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bone resorption inhibitors [keywords]
- Protective and restorative potency of Vitamin D on persistent biochemical autistic features induced in propionic acid-intoxicated rat pups. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Complement Altern Med 2014.:416.
Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention. Prenatal or postnatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Propionic acid (PA) found in some foods and formed as a metabolic product of gut microbiota has been reported to mediate the effects of autism. Results from animal studies may help to identify environmental contaminants and drugs that produce or prevent neurotoxicity, and may thereby aid in the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. The present study investigated the protective and/or therapeutic effects of vitamin D against brain intoxication induced by propionic acid (PPA) in rats.Twenty-eight young male Western Albino rats were enrolled in the present study. They were grouped into four equal groups of 7. The control group received only phosphate buffered saline; the oral buffered PPA-treated group received a neurotoxic dose of 250 mg/kg body weight/day for 3 days; and the Vitamin D-protected group received 1000 IU/kg/day of alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (3) (1, 25-VD) for two weeks, after which the rats were injected with PPA 250 mg/Kg body weight/day for 3 days. The fourth group received PPA 250 mg/Kg body weight/day for 3 days followed by alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (3) (1, 25-VD) for two weeks (Vitamin D therapeutic effect). Vitamin D and calcium were measured in the plasma of the four studied groups. Serotonin, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), glutathione-s-transferase activity and DNA double helix breaks were assayed in the brain tissue of the rats for all groups.The obtained data showed that the PPA-treated group demonstrated higher plasma vitamin D levels compared to the control rats, together with multiple signs of brain toxicity, as indicated by a depletion of serotonin (5HT), an increase in IFN-γ and inhibition of glutathione-s-transferase activity as three biomarkers of brain dysfunction. Additionally, Comet DNA assays showed remarkably higher tail length, tail DNA % damage and tail moment as a neurotoxic effect of PPA.Vitamin D showed a greater protective than therapeutic effect on PPA-induced neurotoxicity in rats, as there was a remarkable amelioration of the impaired biochemically measured parameters representing neurochemical, inflammation, and detoxification processes.
- Nutritional factors in transdifferentiation of scheletal muscles to adipocytes. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2014 Jul-Sep; 118(3):699-705.
A current area of interest is the determination of factors able to promote the transition from muscle to adipose tissue. The current review has highlighted that treatment of myoblasts with fatty acids (especially oleic acid) and thiazolidindiones causes conversion to adipocytes. The molecular mechanisms mediating the adipogenic action of thiazolidinediones and fatty acids in myoblasts could involve peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein C/EBP. The role of 1,25-D3 in adipogenesis is mediated at the molecular level through VDR-dependent inhibition of C/EBP and PPARgamma expression and a decrease in PPARgamma transactivation activity. Vitamin D supplementation increases muscle strength and ultimately reduces the incidence of falls. Additional research is needed to fully clarify the role of nutritional factors in adipogenesis.
- Pharmacological treatment in calcinosis cutis associated with connective-tissue diseases. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Rom J Intern Med 2014 Apr-Jun; 52(2):55-67.
Dystrophic calcinosis cutis is a common manifestation in connective tissue diseases, but there's still no consensus on treatment.The purpose of this review is to discuss the current pharmacological options of treatment in calcinosis cutis related to rheumatic diseases.We performed an extensive MEDLINE search of articles from 1970 to January 2014 using the index word "calcinosis" and the co-indexing terms "treatment", "calcium channel blocker", "diltiazem", "nifedipine", "verapamil", "amlodipine", "anticoagulant", "warfarin", "bisphosphonate", "etidronate", "pamidronate", "alendronate", "risedronate", "aluminum hydroxide", "probenecid", "antibiotic", "tetracycline", "minocycline", "ceftriaxone", "colchicine", "intravenous immunoglobulin", "sodium thiosulfate", "TNF-alpha inhibitors", "infliximab", "rituximab", "thalidomide", "corticosteroids", "stem cell transplantation".Diltiazem is recommended by some authors as first-line approach in calcinosis cutis and is also the therapeutic principal referred by the largest number of available publications. It seems to be efficient in more than half of the reported cases. There remain, however, a significant number of patients in which another solution must be found. The general trends observed over time are of switching the search of solutions in dystrophic calcinosis cutis related to connective tissue diseases, from therapies on calcium metabolism to therapies for the underlying disease. The new options available in the management of calcinosis cutis, like biological therapies or intravenous immunoglobulin, seem to be promising, but not universally successful. In children with severe forms, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can also be taken into consideration.Data for all therapies proposed in calcinosis cutis is generally reported in single cases and small case series and so, the existent data is all yielding a low level of evidence.
- Improving vitamin D levels in hospitalized individuals at risk of falls. [Letter]
- J Am Geriatr Soc 2014 Oct; 62(10):1984-6.
- Bone substitute materials supplemented with prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors decrease osteoclastogenesis in vitro. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2014 Oct 14.
Background and objective: Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases stimulates bone regeneration. Consequently, bone substitute materials were developed that release prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors. However, the impact of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released from these carriers on osteoclastogenesis is not clear. We therefore assessed the effect of bone substitute materials that release prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors on osteoclastogenesis. Material and methods: Dimethyloxalylglycine, desferrioxamine, and l-mimosine were lyophilized onto bovine bone mineral and hydroxyapatite, and supernatants were generated. Osteoclastogenesis was induced in murine bone marrow cultures in the presence of the supernatants from bone substitute materials. The formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and TRAP activity were determined. To test for possible effects on osteoclast progenitor cells, we measured the effect of the supernatants on proliferation and viability. In addition, experiments were performed where prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors were directly added to the bone marrow cultures.
Results:We found that prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released within the first hours from bone substitute materials reduce the number and activity of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. In line with this, addition of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors directly to the bone marrow cultures dose-dependently reduced the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the overall resorption activity. Moreover, the released prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors decreased proliferation but not viability of osteoclast progenitor cells.
Conclusion:Our results show that prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released from bone substitute materials decrease osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow cultures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
- [A clinical example of conservative management of a female patient with manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ter Arkh 2014; 86(8):99-101.
The problems of the timely diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) have recently attracted more and more attention because this disease now ranks third in incidence rates among endocrine diseases. Older women form a group at risk for this disease. Surgical removal of the source of parathyroid hormone hypersecretion is the only radical treatment option for this disease, which is performed in the majority of patients with PHPT. Occasionally, surgical treatment is contraindicated or unadvisable. In these cases, the possibilities of long-term medical treatment become relevant. For this, there are several groups of drugs available, such as bisphosphonates to maintain bone tissue, calcium-sensing receptor agonists (calcium mimetics) that are effective in reducing blood calcium levels. The patients frequently require combined therapy to control the major manifestations of the disease. There are limited data on the long-term medical management of patients with manifest PHPT in the literature.
- [Histomorphometric and quantitative histochemical analysis of periimplantation zone in patients with different bone mineral density within dental implantation]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk 2014; (3-4):19-23.
The aim of the work is to study histomorphometric and histochemical properties of jaw bone loss in patients with full or partial edentulism, need to restoring their dentition integrity by dental implantation.Cytological studies were carried out in 83 patients, among which normal bone mass was observed in 28 patients (17 women and 11 men), osteopenia in 26 patients (17 women and 9 men), osteoporosis in 29 (19 women and 10 men) patients. Histological examination of bone biopsies were performed in 76 patients, among which normal bone mass was observed in 22 (16 women and 6 men, osteopenia in 26 patients (17 women and 9 men), osteoporosis in 28 (19 women and 9 men) patients.Histomorphometric analysis of "implant-bone" contact in the entire length of the joint in patients with normal bone mass was 61.8 +/- 3.7%, with osteopenia was 51.6+/- 3.0%, with osteoporosis was 46.1 +/- 2.8%. The intensity of bone remodeling in patients with normal bone mass was 2.7 +/- 0.19, in patients with osteopenia was 2.2 +/- 0.14, in patients with osteoporosis was 1.8 +/- 0.11. This demonstrates the significant difference between the patients with normal bone mass and osteoporotic patients. The "implant-bone" interface in osteoporotic patients was significantly lower than in patients with normal bone mass.Histomorphometric studies and quantitative histochemical analysis revealed that the decrease of bone mineral mass in patients often combined with a decrease of the "implant surface-bone" site contact area, with atrophy and with hypoplasia of perimplant tissues.
- Do you need more vitamin D? Research suggests that higher doses of the sunshine vitamin may be good for your health, but it's too soon to be sure. [Journal Article]
- Harv Mens Health Watch 2014 Aug; 19(1):6-7.
- Dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschoolers. [Journal Article]
- Community Dent Health 2014 Sep; 31(3):153-7.
To determine the prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing and the associations between dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and gingival bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschool children.A cross-sectional study.784 children aged 48-72 months attending preschools in the Kegalle district and their mothers/carers.The prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing was 52.9%. A Poisson logistic regression model revealed that children with a high daily dietary intake of calcium were less likely to have gingival bleeding on probing than those with low intake (PR=0.80; 95%CI 0.64,0.98). Also prevalence of gingival bleeding was higher in children: with plaque on their teeth; whose mothers were not employed; or, were from families with three or more children.The prevalence of gingivitis was high in the children and the findings suggest that high levels of dietary calcium intake are associated with reduced gingival bleeding in preschool children.