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- Short communication: Effect of dietary manipulation of crude protein content and nonfibrous-to-fibrous-carbohydrate ratio on energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows(1.) [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dairy Sci 2014 Aug 27.
Disparities between nutrient intake and demand often result in a state of negative energy balance (EB) in the early-lactation dairy cow. Reducing dietary crude protein (CP) content and providing glucogenic nutrients may overcome this issue. This study evaluates whether or not offering a diet lower in CP and higher in nonfiber carbohydrates (LP-NFC) can improve EB and the metabolic status of the early-lactation dairy cow compared with a diet higher in CP and fibrous carbohydrates (HP-FC). Twenty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a randomized block design. Diets were isoenergetic (6.57 MJ of net energy for lactation) and formulated to contain 15% CP and 6% starch (HP-FC), or 12% CP and 28% starch (LP-NFC) and were offered for the first 63 d of lactation. Intake and milk yield were determined daily, whereas milk and blood samples, weights, and body condition scores were collected weekly. Intakes (mean ± standard errors of the mean, SEM) of dry matter (17.4 ± 0.6 kg/d) and energy (113.0 ± 4.6 MJ of net energy for lactation) were not different between treatments. However, the HP-FC group had a higher milk yield (31.8 vs. 28.9 ± 1.4 kg/d) and a lower EB compared with the LP-NFC group. Blood urea N concentration (3.5 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L) was higher, whereas bilirubin (6.0 vs. 6.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L) and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations (0.7 vs. 0.8 ± 0.05 mmol/L) were lower in the HP-FC group compared with the LP-NFC group. These data suggest that EB can be improved during early lactation through the manipulation of milk output by offering a lower CP, higher NFC diet.
- [Natural clearance of hepatitis C virus in 96 patients with infection acquired by blood transfusion from a single donor in Guizhou.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2014 Apr; 22(4):251-254.
To investigate the clinical features and rate of natural viral clearance in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection acquired by blood transfusion from a single donor.METHODS: Ninety-six patients who acquired HCV infection between January 1998 and December 2002,upon receipt of donated blood from a single infected individual in Guizhou,were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study.Patients were clinically assessed to determine levels of anti-HCV antibodies, HCV RNA and biochemical indicators of liver function,as well as features of liver structure (by abdominal B ultrasonography and elastography).HCV genetic testing was used to determine the virus genotype.Measurement data were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation.Count data were analyzed by the x2 test,with P less than 0.05 indicating statistical significance.All 96 patients tested positive for antiHCV antibodies.The majority of patients (70%; 34:33 male:female) had HCV RNA more than or equal to 1.0 * 103 copies/ml.All patients carried the same HCV genotype as the single blood donor:genotype lb.The overall rate of natural HCV clearance was 30.2%.but males had a significantly lower rate (19.0% (8/42) vs.females:38.9% (21/54);x2=4.41,P=0.023) as did older patients (more than 40 years-old:16.1% (5/31) vs.less than or equal to 40 years-old:36.9% (24/65);x2=4.30,P=0.028).The overall rate of chronic HCV infection (CHC) was 69.8%,but the rate was significantly lower in younger patients (less than or equal to 40 years-old:63.1% (41/65) vs.more than 40 years-old:83.9% (26/31);x2=6.67,P=0.028).Among the 67 patients with CHC,12 had symptoms of mild weakness,anorexia and abdominal distention,11 had elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (116.25 +/- 24.65 U/L) and stage 3 or 4 fibrosis (liver elasticity values more than or equal to 5.1 kPa),and three had mildly abnormal serum bilirubin (32.56 +/- 5.28 mumol/L).Fifteen patients showed signs of chronic hepatitis and one patient showed signs of cirrhosis by abdominal B ultrasonography.None of the patients showed signs of hepatocellular carcinoma.The course of blood transfusion acquired HCV infection is largely unknown and natural viral clearance rate may be associated with sex-and age-related factors.
- Persistent organic pollutants and liver dysfunction biomarkers in a population-based human sample of men and women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Aug 27.:251-256.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stable organic compounds generated through different industrial activities. Liver is involved in the metabolism of POPs, and hence exposure to POPs may interfere with liver function. Although a few studies have shown adverse effects of POPs on liver function, large-scale studies involving humans are lacking. We performed this large population-based cross-sectional study to assess the associations between different POPs and liver dysfunction biomarkers.A total of 992 individuals (all aged 70 years, 50% males) were recruited as part of Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. The total toxic equivalency (TEQ) value was calculated for seven mono-ortho and two non-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and octachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (OCDD) to assess their toxicological effects. The association of TEQ values, summary measures of 16 PCBs (sum of PCBs) and three organochlorine pesticides (sum of OC pesticides) with liver dysfunction biomarkers (bilirubin; alkaline phosphatase, ALP; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; and gamma-glutamyltransferase, GGT) was analyzed utilizing linear regression analysis.The mono-ortho PCB TEQ values were found to be significantly positively associated with bilirubin (β=0.71, P=0.008), while sum of OC pesticide concentrations was negatively associated with ALP (β=-0.02, P=0.002) after adjusting for various potential confounders. When analyzed individually, a number of different POPs were associated with ALP, ALT and bilirubin. No such association with GGT was observed.Various POPs including PCBs, OCDD and pesticides were associated with the liver dysfunction biomarkers bilirubin, ALT and ALP, suggesting adverse effects on liver function from these environmental pollutants.
- Liver growth factor treatment reverses emphysema previously established in a cigarette smoke exposure mouse model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2014 Aug 29.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease largely associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and characterized by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations including systemic inflammation. Liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex with demonstrated antifibrotic, antioxidant and antihypertensive actions even at extrahepatic sites. We aimed to determine if short LGF treatment (1.7µg/mouse, i.p.; 2 times, 2 weeks), once the lung damage was established through the chronic CSE, contribute to improve the regeneration of damaged lung tissue reducing systemic inflammation. We studied AKR/J mice, divided into three groups: CTL (control, air-exposed); CSE (chronic cigarette smoke-exposed); and CSE+LGF (LGF treated CSE mice). We assessed pulmonary function, morphometric and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers in order to test the LGF regenerative capacity in this system. Our results revealed that the lungs of the CSE animals showed pulmonary emphysema and inflammation, characterized by increased lung compliance, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, systemic inflammation (circulating leukocytes and serum TNF-α level) and in vivo lung matrix metalloproteinases activity. LGF treatment was able to reverse all these parameters, decreasing total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and T-lymphocytes infiltration in peripheral blood observed in emphysematous mice; and reverses the decrease in monocytes observed in chronic CSE mice and tends to reduce the neutrophils population and serum TNF-α level. In conclusion, LGF treatment normalizes the physiologic, morphologic and levels of various systemic inflammatory biomarkers in a chronic CSE AKR/J model which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.
- Animal Models in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2014 Aug 30.
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are immune-mediated cholangiopathies with enigmatic etiology and pathogenesis. They have distinct clinical, laboratory, immunological, and histomorphological characteristics. Well-characterized animal models for PBC and PSC are utterly needed to develop novel pathogenetic concepts and to study innovative treatment strategies. The aim of the current paper is to outline the characteristics of ideal PBC and PSC animal models and to contrast this with a real-life up-to-date overview of currently available mouse models. Although some of this models show several individual characteristics of PBC and PSC, it is obvious that all of them have substantial and important limitations. Nevertheless, some may be beneficial to study certain pathophysiological aspects. Potential cholangiopathy animal models should be systematically investigated in regard to elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and bile acid levels; immunological abnormalities; and longitudinal studies in regard to their liver phenotype. We herein propose a common systematic workup for potential models based on the fact that there are some intriguing disease combinations in specific genetically modified mice and recommend a stepwise process in regard to model characterization with methodical harvesting and screening of numerous organs for potential concomitant diseases. Due to the complex nature of both cholangiopathies, it seems to be very likely that no single perfect PBC or PSC model will ever be generated. The models outlined herein will certainly help to clarify specific pathogenetic aspects and even more important may turn out to be suitable to test potential drugs for treatment.
- Diagnostic markers in acute appendicitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Surg 2014 Jul 29.
An adequate medical history combined with clinical examination is usually enough to make the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The aim of this study was to determine the value of elevated white cell count (WCC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and bilirubin as diagnostic markers of acute appendicitis.A retrospective analysis was carried out on consecutive patients who underwent appendicectomy over a 3-year period. All data including patients' age, sex, blood test results, and appendix histology were summarized. Sensitivities, specificities, positive, and negative predictive values of WCC, CRP, and bilirubin were calculated separately or in combination for all patients.A total of 447 patients were included. There is a significant difference in the results between patients with negative and positive appendicitis with regards to CRP (32 vs 73; P < .001), mean total WCC (10.9 vs 14.0; P < .001), and the mean levels of bilirubin (10.9 vs 17.2; P < .001).The diagnosis of appendicitis remains multifactorial and blood tests may help to guide the surgeon in the decision making.
- Plasma viscosity, functional fibrinogen, and platelet reactivity in vascular surgery patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Aug 28.
Platelet reactivity changes with shear stress, which in turn depends on whole blood and plasma viscosity (PV). Platelets interact with fibrinogen during thrombus formation, and fibrinogen is a determinant of PV. The respective role of PV and fibrinogen on platelet function is still unclear.30 patients undergoing vascular surgery were admitted to this study. In each patient we measured PV using a cone-on-plate viscosimeter, functional fibrinogen using thromboelastometry, and platelet reactivity to thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) stimulation using multi-electrode aggregometry. Routine coagulation parameter were measured.At the univariate analysis, platelet reactivity was positively associated with mean platelet volume (R2 = 0.15, P = 0.033) and PV (R2 = 0.35, P = 0.0006), and negatively associated with serum bilirubin (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.013) and international normalized ratio (INR) (R2 = 0.19, P = 0.017). At the multivariable analysis, only PV (P = 0.001) and INR (P = 0.019) remained independent predictors of platelet reactivity.PV is directly and independently associated with platelet reactivity, whereas functional fibrinogen is not. Aspirin treatment is inadequate to correct thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. In presence of hyperviscosity, patients at high cardiovascular risk, may benefit from more aggressive anti-platelet treatments.
- Impact of Heme and Heme Degradation Products on Vascular Diameter in Mouse Visual Cortex. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Heart Assoc 2014; 3(4)
Delayed cerebral vasospasm is the most common cause of mortality and severe neurological impairment in patients who survive subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite improvements in the field of diagnostic imaging, options for prevention and medical treatment-primarily with the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine or hemodynamic manipulations-are insufficient. Previous studies have suggested that heme and bilirubin oxidation end products, originating from degraded hemoglobin around ruptured blood vessels, are involved in the development of vasospasm by inhibiting large conductance BKC a potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we identify individual heme degradation products regulating arteriolar diameter in dependence of BKC a channel activity.Using differential interference contrast video microscopy in acute brain slices, we determined diameter changes of intracerebral arterioles in mouse visual cortex. In preconstricted vessels, the specific BKC a channel blockers paxilline and iberiotoxin as well as iron-containing hemin caused vasoconstriction. In addition, the bilirubin oxidation end product Z-BOX A showed a stronger vasoconstrictive potency than its regio-isomer Z-BOX B. Importantly, Z-BOX A had the same vasoconstrictive effect, independent of its origin from oxidative degradation or chemical synthesis. Finally, in slices of Slo1-deficient knockout mice, paxilline and Z-BOX A remained ineffective in changing arteriole diameter.We identified individual components of the oxidative bilirubin degradation that led to vasoconstriction of cerebral arterioles. The vasoconstrictive effect of Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B was mediated by BKC a channel activity that might represent a signaling pathway in the occurrence of delayed cerebral vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.
- Systematic review: identifying patients with chronic hepatitis C in need of early treatment and intensive monitoring-predictors and predictive models of disease progression. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014 Aug 28.
Advances in hepatitis C therapies have led to increasing numbers of patients seeking treatment. As a result, logistical and financial concerns regarding how treatment can be provided to all patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) have emerged.To evaluate predictors and predictive models of histological progression and clinical outcomes for patients with CHC.MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for studies published between January 2003 and June 2014. Two authors independently reviewed articles to select eligible studies and performed data abstraction.Twenty-nine studies representing 5817 patients from 20 unique cohorts were included. The outcome incidence rates were widely variable: 16-61% during median follow-up of 2.5-10 years for fibrosis progression; 13-40% over 2.3-14.4 years for hepatic decompensation and 8-47% over 3.9-14.4 years for overall mortality. Multivariate analyses showed that baseline steatosis and baseline fibrosis score were the most consistent predictors of fibrosis progression (significant in 6/21 and 5/21, studies, respectively) while baseline platelet count (significant in 6/13 studies), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, albumin, bilirubin and age (each significant in 4/13 studies) were the most consistent predictors of clinical outcomes. Five studies developed predictive models but none were externally validated.Our review identified the variables that most consistently predict outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis C allowing the application of risk based approaches to identify patients in need of early treatment and intensive monitoring. This approach maximises effective use of resources and costly new direct-acting anti-viral agents.
- Nigella sativa Oil Reduces Aluminium Chloride-Induced Oxidative Injury in Liver and Erythrocytes of Rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biol Trace Elem Res 2014 Aug 28.
The present study was planned to investigate the protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) supplementation against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced oxidative damage in liver and erythrocytes of rats. Simultaneously, a preliminary phytochemical study was affected in order to characterize the bioactive components containing in the NSO using chemical assays. The antioxidant capacities of NSO were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that NSO was found to contain large amounts of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Twenty-four rats were equally divided into two groups, in which group A received standard diet, whereas group B treated daily with an oral gavage dose of 2 ml NSO/kg body weight. After 5 weeks pretreatment, both groups were divided again into two subgroups (A and B) of six animals each and treated for other 3 weeks. Therefore, subgroup A1 was served as a control which received standard diet, but subgroup A2 received AlCl3 (34 mg/kg bw mixed with food). Subgroup B1 received both AlCl3 and NSO; however, subgroup B2 received NSO only. Results showed that AlCl3 exhibited an increase in white blood cell counts and a marked decrease in erythrocyte counts and haemoglobin content. Plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin concentration were higher in AlCl3 group than those of the control, while albumin and total protein concentration were significantly lower. Compared to the control, a significant raise of hepatic and erythrocyte malondialdehyde level associated with a decrease in reduced glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, activities of AlCl3 treated rats. However, the administration of NSO alone or combined with AlCl3 has improved the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that AlCl3 has induced the oxidative stress, altered the biochemical parameters and the hepatic histological profile, but the supplementation of NSO has alleviated such toxicity.