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bone resorption inhibitors [keywords]
- Anti-inflammatory Actions of Adjunctive Tetracyclines and Other Agents in Periodontitis and Associated Comorbidities. [Journal Article]
- Open Dent J 2014.:109-24.
The non-antimicrobial properties of tetracyclines such as anti-inflammatory, proanabolic and anti-catabolic actions make them effective pharmaceuticals for the adjunctive management of chronic inflammatory diseases. An over-exuberant inflammatory response to an antigenic trigger in periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory diseases could contribute to an autoimmune element in disease progression. Their adjunctive use in managing periodontitis could have beneficial effects in curbing excessive inflammatory loading from commonly associated comorbidities such as CHD, DM and arthritis. Actions of tetracyclines and their derivatives include interactions with MMPs, tissue inhibitors of MMPs, growth factors and cytokines. They affect the sequence of inflammation with implications on immunomodulation, cell proliferation and angiogenesis; these actions enhance their scope, in treating a range of disease entities. Non-antimicrobial chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) sustain their diverse actions in organ systems which include anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-proteolytic actions, inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. A spectrum of biological actions in dermatitis, periodontitis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, malignancy and prevention of bone resorption is particularly relevant to minocycline. Experimental models of ischemia indicate their specific beneficial effects. Parallel molecules with similar functions, improved Zn binding and solubility have been developed for reducing excessive MMP activity. Curbing excessive MMP activity is particularly relevant to periodontitis, and comorbidities addressed here, where specificity is paramount. Unique actions of tetracyclines in a milieu of excessive inflammatory stimuli make them effective therapeutic adjuncts in the management of chronic inflammatory disorders. These beneficial actions of tetracyclines are relevant to the adjunctive management of periodontitis subjects presenting with commonly prevalent comorbidities addressed here.
- Novel, potent and selective 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 inhibitors as potential therapeutics for osteoporosis with dual human and mouse activities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Chem 2014 Jun 17.:317-337.
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-HSD2) is responsible for the oxidation of the highly active estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) into the less potent estrone (E1) and Δ(4)-androstene-3,17-dione (Δ(4)-AD), respectively. As 17β-HSD2 is present in bones and as estradiol and testosterone are able to induce bone formation and repress bone resorption, inhibition of this enzyme could be a new promising approach for the treatment of osteoporosis. Herein, we describe the design, the synthesis and the biological evaluation of 24 new 17β-HSD2 inhibitors in the 5-substituted thiophene-2-carboxamide class. Structure-activity and structure-selectivity relationships have been explored by variation of the sulfur atom position in the central core, exchange of the thiophene by a thiazole, substitution of the amide group with a larger moiety, exchange of the N-methylamide group with bioisosteres like N-methylsulfonamide, N-methylthioamide and ketone, and substitutions at positions 2 and 3 of the thiophene core with alkyl and phenyl groups leading to 2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophene derivatives. The compounds were evaluated on human and mouse enzymes. From this study, a novel highly potent and selective compound in both human and mouse 17β-HSD2 enzymes was identified, compound 21 (IC50(h17β-HSD2) = 235 nM, selectivity factor toward h17β-HSD1 = 95, IC50 (m17β-HSD2) = 54 nM). This new compound 21 could be used for an in vivo proof of principle to demonstrate the true therapeutic efficacy of 17β-HSD2 inhibitors in osteoporosis. New structural insights into the active sites of the human and mouse enzymes were gained.
- Pharmacological management of osteogenesis. [Journal Article]
- Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2014 Jun; 69(6):438-46.
Osteogenesis and bone remodeling are complex biological processes that are essential for the formation of new bone tissue and its correct functioning. When the balance between bone resorption and formation is disrupted, bone diseases and disorders such as Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, osteoporosis and fragility fractures may result. Recent advances in bone cell biology have revealed new specific targets for the treatment of bone loss that are based on the inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts or the stimulation of bone formation by osteoblasts. Bisphosphonates, antiresorptive agents that reduce bone resorption, are usually recommended as first-line therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Numerous studies have shown that bisphosphonates are able to significantly reduce the risk of femoral and vertebral fractures. Other antiresorptive agents indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis include selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody, is another antiresorptive agent that has been approved in Europe and the USA. This agent blocks the RANK/RANKL/OPG system, which is responsible for osteoclastic activation, thus reducing bone resorption. Other approved agents include bone anabolic agents, such as teriparatide, a recombinant parathyroid hormone that improves bone microarchitecture and strength, and strontium ranelate, considered to be a dual-action drug that acts by both osteoclastic inhibition and osteoblastic stimulation. Currently, anti-catabolic drugs that act through the Wnt-β catenin signaling pathway, serving as Dickkopf-related protein 1 inhibitors and sclerostin antagonists, are also in development. This concise review provides an overview of the drugs most commonly used for the control of osteogenesis in bone diseases.
- A Novel in vivo Gene Transfer Technique and in vitro Cell Based Assays for the Study of Bone Loss in Musculoskeletal Disorders. [Journal Article]
- J Vis Exp 2014; (88)
Differentiation and activation of osteoclasts play a key role in the development of musculoskeletal diseases as these cells are primarily involved in bone resorption. Osteoclasts can be generated in vitro from monocyte/macrophage precursor cells in the presence of certain cytokines, which promote survival and differentiation. Here, both in vivo and in vitro techniques are demonstrated, which allow scientists to study different cytokine contributions towards osteoclast differentiation, signaling, and activation. The minicircle DNA delivery gene transfer system provides an alternative method to establish an osteoporosis-related model is particularly useful to study the efficacy of various pharmacological inhibitors in vivo. Similarly, in vitro culturing protocols for producing osteoclasts from human precursor cells in the presence of specific cytokines enables scientists to study osteoclastogenesis in human cells for translational applications. Combined, these techniques have the potential to accelerate drug discovery efforts for osteoclast-specific targeted therapeutics, which may benefit millions of osteoporosis and arthritis patients worldwide.
- [In Process Citation]. [Journal Article]
- MMW Fortschr Med 2014 Feb 6; 156(2):37.
- [Osteoporosis in men]. [Journal Article]
- MMW Fortschr Med 2014 Mar 27; 156 Spec No 1(1):44-7; quiz 48.
- [In Process Citation]. [Journal Article]
- MMW Fortschr Med 2014 Jan 20; 156(1):70-1.
- [Preventing vitamin D deficiency. Sardines, sun or supplements?]. [Journal Article]
- MMW Fortschr Med 2014 May 28; 156(10):25.
- [In Process Citation]. [Journal Article]
- Rev Med Suisse 2014 May 14; 10(430):1092.
- Increased fracture callus mineralization and strength in cathepsin K knockout mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bone 2014 Jun 10.:72-81.
Cathepsin K (CatK) is a cysteine protease, expressed predominantly in osteoclasts (OC) which degrades demineralized bone matrix. Novel selective inhibitors of CatK are currently being developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pharmacological inhibition of CatK reduces OC resorption activity while preserving bone formation in preclinical models. Disruption of the CatK gene in mice also results in high bone mass due to impaired bone resorption and elevated formation. Here, we assessed mid-shaft femoral fracture healing in 8-10week old CatK knock-out (KO) versus wild type (WT) mice. Fracture healing and callus formation were determined in vivo weekly via X-ray, and ex vivo at days 14, 18, 28 and 42 post-fracture by radiographic scoring, micro-computed tomography (μCT), histomorphometry and terminal mechanical four point bend strength testing. Radiological evaluation indicated accelerated bone healing and remodeling for CatK KO animals based on increased total radiographic scores that included callus opacity and bridging at days 28 and 42 post-fracture. Micro-CT based total callus volume was similar in CatK KO and WT mice at day 14. Callus size in CatK KO mice was 25% smaller than that in WT mice at day 18, statistically significant by day 28 and exhibited significantly higher mineralized tissue volume and volumetric BMD as compared to WT by day 18 onward. Osteoclast surface and osteoid surface trended higher in CatK KO calluses at all time-points and osteoblast number was also significantly increased at day 28. Increased CatK KO callus mineral density was reflected in significant increases in peak load and stiffness over WT at day 42 post-fracture. Regression analysis indicated a positive correlation (r=0.8671; p<0.001) between callus BMC and peak load indicating normal mineral properties in CatK KO calluses. Taken together, gene deletion of cathepsin K in mice accelerated callus size resolution, significantly increased callus mineralized mass, and improved mechanical strength as compared to wild type mice.