGN and 6-MMP, respectively. Method comparisons were as follows: Ery 6-TGN: y = 1.3x - 11 and ery 6-MMP y = 1.1x - 124.: The new method compares favorably with established ones, allowing for rapid single run determination of 6-TGN and 6-MMP from <50 µL of fresh or frozen whole blood. Linearity and limits of quantification cover the clinically relevant range. Variability during sample preparation and matrix effects are compensated by the use of isotope-labeled internal standards. The whole-blood method is hemoglobin standardized to avoid falsely low results in the case of anemia. The method correlates well with 6-TGN measured in washed erythrocytes, but it requires significantly less hands-on time. Preliminary therapeutic ranges for the most common indications of azathioprine and 6-MP are provided.
- Safety of Thiopurine Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Long-term Follow-up Study of 3931 Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013 May 9.
BACKGROUND::To evaluate the safety of thiopurines in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. To identify predictive factors associated with the development of thiopurine-induced adverse events.
METHODS::Long-term incidence of adverse events was estimated in patients from a prospectively maintained Spanish nationwide database using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify potential predictive factors of adverse events.
RESULTS::Three thousand nine hundred and thirty-one patients were included. Ninety-five percent of patients were on azathioprine. The median follow-up with thiopurines was 44 months (range, 0-420). Adverse events occurred at a median of 1 month after starting treatment. The cumulative incidence of adverse events was 26%, with an annual risk of 7% per patient-year of treatment. Most frequent adverse events were nausea (8%), hepatotoxicity (4%), myelotoxicity (4%), and pancreatitis (4%). Four patients had lymphoma. Female and Crohn's disease increased the risk of having nausea. The risk of hepatotoxicity was lower in females and higher in Crohn's disease. The risk of myelotoxicity was significantly higher in patients treated with mercaptopurine and in females. The risk of pancreatitis was higher in Crohn's disease. Overall, 17% of patients discontinued thiopurine treatment due to adverse events. Thirty-seven percent of these patients started thiopurines again and 40% of them had adverse events again.
CONCLUSIONS::As many as 1 of 4 patients on thiopurine therapy had adverse events during follow-up. A relatively high proportion of patients (17%) had to discontinue the treatment with thiopurines due to adverse events. However, more than half of patients that restarted thiopurine treatment after its discontinuation due to adverse events tolerated it. Several predictive factors for some adverse events have been identified.
- When do we dare to stop biological or immunomodulatory therapy for Crohn's disease? Results of a multidisciplinary European expert panel. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Crohns Colitis 2013 May 9.