- Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion versus anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion in multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: A meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95(49):e5437
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on our meta-analysis, our results suggest that both ACDF and ACCF are good plans in clinical outcomes; however, ACDF is a better choice in radiographic outcomes and total complications for the treatment of multilevel CSM.
- The biomechanics of seed germination. [Review]
- JEJ Exp Bot 2016 Dec 07
- From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zo...
From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence. Endosperm weakening as a prerequisite for radicle emergence is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms. Research into the biochemistry and biomechanics of endosperm weakening has demonstrated that the reduction in puncture force of a seed's micropylar endosperm is environmentally and hormonally regulated and involves tissue-specific expression of cell wall remodelling proteins such as expansins, diverse hydrolases, and the production of directly acting apoplastic reactive oxygen. The endosperm-weakening biomechanics and its underlying cell wall biochemistry differ between the micropylar (ME) and chalazal (CE) endosperm domains. In the ME, they involve cell wall loosening, cell separation, and programmed cell death to provide decreased and localized ME tissue resistance, autolysis, and finally the formation of an ME hole required for radicle emergence. Future work will further unravel the molecular mechanisms, environmental regulation, and evolution of the diverse biomechanical cell wall changes underpinning the control of germination by endosperm weakening.
- Clinical Improvement Through Surgery for Adult Spinal Deformity: What Can Be Expected and Who Is Likely to Benefit Most? [Journal Article]
- SDSpine Deform 2015; 3(6):566-574
- CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 24% of patients did not experience improvement after surgery. Patients with baseline severe disability were more likely to perceive improvement than patients with less disability.
- Strength of Thoracic Spine Under Simulated Direct Vertebral Rotation: A Biomechanical Study. [Journal Article]
- SDSpine Deform 2016; 4(2):85-93
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that with the advantage of lever arms provided with DVR techniques, relatively small surgical forces, <200 N, can produce large moments that cause irreversible injury. Although further studies are required to establish the safety of surgical deformity correction surgeries, the present study provides a first step in the quantification of thoracic spine strength.
- Biomechanical Assessment of Providence Nighttime Brace for the Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. [Journal Article]
- SDSpine Deform 2016; 4(4):253-260
- CONCLUSIONS: The supine position is responsible for the major part of coronal curve correction, while the brace itself plays a complementary role. Bending moments induced by the brace generated a rebalancing of pressure on the growth plates, which could help reduce the asymmetric growth of the vertebrae.
- Wing Scale Orientation Alters Reflection Directions in the Green Hairstreak Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus (Lycaenidae; Lepidoptera). [Journal Article]
- ZSZoolog Sci 2016; 33(6):616-622
- There have been only a few reports on the directional reflection of light by butterfly wings. Here, we systematically investigated this phenomenon in a lycaenid butterfly, Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus,...
There have been only a few reports on the directional reflection of light by butterfly wings. Here, we systematically investigated this phenomenon in a lycaenid butterfly, Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus,in which males have bright green wings based on structural coloration. We used a device that measures intensities of light in hemispherical space by vertical shifting of a sensor and horizontal rotation of the stage carrying the wing, which is illuminated from the top, to determine the direction of light reflected by the fore- and hindwings. The orientation and curvature of wing scales were also examined microscopically. The forewing of this species reflected light shone from the top largely forward, whereas the hindwing reflected it slightly forward. This difference was attributed to the tilt angles of the wing scales. Light reflection by the forewing was relatively weak, and widely scattered, whereas that by the hindwing was rather concentrated, resulting in higher reflectance. This difference was attributed to difference in the curvature of the wing scales on the two wings.
- The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Sport Sci 2016 Dec 07; :1-8
- This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found t...
This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.
- Pedicle screw fixation with kyphoplasty decreases the fracture risk of the treated and adjacent non-treated vertebral bodies: a finite element analysis. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2016; 36(6):887-894
- Adjacent vertebral fractures are common in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) after kyphoplasty. This finite element study was to examine whether short segment pedicle...
Adjacent vertebral fractures are common in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) after kyphoplasty. This finite element study was to examine whether short segment pedicle screw fixation (PSF) with kyphoplasty may decrease the fracture risk of the treated and adjacent non-treated vertebrae after kyphoplasty for OVCFs. By simulating cement augmentation with or without short segment pedicle screw fixation (PSF), two tridimensional, anatomically detailed finite element models of the T10-L2 functional spinal junction were developed. The insertion of pedicle screws into the intact vertebra apparently decreased the stress distribution of the treated vertebra in vertical compression and other load situations. The stress distribution in the bone structures of the intact vertebra adjacent to the intact-screwed vertebra was much less than that in the one adjacent to the treated vertebra. The insertion of pedicle screws into the intact vertebra greatly decreased the maximum displacement of the cortical bones and cancellous bones of the vertebrae. Our results indicated that short segment PSF with kyphoplasty may decrease the fracture risk of the treated and adjacent non-treated vertebrae in the management of OVCFs.
- Erratum to: Neural correlates of correct and failed response inhibition in heavy versus light social drinkers: an fMRI study during a go/no-go task by healthy participants. [Published Erratum]
- BIBrain Imaging Behav 2016 Dec 06
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- Relationship between pelvic floor muscle strength and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- IUInt Urogynecol J 2016 Dec 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunction showed lower PFM strength than women without sexual dysfunction. There was a weak correlation between urinary incontinence severity and sexual function.