- Addition of buprenorphine to local anesthetic in adductor canal blocks after total knee arthroplasty improves postoperative pain relief: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Anesth 2016 Sep.:432-7.
For the hundreds of thousands of patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the United States each year, early mobilization has been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes and reduce complications. Management of postoperative pain is a critical factor in achieving early mobilization. Recent studies have shown that the use of an adductor canal block (ACB) after TKA results in increased preservation of quadriceps muscle strength, without significant difference in postoperative pain when compared to femoral nerve block. This increased preservation of quadriceps muscle strength leads to earlier mobilization. Studies have also demonstrated a prolongation of analgesia with the addition of buprenorphine to local anesthetic for regional block placement. This study examined the effect on postoperative opioid consumption when adding buprenorphine to an ACB vs an ACB with local anesthetic alone, for postoperative analgesia after unilateral TKA.A total of 100 patients scheduled for TKA were randomized to receive postoperative ACB with local anesthetic alone or with local anesthetic and buprenorphine. The primary outcome examined was total opioid analgesic (milligrams of hydrocodone equivalent) consumption in the first 24 hours postsurgery. The secondary outcomes examined were the reported incidence of the opioid side effects nausea, vomiting, and pruritis.Postoperative opioid consumption decreased significantly in the group that received an ACB with local anesthetic and buprenorphine compared to an ACB with local anesthetic only (25.34±2.62 vs 35.84±2.86; P=.0076). Secondary outcomes showed no statistical difference between the 2 groups in terms of the incidence of nausea, vomiting, or pruritus.The addition of buprenorphine to an adductor canal block decreases postoperative opioid consumption when compared to an ACB with local anesthetic alone. This reduction in opioid consumption, without significant increase in side effects, makes this an attractive anesthetic adjunct for TKA.
- Confounding of the Comparative Safety of Prenatal Opioid Agonist Therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Addict Res Ther 2015 Dec; 6(4)
Prenatal opioid agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine prevents maternal illicit opioid use and withdrawal and improves pregnancy outcomes compared to heroin use alone. Historically, methadone has been the first-line opioid agonist therapy for pregnant opioid dependent women; in recent years buprenorphine has become first-line treatment for some opioid dependent pregnant women. While there is some evidence of better outcomes in neonates exposed to buprenorphine vs. methadone, the effect of confounding from differences in women who use buprenorphine and methadone has not been carefully examined in most studies. This review explores mechanisms by which confounding can arise in measuring associations between prenatal buprenorphine vs. methadone exposure on neonatal outcomes using a graphical approach, directed acyclic graphs. The goal of this paper is to facilitate better understanding of the factors influencing neonatal abstinence syndrome and accurate assessment of the comparative safety of opioid agonist therapies on the neonate.
- Real-time application of the Rat Grimace Scale as a welfare refinement in laboratory rats. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2016.:31667.
Rodent grimace scales have been recently validated for pain assessment, allowing evaluation of facial expressions associated with pain. The standard scoring method is retrospective, limiting its application beyond pain research. This study aimed to assess if real-time application of the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS) could reliably and accurately assess pain in rats when compared to the standard method. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were block randomized into three treatment groups: buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously), multimodal analgesia (buprenorphine [0.03 mg/kg] and meloxicam [2 mg/kg], subcutaneously), or saline, followed by intra-plantar carrageenan. Real-time observations (interval and point) were compared to the standard RGS method using concurrent video-recordings. Real-time interval observations reflected the results from the standard RGS method by successfully discriminating between analgesia and saline treatments. Real-time point observations showed poor discrimination between treatments. Real-time observations showed minimal bias (<0.1) and acceptable limits of agreement. These results indicate that applying the RGS in real-time through an interval scoring method is feasible and effective, allowing refinement of laboratory rat welfare through rapid identification of pain and early intervention.
- NIDA Clinical Trials Network CTN-0051, Extended-Release Naltrexone vs. Buprenorphine for Opioid Treatment (X:BOT): Study design and rationale. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Contemp Clin Trials 2016 Aug 10.
For opioid-dependent patients in the US and elsewhere, detoxification and counseling-only aftercare are treatment mainstays.Long-term abstinence is rarely achieved; many patients relapse and overdose after detoxification.Methadone, buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX) and extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) can prevent opioid relapse but are underutilized.This study is intended to develop an evidence-base to help patients and providers make informed choices and to foster wider adoption of relapse-prevention pharmacotherapies.The National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study CTN-0051, X:BOT, is a comparative effectiveness study of treatment for 24weeks with XR-NTX, an opioid antagonist, versus BUP-NX, a high affinity partial opioid agonist, for opioid dependent patients initiating treatment at 8 short-term residential (detoxification) units and continuing care as outpatients.Up to 600 participants are randomized (1:1) to XR-NTX or BUP-NX.The primary outcome is time to opioid relapse (i.e., loss of persistent abstinence) across the 24-week treatment phase.Differences between arms in the distribution of time-to-relapse will be compared (construction of the asymptotic 95% CI for the hazard ratio of the difference between arms).Secondary outcomes include proportions retained in treatment, rates of opioid abstinence, adverse events, cigarette, alcohol, and other drug use, and HIV risk behaviors; opioid cravings, quality of life, cognitive function, genetic moderators, and cost effectiveness.XR-NTX and BUP-NX differ considerably in their characteristics and clinical management; no studies to date have compared XR-NTX with buprenorphine maintenance.Study design choices and compromises inherent to a comparative effectiveness trial of distinct treatment regimens are reviewed.NCT02032433.
- Voriconazole more likely than posaconazole increases plasma exposure to sublingual buprenorphine causing a risk of a clinically important interaction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2016 Aug 10.
This study aimed to determine possible effects of voriconazole and posaconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects of sublingual buprenorphine.We used a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study design with 12 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were given a dose of 0.4 mg (0.6 mg during placebo phase) sublingual buprenorphine after a 5-day oral pretreatment with either (i) placebo, (ii) voriconazole 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily thereafter or (iii) posaconazole 400 mg twice daily. Plasma and urine concentrations of buprenorphine and its primary active metabolite norbuprenorphine were monitored over 18 h and pharmacological effects were measured.Compared to placebo, voriconazole increased the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) of buprenorphine 1.80-fold (90 % confidence interval 1.45-2.24; P < 0.001), its peak concentration (Cmax) 1.37-fold (P < 0.013) and half-life (t ½ ) 1.37-fold (P < 0.001). Posaconazole increased the AUC00-∞ of buprenorphine 1.25-fold (P < 0.001). Most of the plasma norbuprenorphine concentrations were below the limit of quantification (0.05 ng/ml). Voriconazole, unlike posaconazole, increased the urinary excretion of norbuprenorphine 1.58-fold (90 % confidence interval 1.18-2.12; P < 0.001) but there was no quantifiable parent buprenorphine in urine. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations correlated with the pharmacological effects, but the effects did not differ significantly between the phases.Voriconazole, and to a minor extent posaconazole, increase plasma exposure to sublingual buprenorphine, probably via inhibition of cytochrome P450 3 A and/or P-glycoprotein. Care should be exercised in the combined use of buprenorphine with triazole antimycotics, particularly with voriconazole, because their interaction can be of clinical importance.
- Neurobiology of opioid dependence in creating addiction vulnerability. [Journal Article, Review]
- F1000Res 2016.
Opioid drugs are potent modulators of many physiological and psychological processes. When given acutely, they can elicit the signature responses of euphoria and analgesia that societies have coveted for centuries. Repeated, or chronic, use of opioids induces adaptive or allostatic changes that modify neuronal circuitry and create an altered normality - the "drug-dependent" state. This state, at least that exhibited by those maintained continuously on long-acting opioid drugs such as methadone or buprenorphine, is generally indistinguishable from the drug-naïve state for most overt behaviors. The consequences of the allostatic changes (cellular, circuit, and system adaptations) that accompany the drug-dependent state are revealed during drug withdrawal. Drug cessation triggers a temporally orchestrated allostatic re-establishment of neuronal systems, which is manifested as opposing physiological and psychological effects to those exhibited by acute drug intoxication. Some withdrawal symptoms, such as physical symptoms (sweating, shaking, and diarrhea) resolve within days, whilst others, such as dysphoria, insomnia, and anxiety, can linger for months, and some adaptations, such as learned associations, may be established for life. We will briefly discuss the cellular mechanisms and neural circuitry that contribute to the opioid drug-dependent state, inferring an emerging role for neuroinflammation. We will argue that opioid addictive behaviors result from a learned relationship between opioids and relief from an existing or withdrawal-induced anxiogenic and/or dysphoric state. Furthermore, a future stressful life event can recall the memory that opioid drugs alleviate negative affect (despair, sadness, and anxiety) and thereby precipitate craving, resulting in relapse. A learned association of relief of aversive states would fuel drug craving in vulnerable people living in an increasingly stressful society. We suggest that this route to addiction is contributive to the current opioid epidemic in the USA.
- Enzymatic assays for detecting lactose and sucrose in urine to reveal intravenous drug abuse with emphasis on buprenorphine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Test Anal 2016 Aug 9.
Buprenorphine and methadone are commonly used medications for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), using sublingual and oral administration, respectively. Although beneficial for OMT, these drugs can also be abused by intravenous administration. In intravenous abuse cases, the adjuvants lactose and sucrose are excreted in urine without hydrolysis to monosaccharides, since there are no disaccharidases in the blood. We validated enzymatic methods for the analysis of lactose and sucrose in urine. The analytical performance of both assays was considered appropriate for detecting intravenous drug abuse. The principle was proven by analyzing 93 postmortem (PM) urine samples for lactose, following comprehensive toxicological drug screening. In addition, 32 clinical urine samples from potential drug abusers were analyzed to assess the effect of PM changes on the assay. The mean level of lactose was low in clinical samples and relatively low in PM samples in which no drugs were found. Markedly elevated levels were seen in many of the buprenorphine positive samples, suggesting intravenous administration. Enzymatic methods could provide a simple and cost effective way to assess the intravenous administration of OMT drugs or drugs of abuse. Very high levels of glucose in urine may interfere with the assays. Furthermore, other causes for elevated urine disaccharides, such as hypolactasia and increased intestinal permeability, need to be considered in the interpretation of the results.
- The Availability of Ancillary Counseling in the Practices of Physicians Prescribing Buprenorphine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Addict Med 2016 Aug 8.
We set out to examine physicians' perceptions of the provision of ancillary services for opioid dependent patients receiving buprenorphine.An e-mail invitation describing the study was sent out by the American Society of Addiction Medicine to its membership (approximately 3700 physicians) and other entities (for a total of approximately 7000 e-mail addresses). E-mail recipients were invited to participate in a research study funded by the National Institutes on Drug Abuse involving completion of an online survey; 346 physicians completed the survey.The majority of the 346 respondents were internal or family medicine (37%), or addiction medicine providers (30%), who were practicing in urban (57%) or suburban settings (27%). Most respondents reported either offering (66%) or referring patients for ancillary counseling (31%). Interventions that were most frequently offered or referrals provided were individual counseling (51%) and self-help groups (63%), respectively. Counseling availability differed significantly by provider specialization for any, individual, group, family or couples, and self-help groups.Generally, respondents reported compliance with ancillary counseling requirements for buprenorphine treatment of opioid use disorder. In addition to examining the efficacy of a variety of ancillary counseling services for patients receiving opioid agonist treatment, further research should examine physicians' attitudes toward the role of such counseling in buprenorphine treatment. Although the study sample was relatively large, the generalizability of the findings is unclear, suggesting that further investigation of the availability of ancillary counseling in buprenorphine treatment among a larger nationally representative sample of providers may be warranted.
- Efficacy of Full µ-Opioid Receptor Agonists is not Impaired by Concomitant Buprenorphine or Mixed Opioid Agonists/Antagonists - Preclinical and Clinical Evidence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Res (Stuttg) 2016 Aug 9.
Buprenorphine and the mixed agonists/antagonists nalbuphine and pentazocine, formerly classified as µ-opioid (MOP) receptor antagonists, have more recently been shown to be partial to full agonists of the human MOP receptor. These receptors do not necessarily have to be maximally activated for a full physiological response. Partial agonists can also sufficiently stimulate signaling processes leading to a full analgesic response, as shown by the effectiveness of buprenorphine, nalbuphine and pentazocine in animal pain models and in clinical settings where these drugs induce analgesia with full efficacy without a ceiling effect. Submaximal doses of MOP receptor analgesics combined with submaximal doses of buprenorphine, pentazocine, or nalbuphine result in additive to over-additive antinociceptive effects in animal experiments. Only when doses are given that exceed the therapeutic dose range may the antinociceptive effect be reduced to the effect of either opioid alone. The analgesic effects of pentazocine and nalbuphine combined with morphine are reported to be additive or over-additive in various clinical pain conditions. Buprenorphine, which clinically behaves as a full MOP receptor agonist for pain relief, can be combined with full opioid agonists without precipitating withdrawal. Thus, the overall evidence on the analgesic effects of buprenorphine, pentazocine or nalbuphine combined with opioid analgesics under various clinical pain conditions contradicts the consensus that these compounds diminish MOP receptor analgesia when co-administered with a full MOP receptor agonist.