- Osteotomy models - the current status on pain scoring and management in small rodents. [Journal Article]
- LALab Anim 2016; 50(6):433-441
- Fracture healing is a complex regeneration process which produces new bone tissue without scar formation. However, fracture healing disorders occur in approximately 10% of human patients and cause se...
Fracture healing is a complex regeneration process which produces new bone tissue without scar formation. However, fracture healing disorders occur in approximately 10% of human patients and cause severe pain and reduced quality of life. Recently, the development of more standardized, sophisticated and commercially available osteosynthesis techniques reflecting clinical approaches has increased the use of small rodents such as rats and mice in bone healing research dramatically. Nevertheless, there is no standard for pain assessment, especially in these species, and consequently limited information regarding the welfare aspects of osteotomy models. Moreover, the selection of analgesics is restricted for osteotomy models since non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to affect the initial, inflammatory phase of bone healing. Therefore, opioids such as buprenorphine and tramadol are often used. However, dosage data in the literature are varied. Within this review, we clarify the background of osteotomy models, explain the current status and challenges of animal welfare assessment, and provide an example score sheet including model specific parameters. Furthermore, we summarize current refinement options and present a brief outlook on further 3R research.
- Analgesia in clinically relevant rodent models of sepsis. [Journal Article]
- LALab Anim 2016; 50(6):418-426
- Postoperative analgesia in rodent sepsis models has been considerably neglected in the past. However, intentions to model clinical practice, increasing awareness of animal ethics, efforts to apply th...
Postoperative analgesia in rodent sepsis models has been considerably neglected in the past. However, intentions to model clinical practice, increasing awareness of animal ethics, efforts to apply the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement), and stricter legislation argue for a change in this respect. In this review, we describe different concepts of analgesia in rodent models of sepsis focusing on opioid agonists as well as non-opioid analgesics. Advantages and pitfalls in study design and side-effects are discussed. Score sheets should be used to adapt analgesia or to terminate experiments using humane endpoints. Further research is needed to differentiate behavioral changes caused by sepsis and pain or as a consequence of analgesia. Information on the efficacy of analgesia in sepsis models is scarce. Hence, studies are needed to identify the best ways to reduce suffering of research animals and thereby optimize the clinically relevant rodent models of sepsis.
- Effect of Nerolidol and/or Levulinic Acid on the Thermotropic Behavior of Lipid Lamellar Structures in the Stratum Corneum. [Journal Article]
- CPChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2016; 64(12):1692-1697
- Permeation enhancers are required to deliver drugs through the skin efficiently and maintain effective blood concentrations. Studies of the barrier function of the stratum corneum using l-menthol, a ...
Permeation enhancers are required to deliver drugs through the skin efficiently and maintain effective blood concentrations. Studies of the barrier function of the stratum corneum using l-menthol, a monocyclic monoterpene widely used in medicines and foods, have revealed an interaction between characteristic intercellular lipid structures in the stratum corneum and permeation enhancers. The variety of permeation enhancers that can be used to contribute to transdermal delivery systems beyond l-menthol is increasing. In this study, we focused on nerolidol and levulinic acid and investigated their influence on stratum corneum lipid structures. Nerolidol, a sesquiterpene, has been reported to enhance the permeation of various drugs. Levulinic acid is reported to enhance the permeability of buprenorphine and is used as a component of the buprenorphine(®) patch. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform IR spectroscopy measurements revealed that nerolidol disturbs the rigidly arranged lipid structure and increases lipid fluidity. Levulinic acid had a smaller effect on stratum corneum lipid structures, but did increase lipid fluidity when co-administered with nerolidol or heat. We found that nerolidol has an effect on stratum corneum lipids similar to that of l-menthol, and levulinic acid had an effect similar to that of oleic acid.
- Prescription drug abuse - A timely update. [Journal Article]
- AFAust Fam Physician 2016; 45(12):862-866
- CONCLUSIONS: Data from the Coroners Court of Victoria list the main drugs that contributed to drug-related deaths in 2009-15. Analysis of the data reveals that pharmaceutical drugs contributed to 80% of overdose deaths; benzodiazepines and opioids were the main drug groups involved. Strategies for reducing and managing prescription drug abuse in primary care settings are outlined in this article, including references to published evidence-based clinical guidelines from The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP). The safety profile of buprenorphine/ naloxone over methadone is noted and raised as a consideration for clinicians when assessing a patient for opioid replacement therapy.
- Buprenorphine Transdermal System Utilization. [Journal Article]
- PMPostgrad Med 2016 Nov 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Most patients initiating treatment with BTDS had a history of treatment with IR opioids. Though the average change in total opioid daily dose after patients were prescribed BTDS was modest, an important subpopulation of approximately one-quarter of patients were able to markedly reduce their total units MED compared with prior opioid therapy. BTDS should be investigated as an option to help patients step down from higher opioid doses.
- Distinctive Trajectories of Opioid Use Over an Extended Follow-up of Patients in a Multisite Trial on Buprenorphine + Naloxone and Methadone. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Addict Med 2016 Nov 24
- CONCLUSIONS: Continued treatment is necessary to reduce risk for opioid use and related adverse consequences, particularly among individuals (eg, injecting drug) at risk for consistently high level of opioid use.
- Buprenorphine Shared Medical Appointments for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence in a Homeless Clinic. [Journal Article]
- SASubst Abus 2016 Nov 29; :0
- CONCLUSIONS: In a patient population with complex social and mental health histories, buprenorphine treatment via a shared medical appointment had high retention rates. Findings can help guide the development of unique delivery systems to serve real-world complex patients with opioid dependence.
- Opioid receptor agonists may favorably affect bone mechanical properties in rats with estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis. [Journal Article]
- NSNaunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2016 Nov 28
- The results of epidemiological, clinical, and in vivo and in vitro experimental studies on the effect of opioid analgesics on bone are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate th...
The results of epidemiological, clinical, and in vivo and in vitro experimental studies on the effect of opioid analgesics on bone are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of morphine (an agonist of opioid receptors), buprenorphine (a partial μ opioid receptor agonist and κ opioid receptor antagonist), and naloxone (an antagonist of opioid receptors) on the skeletal system of female rats in vivo. The experiments were carried out on 3-month-old Wistar rats, divided into two groups: nonovariectomized (intact; NOVX) rats and ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The bilateral ovariectomy was performed 7 days before the start of drug administration. Morphine hydrochloride (20 mg/kg/day s.c.), buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg/day s.c.), or naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate (2 mg/kg/day s.c.) were administered for 4 weeks to NOVX and OVX rats. In OVX rats, the use of morphine and buprenorphine counteracted the development of osteoporotic changes in the skeletal system induced by estrogen deficiency. Morphine and buprenorphine beneficially affected also the skeletal system of NOVX rats, but the effects were much weaker than those in OVX rats. Naloxone generally did not affect the rat skeletal system. The results confirmed the role of opioid receptors in the regulation of bone remodeling processes and demonstrated, in experimental conditions, that the use of opioid analgesics at moderate doses may exert beneficial effects on the skeletal system, especially in estrogen deficiency.
- Naloxone and Metabolites Quantification in Cord Blood of Prenatally Exposed Newborns and Correlations with Maternal Concentrations. [Journal Article]
- ARAJP Rep 2016; 6(4):e385-e390
- Objective To quantify naloxone and metabolite concentrations in newborns prenatally exposed to sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone and to correlate neonatal and maternal metabolite concentrations. Meth...
Objective To quantify naloxone and metabolite concentrations in newborns prenatally exposed to sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone and to correlate neonatal and maternal metabolite concentrations. Methods This is a prospective observational cohort study. Eleven pregnant women treated for opioid use disorder with sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone were enrolled. Maternal and newborn blood was collected and analyzed for naloxone, buprenorphine, and metabolites via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients were utilized to analyze data. Results Maternal daily naloxone and buprenorphine doses were 1 to 5 mg and 4 to 20 mg, respectively; the mean (standard deviation) time from medication until delivery was 9.9 (4.3) hours. Naloxone was below the limits of quantification (LOQ) in five infants and six mothers with a range of less than LOQ to 0.3 μg/L. There was a strong positive correlation between maternal and newborn naloxone concentrations: Spearman's ρ = 0.89 (p < 0.01). There were strong positive correlations between maternal and neonatal assays for the buprenorphine analyte concentrations: buprenorphine ρ = 0.88 (p < 0.01), norbuprenorphine ρ = 0.71 (p = 0.01), and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide ρ = 0.98 (p < 0.01), but not for buprenorphine-glucuronide, ρ = 0.53 (p = 0.10). Conclusion Naloxone and buprenorphine are transferred to the fetus during prenatal exposure to maternal sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone. The quantity of naloxone transferred from maternal circulation is minimal and highly correlated with maternal concentrations.
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- Is alternative to heroin addiction treatment safe? [Journal Article]
- NSNurs Stand 2001 Jan 31; 15(20):10
- Buprenorphine might be a safe alternative to methadone in the treatment of heroin addiction, French researchers believe.
Buprenorphine might be a safe alternative to methadone in the treatment of heroin addiction, French researchers believe.