- Is Soleus Muscle Tendon Unit Behavior Related to Ground Force Application During the Sprint Start? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2016 Jul 21.
This study aimed to describe the stretch shortening behavior of ankle plantarflexing muscle tendon units during the push off in a sprint start.For this purpose, 54 male (100 m PR: 9.58-12.07 s) and 34 female (100 m PR: 11.05-14.00 s) sprinters were analyzed using an instrumented starting block and 2D high speed video imaging. Analysis was performed separately for front and rear legs, while accounting for block obliquities and performance levels.The results showed clear signs of a dorsiflexion in the upper ankle joint (front block 15.8 ± 7.4°, 95% CI: 13.2 - 18.2°; rear block 8.0 ± 5.7°, 95% CI: 6.4 - 9.7°) preceding plantarflexion. When observing the athletes using their natural block settings, block obliquity did not show to significantly affect push off characteristics. It seems that the SSC like motion of the soleus muscle tendon unit has an enhancing influence on push off force generation.This study provides the first systematic observation of ankle joint stretch shortening behavior for sprinters of a wide range of performance levels. Our findings highlight the importance of reactive type training for the improvement of starting performance. Nonetheless, future studies need to resolve the independent contributions of tendinous and muscle fascicle structures to overall muscle tendon unit performance.
- Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sensors (Basel) 2016; 16(7)
The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket.
- Influence of Connection Types and Implant Number on the Biomechanical Behavior of Mandibular Full-Arch Rehabilitation. [Journal Article]
- Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2016 Jul-Aug; 31(4):750-60.
To evaluate the influence of different implant numbers and connection types on the biomechanical behavior of mandibular full-arch implant-supported rehabilitation.Computed tomography-based finite element models comprising a totally edentulous mandible and 3.8 × 13-mmdiameter implants, abutments, abutment screws, bar retaining screw, and bar were constructed. Different implant numbers (three, four, and five implants) and loading conditions (symmetrical/balanced, unilateral, and posterior with diverse loading magnitudes) were simulated for both external hex and Morse-taper connections. The peak equivalent strain (EQV strain) in the bone and the peak of von Mises stress (EQV stress) in the abutment screw and bar retaining screw were evaluated.Lower strain values were observed for a symmetrical loading distribution. Considering the same loading conditions, significantly higher bone strain levels were observed for external hex, compared with the Morse-taper connection. The number of implants had no significant influence on strain levels in bone, irrespective of the connection types. Compared with the external hex connection, the Morse-taper connection type presented significantly lower EQV stress values in abutment screws, but significantly higher stress in the bar retaining screw. Increasing the number of implants significantly reduced the EQV stress in the abutment screw and bar retaining screw.The Morse-taper connection type significantly decreased the strain levels in peri-implant bone, while increasing the stress in bar retaining screws. A smaller number of implants in an inferior full-arch rehabilitation slightly increased the stress in the abutment and bar retaining screws. Balanced adjustments of the loading improve the biomechanics of a mandibular full-arch rehabilitation.
- How Fast Can a Human Run? - Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running. [Journal Article]
- Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2016.:56.
Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as "Can the world's fastest men become faster still?" The correct answer is likely "Yes." We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion.
- Editorial: Wheeled Mobility Biomechanics. [Journal Article]
- Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2016.:53.
- Fabrication and Pilot In Vivo Study of a Collagen-BDDGE-Elastin Core-Shell Scaffold for Tendon Regeneration. [Journal Article]
- Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2016.:52.
The development of bio-devices for complete regeneration of ligament and tendon tissues is presently one of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering. Such device must simultaneously possess optimal mechanical performance, suitable porous structure, and biocompatible microenvironment. This study proposes a novel collagen-BDDGE-elastin (CBE)-based device for tendon tissue engineering, by the combination of two different modules: (i) a load-bearing, non-porous, "core scaffold" developed by braiding CBE membranes fabricated via an evaporative process and (ii) a hollow, highly porous, "shell scaffold" obtained by uniaxial freezing followed by freeze-drying of CBE suspension, designed to function as a physical guide and reservoir of cells to promote the regenerative process. Both core and shell materials demonstrated good cytocompatibility in vitro, and notably, the porous shell architecture directed cell alignment and population within the sample. Finally, a prototype of the core module was implanted in a rat tendon lesion model, and histological analysis demonstrated its safety, biocompatibility, and ability to induce tendon regeneration. Overall, our results indicate that such device may have the potential to support and induce in situ tendon regeneration.
- Biomechanical Measurement of Rabbit Cornea by a Modified Scheimpflug Device. [Journal Article]
- J Ophthalmol 2016.:8271762.
Purpose.To explore the probability and variation in biomechanical measurements of rabbit cornea by a modified Scheimpflug device. Methods. A modified Scheimpflug device was developed by imaging anterior segment of the model imitating the intact eye at various posterior pressures. The eight isolated rabbit corneas were mounted on the Barron artificial chamber and images of the anterior segment were taken at posterior pressures of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mmHg by the device. The repeatability and reliability of the parameters including CCT, ACD, ACV, and CV were evaluated at each posterior pressure. All the variations of the parameters at the different posterior pressures were calculated.
Results.All parameters showed good intraobserver reliability (Cronbach's alpha; intraclass correlation coefficient, α, ICC > 0.96) and repeatability in the modified Scheimpflug device. With the increase of posterior pressures, the ratio of CCT decreased linearly and the bulk modulus gradually reduced to a platform. The increase of ACD was almost linear with the posterior pressures elevated.
Conclusions.The modified Scheimpflug device was a valuable tool to investigate the biomechanics of the cornea. The posterior pressure 15-75 mmHg range produced small viscoelastic deformations and nearly linear pressure-deformation response in the rabbit cornea.
- Pathogenesis of the intravertebral vacuum of Kümmell's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Ther Med 2016 Aug; 12(2):879-882.
In this review, we explored the progress of the pathogenesis of Kümmell's disease intravertebral vacuum. Using different expressions of the same disease including 'Kümmell's disease', 'avascular necrosis after vertebral compression fracture (VCF)', 'post-traumatic vertebral osteonecrosis', 'vertebral pseudarthrosis', 'intravertebral vacuum (cleft or gas)', 'delayed vertebral collapse', 'VCF nonunion', and by conducting a search of the PubMed database, we analyzed the results to examine the pathogenesis of the intravertebral vacuum of Kümmell's disease after referring to pertinent literature on intravertebral vacuum of ischemic necrosis after VCF, and exploring the progress of pathogenesis of this disease. A number of discrepancies were identified within the pathogenesis of the intravertebral vacuum after VCF. There were statements such as avascular necrosis of the vertebral body, bone biomechanics, gas forming and other types of claims, all of which obtained clinical and biomechanical supporting evidence. Collectively, most of the researchers believe that Kümmell vertebral fracture syndrome was the comprehensive effect of multiple factors including osteoporosis, avascular necrosis of the vertebral body, and biomechanical changes following fracture. However, there are a number of discrepancies to be resolved and future studies are therefore needed.
- Repeated Sprint Ability in Young Basketball Players (Part 2): The Chronic Effects of Multidirection and of One Change of Direction Are Comparable in Terms of Physiological and Performance Responses. [Journal Article]
- Front Physiol 2016.:262.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 5-week training program, consisting of repeated 30-m sprints, on two repeated sprint ability (RSA) test formats: one with one change of direction (RSA) and the other with multiple changes of direction (RSM). Thirty-six young male and female basketball players (age 16.1 ± 0.9 years), divided into two experimental groups, were tested for RSA, RSM, squat jump, counter-movement jump, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery-Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test, before and after a 4-week training program and 1 week of tapering. One group performed 30-m sprints with one change of direction (RSA group, RSAG), whereas the other group performed multidirectional 30-m sprints (RSM group, RSMG). Both groups improved in all scores in the post-intervention measurements (P < 0.05), except for the fatigue index in the RSM test. However, when comparing the two groups, similar effects were found for almost all parameters of the tests applied, except for RPE in the RSA test, which had a greater decrease in the RSAG (from 8.7 to 5.9) than in the RSMG (from 8.5 to 6.6, P = 0.021). We can conclude that repeated 30-m sprints, either with one change of direction or multidirectional, induce similar physiological and performance responses in young basketball players, but have a different psycho-physiological impact.
- C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Induces Anti-contractile Effect Dependent on Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and NPR-B Activation in Sepsis. [Journal Article]
- Front Physiol 2016.:226.
To evaluate the role of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation in C-type natriuretic peptide-anti-contractile effect on Phenylephrine-induced contraction in aorta isolated from septic rats.Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery was used to induce sepsis in male rats. Vascular reactivity was conducted in rat aorta and resistance mesenteric artery (RMA). Measurement of survival rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma nitric oxide, specific protein expression, and localization were evaluated. Septic rats had a survival rate about 37% at 4 h after the surgery, and these rats presented hypotension compared to control-operated (Sham) rats. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was decreased in sepsis. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) induced anti-contractile effect in aortas. Plasma nitric oxide was increased in sepsis. Nitric oxide-synthase but not natriuretic peptide receptor-B expression was increased in septic rat aortas. C-type natriuretic peptide-anti-contractile effect was dependent on nitric oxide-synthase, ROS, and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C, protein kinase-Cα mRNA, and basal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent ROS production were lower in septic rats. Phenylephrine and CNP enhanced ROS production. However, stimulated ROS production was low in sepsis.CNP induced anti-contractile effect on Phenylephrine contraction in aortas from Sham and septic rats that was dependent on nitric oxide-synthase, ROS, and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation.