benign paroxysmal peritonitis [keywords]
- Biallelic hypomorphic mutations in a linear deubiquitinase define otulipenia, an early-onset autoinflammatory disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 Aug 24.
Systemic autoinflammatory diseases are caused by mutations in genes that function in innate immunity. Here, we report an autoinflammatory disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in OTULIN (FAM105B), encoding a deubiquitinase with linear linkage specificity. We identified two missense and one frameshift mutations in one Pakistani and two Turkish families with four affected patients. Patients presented with neonatal-onset fever, neutrophilic dermatitis/panniculitis, and failure to thrive, but without obvious primary immunodeficiency. HEK293 cells transfected with mutated OTULIN had decreased enzyme activity relative to cells transfected with WT OTULIN, and showed a substantial defect in the linear deubiquitination of target molecules. Stimulated patients' fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed evidence for increased signaling in the canonical NF-κB pathway and accumulated linear ubiquitin aggregates. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in the supernatants of stimulated primary cells and serum samples. This discovery adds to the emerging spectrum of human diseases caused by defects in the ubiquitin pathway and suggests a role for targeted cytokine therapies.
- [Not Available]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Lakartidningen 2016.
Familial Mediterranean fever - an important disease in a globalised world Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is characterized by recurrent febrile attacks during 1/2-3 days associated with peritonitis, pleuritis and arthritis. FMF is the most common monogenic autoinflammatory disease in the world, with over 100 000 affected individuals. It is particularly common in individuals with an origin in the eastern Mediterranean Basin, where the disease has a prevalence of 100-200 per 100 000. The gene for FMF (MEFV) was identified in 1997 with an autosomal recessive inheritance; however, a significant proportion (≈25%) of clinical patients lack two mutations. MEFV codes for the protein pyrin, whose exact function still needs to be defined. The most serious complication of FMF is amyloid A amyloidosis, in particular renal amyloidosis. FMF is efficiently treated with daily doses of colchicine resulting in an almost normal life expectancy and amyloidosis confined to non-compliant patients. In today's globalized world we need to adapt to a new context that includes inherited conditions, which have historically been uncommon in our part of the world. One of these conditions is FMF, that should primarily be suspected in individuals with an origin in the eastern Mediterranean Basin and recurrent attacks of fever.
- Mutations in pyrin masquerading as a primary immunodeficiency. [LETTER]
- Clin Immunol 2016 Aug 15.
Whole exome sequencing is increasingly used in the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies due to the overlapping and atypical presentations of these disorders. We report two patients who presented with recurrent infections and early onset colitis. They were investigated by whole exome sequencing due to suspicion of primary immunodeficiency and found to have mutations in pyrin known to cause familial Mediterranean fever.
- Vascular risk in familial Mediterranean fever. [EDITORIAL]
- Anatol J Cardiol 2016 Jul 21.
- Investigation of the arterial stiffness and associated factors in patients with familial Mediterranean fever. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anatol J Cardiol 2016 Jul 21.
Because of the ongoing and recurring inflammatory state in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), patients may experience a high risk of cardiovascular events. Our aim was to investigate the arterial stiffness and associated factors in patients with FMF.Sixty-nine consecutive FMF patients (including 11 females) and 35 controls (including 5 females) were enrolled in the study. The demographical, clinical, and laboratory data and genetic mutations of the patients were recorded. In the study, FMF patients according to the Tel-Hashomer criteria were included, whereas patients with other known inflammatory rheumatologic disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, those under the age of 18 years, or those refusing to participate in the study were excluded. Arterial stiffness measurements were performed using the TensioMed device (TensoMed Ltd, Budapest, Hungary).The patient and control groups were similar in terms of the mean ages, BMIs, gender, systolic blood pressures, and smoking. FMF patients had a higher pulse wave velocity (PWV) (7.73±1.3 and 7.18±1.1 m/s; p=0.03) and lower brachial and aortic augmentation indexes (-64.6±14.6% and -54.6±25.9%, p=0.041 and 4.9±7.4% and 14.0±11.5%, p=0.025, respectively) compared with the controls. Thirty-one (45%) patients were in the "during-attack" state and had higher PWV (8.17±1.6 and 7.38±0.9 m/s; p=0.027) compared with the asymptomatic patients. PWV was correlated to serum CRP, WBC, ESR, fibrinogen, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios (r=0.666, 0.429, 0.441, 0.388, and 0.460, respectively). The genetic mutation and predominant attack type had no effect on arterial stiffness.FMF patients have increased arterial stiffness during attacks compared with asymptomatic patients and controls. The impaired arterial stiffness is correlated to the severity of the inflammatory state rather than to the attack type or genetic mutations.
- Site-specific phosphorylation and microtubule dynamics control Pyrin inflammasome activation. [Journal Article]
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 Aug 16; 113(33):E4857-66.
Pyrin, encoded by the MEFV gene, is best known for its gain-of-function mutations causing familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autoinflammatory disease. Pyrin forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome in response to inactivating modifications of Rho GTPases by various bacterial toxins or effectors. Pyrin-mediated innate immunity is unique in that it senses bacterial virulence rather than microbial molecules, but its mechanism of activation is unknown. Here we show that Pyrin was phosphorylated in bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. We identified Ser-205 and Ser-241 in mouse Pyrin whose phosphorylation resulted in inhibitory binding by cellular 14-3-3 proteins. The two serines underwent dephosphorylation upon toxin stimulation or bacterial infection, triggering 14-3-3 dissociation, which correlated with Pyrin inflammasome activation. We developed antibodies specific for phosphorylated Ser-205 and Ser-241, which confirmed the stimuli-induced dephosphorylation of endogenous Pyrin. Mutational analyses indicated that both phosphorylation and signal-induced dephosphorylation of Ser-205/241 are important for Pyrin activation. Moreover, microtubule drugs, including colchicine, commonly used to treat FMF, effectively blocked activation of the Pyrin inflammasome. These drugs did not affect Pyrin dephosphorylation and 14-3-3 dissociation but inhibited Pyrin-mediated apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) aggregation. Our study reveals that site-specific (de)phosphorylation and microtubule dynamics critically control Pyrin inflammasome activation, illustrating a fine and complex mechanism in cytosolic immunity.
- Is the IL-6 -174G/C Gene Polymorphism Related to the Disease Severity Score in Turkish Children with Familial Mediterranean Fever? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biochem Genet 2016 Jul 30.
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessively inherited disease characterized by recurrent self-limited attacks of fever accompanied by aseptic inflammation of serosal spaces, joints and skin, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. Clinical features differ according to genetics variants. The aim of this study was to identify relationship between IL-6 -174G/C gene polymorphisms and clinical features, disease severity score (DSS) and proteinuria in children diagnosed with FMF. In this study, 99 children who were followed-up in Gaziosmanpasa University Medical Faculty Department of Pediatrics and diagnosed with Familial Mediterranean fever according to Tel-Hashomer criteria were included. One hundred and fifty seven children who admitted to the hospital with any complain and found healthy included in control group. Genotyping was done for polymorphism in a promoter region of IL-6 gene (G/C at -174). The IL-6 -174G/C gene polymorphism and the clinical features of FMF, proteinuria, the DSS, and the healthy control group were investigated. Data for the clinical features were obtained retrospectively from the electronic records of patients. All of the genotyping of blood samples were done in Medical Genetic laboratory of Gaziosmanpasa University School of Medicine. The results revealed that the distribution of the genotypes and allele frequencies of the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism were not significantly different between the FMF patients and the healthy controls. The IL-6 -174G/C polymorphisms did not affect proteinuria, the DSS, and the clinical features of FMF patients.
- Familial Mediterranean fever is no longer a rare disease in Japan. [Journal Article]
- Arthritis Res Ther 2016.:175.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical manifestations and prevalence of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) in Japanese patients with unexplained fever and rheumatic manifestations.We enrolled 601 patients with unexplained fever or suspected FMF throughout Japan between 2009 and 2015. Patients were divided into three groups according to Tel Hashomer criteria: sure FMF, probable FMF, and non-FMF patients, including definitive rheumatic diseases. Mutation detection in exons 1, 2, 3, and 10 of the FMF gene MEFV was performed by direct sequencing.A total of 192 patients (31.9 %) were diagnosed with FMF according to FMF diagnostic criteria. These could be divided into sure FMF (56.3 %, n = 108) and probable FMF (43.7 %, n = 84) patients. Fever, abdominal symptoms, and thoracic symptoms were significantly more common in FMF than non-FMF patients. Among FMF patients, 26 (13.5 %) had concomitant rheumatic diseases. Most FMF patients (94.3 %, 181/192) carried at least one MEFV mutation. Allele frequencies of M694I (13.5 % vs 0 %) and E148Q (39.1 % vs 24.8 %) mutations were significantly higher in FMF compared with healthy subjects. Allele frequencies of common MEFV mutations in FMF patients were M694I (13.5 %), P369S (8.6 %), R408Q (8.1 %), G304R (2.9 %), R202Q (4.4 %), E148Q (39.1 %), L110P (11.7 %), and E84K (3.1 %). Patients with a sure FMF phenotype had a higher frequency of MEFV exon 10 mutation (M694I) and a lower frequency of MEFV exon 3 mutations (P369S, R408Q) compared with those with a probable FMF phenotype.The high prevalence of FMF in Japanese patients with unexplained fever was confirmed in the present study. FMF should be suspected in cases of unexplained fever or non-specific rheumatic manifestations, and mutational analysis of MEFV could be useful to predict the clinical phenotypes of FMF in Japan.
- Recurrent pericarditis in children and adolescents: a multicentre cohort study. [Journal Article]
- J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2016 Sep; 17(9):707-12.
Limited data are available about recurrent pericarditis in children. We sought to explore contemporary causes, characteristics, therapies and outcomes of recurrent pericarditis in paediatric patients.A multicentre (eight sites) cohort study of 110 consecutive cases of paediatric patients with at least two recurrences of pericarditis over an 11-year period (2000-2010) [median 13 years, interquartile range (IQR) 5, 69 boys].Recurrences were idiopathic or viral in 89.1% of cases, followed by postpericardiotomy syndrome (9.1%) and familial Mediterranean fever (0.9%). Recurrent pericarditis was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in 80.9% of cases, corticosteroids in 64.8% and colchicine was added in 61.8%. Immunosuppressive therapies were administered in 15.5% of patients after subsequent recurrences. After a median follow-up of 60th months, 528 subsequent recurrences were recorded (median 3, range 2-25). Corticosteroid-treated patients experienced more recurrences (standardized risk of recurrence per 100 person-years was 93.2 for patients treated with corticosteroids and 45.2 for those without), side effects and disease-related hospitalizations (for all P < 0.05). Adjuvant therapy with colchicine was associated with a decrease in the risk of recurrence from 3.74 per year before initiation of colchicine to 1.37 per year after (P < 0.05). Anakinra therapy (n = 12) was associated with a drop in the number of recurrences from 4.29 per year before to 0.14 per year after (P < 0.05). Transient constrictive pericarditis developed in 2.7% of patients.Recurrent pericarditis has an overall favourable prognosis in children, although it may require frequent readmissions and seriously affect the quality of life, especially in patients treated with corticosteroids. Colchicine or anakinra therapies were associated with significant decrease in the risk of recurrence.
- MEFV gene variation R202Q is associated with metabolic syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016 Jul; 20(15):3255-61.
MEFV (Mediterranean fever) gene encoding pyrin regulates inflammatory responses. It has been shown that MEFV gene variations are associated with higher acute phase responses and altered course in the different inflammatory diseases. MEFV gene variations may affect the course of metabolic syndrome components.This study included 50 patients with metabolic syndrome and 50 unrelated healthy controls. Genomic DNAs were isolated from patients and healthy controls with standard methods and analysis of exon 2 and 10 of MEFV gene was performed by using Sanger sequencing method.The MEFV gene variations were detected in 21 patients with metabolic syndrome (42%) and 12 healthy controls (24%) (p=0.55). The frequency of MEFV gene variations with high penetrance (i.e. M694V, M680I, V726A) was similar between patients and healthy controls (p>0.05). We found that R202Q was more frequent in the patient group (n=11 [22%] vs. n=3 [6%]) and associated with metabolic syndrome (p: 0.021; OR: 4.42; CI95%: 1.15-16.97). When patients with and without MEFV gene variations were compared, no significant difference was found in laboratory and clinical parameters.To best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating an association between MeS and R202Q mutation of MEFV gene. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) related MEFV gene variations may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.