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- Human pharmacokinetics of high dose oral curcumin and its effect on heme oxygenase-1 expression in healthy male subjects. [Journal Article]
- Biomed Res Int 2014.:458592.
Purpose.Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been proposed to exert pharmacological benefits by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. HO-1 expression may be affected by the GT length polymorphism in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene. We investigated the inducibility of HO-1 by orally administered curcumin in healthy male subjects and its correlation with the GT length polymorphism. Methods. In an open label uncontrolled phase-1 pilot study, ten male subjects received 12 g of oral curcumin. To investigate the effects of the GT length polymorphism on the inducibility of HO-1, five subjects with homozygous short and five with homozygous long GT genotypes were studied. Plasma concentrations of curcumin, bilirubin, HO-1 mRNA, and protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed over 48 hours.
Results.At a detection limit of 1 µg/mL curcumin could not be detected in plasma of any subject. Compared to baseline, HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were not induced in PBMCs at any time point up to 48 hours. There was no correlation between any of the parameters and GT length polymorphism.
Conclusions.Oral curcumin administration has low bioavailability and does not induce HO-1 on mRNA or protein level in PBMCs.
- Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Dunaliella salina in Paracetamol-induced Acute Toxicity in Rats. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Pharm Sci 2013 Nov; 75(6):642-8.
Paracetamol has a reasonable safety profile when taken in therapeutic doses. However, it could induce hepatotoxicity and even more severe fatal acute hepatic damage when taken in an overdose. The green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats overdosed with paracetamol showed liver damage and oxidative stress as indicated by significantly (P<0.05) increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide. At the same time, there were decreased activities of serum superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity compared with the control group. Treatment with D. salina methanol extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight or silymarin could significantly (P<0.05) decrease the liver damage marker enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide levels and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in serum when compared with paracetamol intoxicated group. Liver histopathology also showed that D. salina reduced the centrilobular necrosis, congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration evoked by paracetamol overdose. These results suggest that D. salina exhibits a potent hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats, which may be due to both the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
- Biochemical and Hematologic Parameters for Children in the Middle Belt of Ghana. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Mar 3.
Reference values derived from developed countries are used in many countries in Africa for interpretation of laboratory results obtained during routine healthcare and clinical trials. Use of locally derived reference values has been recommended. The purpose of the study was to establish age- and sex-specific reference values for children in the middle belt of Ghana. Reference values were determined for 21 biochemical and 18 hematologic parameters by using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute C28-A3 guidelines in a sample of 1,442 healthy children. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume, erythrocytes, urea, and creatinine were lower when compared with values from northern countries but alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin were higher. A panel of locally relevant age- and sex-specific reference values was established for commonly used biochemical and hematologic tests in children in the middle part of Ghana. This will help in interpretation of laboratory results for clinical management of patients, screening, and safety monitoring during clinical trials.
- Safety analysis of Epzicom® (lamivudine/abacavir sulfate) in post-marketing surveillance in Japan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2014 Mar 3.
To obtain safety and effectiveness data on a combined anti-HIV drug, Epzicom (abacavir 600 mg/lamivudine 300 mg), a post-marketing surveillance on Epzicom that was required by the Japanese regulatory authority was conducted between January 2005 and December 2010.A joint survey (HIV-related drug [HRD] survey) has been conducted involving manufacturers of drugs for treatment of HIV infection in Japan. Safety and effectiveness data from total 624 cases (1107.3 person-years) registered to the HRD surveys and received Epzicom were obtained. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were defined as adverse events (AE) of which association with Epzicom could not be 'ruled out'.It was found that the incidence of ADR was 32.4% (202/624 cases) on the case basis. In addition, the frequently reported ADR included hyperlipidaemia (59 cases), hypertriglyceridaemia (21 cases), blood bilirubin increased (19 cases), gamma-glutamyltransferase increase (14 cases), blood triglyceride increase (14 cases) and rash (14 cases). Serious AEs were seen in 19 patients (30 events), including one death (no evident association with Epzicom). There were four cases (0.6%) of survey-defined 'hypersensitivity', and the incidence was 0.9% (4/445) among abacavir naïve patients; none of which was reported as serious. No case of myocardial infarction was reported. One pregnant case who delivered a normal baby by caesarean section was reported to have experienced aggravation of anaemia and nausea.The post-marketing surveillance indicated that the incidence of both ischaemic heart disease and hypersensitivity associated with Epzicom was considerably low, suggesting that this drug can be safely used in the Japanese population. © 2014 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Circular dichroism study of the interaction between mutagens and bilirubin bound to different binding sites of serum albumins. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2014 Feb 13.:68-75.
Although recent investigations have shown that bilirubin not only has a negative role in the organism but also exhibits significant antimutagenic properties, the mechanisms of interactions between bilirubin and mutagens are not clear. In this study, interaction between bilirubin bound to different binding sites of mammalian serum albumins with structural analogues of the mutagens 2-aminofluorene, 2,7-diaminofluorene and mutagen 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone were investigated by circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopy. Homological human and bovine serum albumins were used as chiral matrices, which preferentially bind different conformers of bilirubin in the primary binding sites and make it observable by circular dichroism. These molecular systems approximated a real system for the study of mutagens in blood serum. Differences between the interaction of bilirubin bound to primary and to secondary binding sites of serum albumins with mutagens were shown. For bilirubin bound to secondary binding sites with low affinity, partial displacement and the formation of self-associates were observed in all studied mutagens. The associates of bilirubin bound to primary binding sites of serum albumins are formed with 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone. It was proposed that 2,7-diaminofluorene does not interact with bilirubin bound to primary sites of human and bovine serum albumins due to the spatial hindrance of the albumins binding domains. The spatial arrangement of the bilirubin bound to serum albumin along with the studied mutagens was modelled using ligand docking, which revealed a possibility of an arrangement of the both bilirubin and 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone in the primary binding site of human serum albumin.
- Sophocarpine attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathway in rats. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Feb 21; 20(7):1822-32.
To explore the effect of sophocarpine on experimental liver fibrosis and the potential mechanism involved.Sophocarpine was injected intraperitoneally in two distinct rat hepatic fibrosis models induced either by dimethylnitrosamine or bile duct ligation. Masson's trichrome staining, Sirius red staining and hepatic hydroxyproline level were used for collagen determination. Primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated and treated with different concentrations of sophocarpine. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA levels of fibrotic markers and cytokines. The expression of pathway proteins was measured by Western blot. The Cell Counting Kit-8 test was used to detect the proliferation rate of activated HSCs treated with a gradient concentration of sophocarpine.Sophocarpine decreased serum levels of aminotransferases and total bilirubin in rats under chronic insult. Moreover, administration of sophocarpine suppressed extracellular matrix deposition and prevented the development of hepatic fibrosis. Furthermore, sophocarpine inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), interleukin (IL)-6, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and extracellular-related kinase (ERK) in rats. Sophocarpine also down-regulated the mRNA expression of α-SMA, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and decreased protein levels of TLR4, p-ERK, p-JNK, p-P38 and p-IKK in vitro after Lipopolysaccharide induction. In addition, sophocarpine inhibited the proliferation of HSCs accompanied by a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1. The protein level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was decreased in activated HSCs following a gradient concentration of sophocarpine.Sophocarpine can alleviate liver fibrosis mainly by inhibiting the TLR4 pathway. Sophocarpine may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for chronic liver diseases.
- Serum Bilirubin Concentration in Healthy Adult North-Europeans Is Strictly Controlled by the UGT1A1 TA-Repeat Variants. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e90248.
The major enzyme responsible for the glucuronidation of bilirubin is the uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose glucuronosyltransferase A1 (UGT1A1) enzyme, and genetic variation in the UGT1A1 gene is reported to influence the bilirubin concentration in the blood. In this study, we have investigated which gene-/haplotype variants may be useful for genetic testing of Gilbert's syndrome. Two groups of samples based on serum bilirubin concentrations were obtained from the Nordic Reference Interval Project Bio-bank and Database (NOBIDA): the 150 individuals with the highest bilirubin (>17.5 µmol/L) and the 150 individuals with normal bilirubin concentrations (<17.5 µmol/L). The individuals were examined for the TA6>TA7 variant in the UGT1A1 promoter and 7 tag-SNPs in an extended promoter region of UGT1A1 (haplotype analysis) and in selected SNPs in candidate genes (SLCO1B3, ABCC2 and NUP153). We found significant odds ratios for high bilirubin level for all the selected UGT1A1 variants. However, in stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis of all genetic variants together with age, sex, country of origin and fasting time, the repeat variants of UGT1A1 TA6>TA7 and SLCO1B3 rs2117032 T>C were the only variants significantly associated with higher bilirubin concentrations. Most individuals with high bilirubin levels were homozygous for the TA7-repeat (74%) while only 3% were homozygous for the TA7-repeat in individuals with normal bilirubin levels. Among individuals heterozygous for the TA7-repeat, a low frequent UGT1A1-diplotype harboring the rs7564935 G-variant was associated with higher bilirubin levels. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that in testing for Gilbert's syndrome, analyzing for the homozygous TA7/TA7-genotype would be appropriate.
- Impact of different creatinine measurement methods on liver transplant allocation. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e90015.
The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is used in many countries to prioritize organ allocation for the majority of patients who require orthotopic liver transplantation. This score is calculated based on the following laboratory parameters: creatinine, bilirubin and the international normalized ratio (INR). Consequently, high measurement accuracy is essential for equitable and fair organ allocation. For serum creatinine measurements, the Jaffé method and enzymatic detection are well-established routine diagnostic tests.A total of 1,013 samples from 445 patients on the waiting list or in evaluation for liver transplantation were measured using both creatinine methods from November 2012 to September 2013 at the university hospital Leipzig, Germany. The measurements were performed in parallel according to the manufacturer's instructions after the samples arrived at the institute of laboratory medicine. Patients who had required renal replacement therapy twice in the previous week were excluded from analyses.Despite the good correlation between the results of both creatinine quantification methods, relevant differences were observed, which led to different MELD scores. The Jaffé measurement led to greater MELD score in 163/1,013 (16.1%) samples with differences of up to 4 points in one patient, whereas differences of up to 2 points were identified in 15/1,013 (1.5%) samples using the enzymatic assay. Overall, 50/152 (32.9%) patients with MELD scores >20 had higher scores when the Jaffé method was used.Using the Jaffé method to measure creatinine levels in samples from patients who require liver transplantation may lead to a systematic preference in organ allocation. In this study, the differences were particularly pronounced in samples with MELD scores >20, which has clinical relevance in the context of urgency of transplantation. These data suggest that official recommendations are needed to determine which laboratory diagnostic methods should be used when calculating MELD scores.
- Inhibitory effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on bilirubin-metabolizing enzymes in hyperbilirubinemic adult rats. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e89248.
Phenylhydrazine, a hemolytic agent, is widely used as a model of experimental hyperbilirubinemia. Palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) was shown to exert beneficial effects in hyperbilirubinemic rat neonates.To investigate the effects of palm TRF supplementation on hepatic bilirubin-metabolizing enzymes and ocidative stress status in rats administered phenylhydrazine.Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; one group was intraperitoneally injected with palm TRF at the dose of 30 mg/kg/day, while another group was only given vehicle (control) (vitamin E-free palm oil) for 14 days. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, each group was further subdivided into another two groups. One group was administered phenylhydrazine (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and another group was administered normal saline. Twenty-four hours later, blood and liver were collected for biochemical parameter measurements.Phenylhydrazine increased plasma total bilirubin level and oxidative stress in the erythrocytes as well as in the liver, which were reduced by the pretreatment of palm TRF. Palm TRF also prevented the increases in hepatic heme oxygenase, biliverdin reductase and UDP-glucuronyltransferase activities induced by phenylhydrazine.Palm tocotrienol-rich fraction was able to afford protection against phenylhydrazine-induced hyperbilirubinemia, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting bilirubin-metabolizing enzymes in the liver.
- Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were associated with a lower risk of incident chronic kidney disease in middle aged korean men. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e75178.
The association between serum bilirubin levels and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between serum bilirubin concentration (total, direct, and indirect) and the risk of incident CKD.Longitudinal cohort study of 12,823 Korean male workers 30 to 59 years old without CKD or proteinuria at baseline participating in medical health checkup program in a large worksite. Study participants were followed for incident CKD from 2002 through 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Parametric Cox models and pooled logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for incident CKD. We observed 238 incident cases of CKD during 70,515.8 person-years of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, the hazard ratios for CKD comparing quartiles 2-4 vs. quartile 1 of serum direct bilirubin were 0.93 (95% CI 0.67-1.28), 0.88 (0.60-1.27) and 0.60 (0.42-0.88), respectively. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of serum direct bilirubin levels was 0.60 (95% CI 0.41-0.87; P trend = 0.01). Neither serum total nor indirect bilirubin levels were significantly associated with the incidence of CKD.Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CKD, even adjusting for a variety of cardiometabolic parameters. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association and to establish the role of serum direct bilirubin as a marker for CKD risk.