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bone resorption inhibitors [keywords]
- Early tissue responses to zoledronate, locally delivered by bone screw, into a compromised cancellous bone site: a pilot study. [Journal Article]
- BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2014.:97.
In fracture treatment, adequate fixation of implants is crucial to long-term clinical performance. Bisphosphonates (BP), potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption, are known to increase peri-implant bone mass and accelerate primary fixation. However, adverse effects are associated with systemic use of BPs. Thus, Zoledronic acid (ZOL) a potent BP was loaded on bone screws and evaluated in a local delivery model. Whilst mid- to long-term effects are already reported, early cellular events occurring at the implant/bone interface are not well described. The present study investigated early tissue responses to ZOL locally delivered, by bone screw, into a compromised cancellous bone site.ZOL was immobilized on fibrinogen coated titanium screws. Using a bilateral approach, ZOL loaded test and non-loaded control screws were implanted into femoral condyle bone defects, created by an overdrilling technique. Histological analyses of the local tissue effects such as new bone formation and osteointegration were performed at days 1, 5 and 10.Histological evaluation of the five day ZOL group, demonstrated a higher osseous differentiation trend. At ten days an early influx of mesenchymal and osteoprogenitor cells was seen and a higher level of cellular proliferation and differentiation (p < 5%). In the ZOL group bone-to-screw contact and bone volume values within the defect tended to increase. Local drug release did not induce any adverse cellular effects.This study indicates that local ZOL delivery into a compromised cancellous bone site actively supports peri-implant osteogenesis, positively affecting mesenchymal cells, at earlier time points than previously reported in the literature.
- β-Catenin activation regulates tissue growth non-cell autonomously in the hair stem cell niche. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Science 2014 Mar 21; 343(6177):1353-6.
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for tissue regeneration. However, it is unclear how β-catenin controls stem cell behaviors to coordinate organized growth. Using live imaging, we show that activation of β-catenin specifically within mouse hair follicle stem cells generates new hair growth through oriented cell divisions and cellular displacement. β-Catenin activation is sufficient to induce hair growth independently of mesenchymal dermal papilla niche signals normally required for hair regeneration. Wild-type cells are co-opted into new hair growths by β-catenin mutant cells, which non-cell autonomously activate Wnt signaling within the neighboring wild-type cells via Wnt ligands. This study demonstrates a mechanism by which Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls stem cell-dependent tissue growth non-cell autonomously and advances our understanding of the mechanisms that drive coordinated regeneration.
- Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D on cardiovascular diseases. [Journal Article, Review]
- Isr Med Assoc J 2014 Feb; 16(2):117-21.
- Atypical osteoporotic fractures: impact on therapeutic decision making in osteoporosis. [Comment, Editorial]
- Isr Med Assoc J 2014 Feb; 16(2):110-2.
- Atypical fractures of the femur related to prolonged treatment with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Review]
- Isr Med Assoc J 2014 Feb; 16(2):78-82.
Bisphosphonates reduce the overall risk of fractures among patients with osteoporosis, and this beneficial effect is long-lasting. However, since bisphosphonates inhibit bone remodeling, they may enhance the formation and propagation of micro-cracks over time and patients may therefore be prone to atypical fatigue fractures, mainly in the subtrochanteric region and femoral shaft.To present two cases of subtrochanteric fractures related to bisphosphonate treatment, and review the current literature.Despite the overall beneficial effect of bisphosphonates, further research is required to prevent this significant complication.
- Determination of a safe and effective ultraviolet B radiant dose in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): a pilot study. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- J Avian Med Surg 2013 Dec; 27(4):269-79.
The object of this study was to establish a minimum dose of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation capable of producing an erythemal reaction in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), to determine a threshold dose of UVB for vitamin D photoconversion, and to investigate the use of safer UVB wavelengths. In each of 5 experiments of this study, 20 birds were divided into a control group (n = 10) and a UVB irradiated group (n = 10). Light sources that provide broadband UVB wavelengths (280-315 nm) and narrowband UVB (310-320 nm) were used. Varied doses of UVB radiation were administered to budgerigars by altering exposure time and irradiance. Safety was determined by observing body weight and incidence of photokeratitis and photodermatitis. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring changes in serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels. Serum corticosterone was measured in 1 experiment to monitor stress levels. The results demonstrated that exposure to 180 mJ/cm2 broadband UVB induced vitamin D photoconversion, decreased body weights, and increased serum corticosterone levels. At these wavelengths, UVB-induced lesions were observed. A broadband UVB of 150 to 300 mJ/cm2 was determined as the minimum erythema dose, and the threshold dose for vitamin D photoconversion was calculated to be in the range of 113-225 mJ/cm2. No erythemal lesions or vitamin D photoconversion took place after exposure to up to 1730 mJ/cm2 narrowband UVB radiation. A minimum erythema dose and a threshold dose for vitamin D conversion need to be determined for each species if phototherapy is to be considered as a safe and effective therapeutic or husbandry tool.
- Vitamin D insufficiency in a sunshine-sufficient area: southern Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- Food Nutr Bull 2013 Dec; 34(4):429-33.
Background. Although the photosynthesis and bioavailability of vitamin D are influenced by various factors, vitamin D is produced in the skin by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight. However, vitamin D insufficiency is being recognized as a common problem, even in areas with abundant sunshine.This study assessed vitamin D status by measuring plasma 25(OH)D concentrations in rural women in southern Ethiopia living in the Rift Valley at 7 degree3' N latitude. Methods. Nonpregnant women (n = 202) living in three adjacent rural communities volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic, socioeconomic, health, and food frequency data were acquired by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and a fasting venipuncture blood sample were obtained by qualified professionals. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. ELISA kits from ImmunoDiagnostic Systems were used to determine concentrations of 25(OH)D with external quality control standards from UTAK Laboratories.The self-reported mean +/- SD age was 30.8 +/- 7.8 years. The mean number of pregnancies was 4.7 +/- 2.7, household size was 6.0 +/- 2.6, and BMI was 20.0 +/- 2.2. None of the participants reported ever consuming vitamin D-rich foods, fortified foods, or dietary supplements. Only 15.8% of the participants had 25(OH) D levels above 50 nmol/L, and 14.8% were below 30 nmol/L, which represents risk of deficiency relative to bone health.Vitamin D insufficiency is a serious problem in the study population, and living near the Equator does not assure adequate vitamin D status.
- [Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in the general medical practice (clinical case)]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Lik Sprava 2013 Mar; (2):85-9.
In this article demonstrated a clinical case of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with compression fractures of (Th(IV)). Indicates the basic risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis, clinic, diagnosis, principles of therapy.
- Imprecision and limit of quantification of the new architect 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay. [Journal Article]
- Clin Lab 2014; 60(1):161-3.
We examined imprecision and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the new Architect 25-hydroxyvitamin D immunoassay in a multicenter setting. Mean intracenter interlot imprecision varied from 22.0 to 5.0%CV in the concentration range of 16 - 92 nmol/L. LOQs were locally determined as 10.8, 11.2, and 13.5 nmol/L. We conclude that the Architect 25(OH)D assay provides a precise and analytically sensitive method for routine measurement of 25(OH)D.
- Usefulness of procalcitonin in elderly patients with bacterial infection. [Journal Article]
- Clin Lab 2014; 60(1):139-42.
The role of PCT (procalcitonin) in elderly patients with bacterial infection has not fully been investigated. In previous studies, the role of PCT in diagnosing bacterial infection has mainly been studied in patients with severe infections. This study was to access a diagnostic value of PCT in elderly patients with local infection.A total of 259 elderly patients were enrolled in this study. Serum concentration of PCT and whole blood concentration of CRP was measured by immunofluorescence assay.The concentration of PCT was significantly higher in patients with infection than those without. In predicting bacterial infection, with a PCT cutoff value of 0.055 ng/mL, the specificity and sensitivity were 92.4% and 63.6%, respectively, while the specificity and sensitivity was 80.0% and 81.3% with a CRP cutoff value of 10.96 mg/L. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs) of PCT and CRP were 0.792 and 0.858, respectively (p < 0.05).PCT may not be a better predictor than CRP for diagnosing bacterial infection in elderly patients, but its high specificity is helpful to rule in a bacterial infection.