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- Determination of buprenorphine by differential pulse voltammetry on carbon paste electrode using SDS as an enhancement factor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2014 Sep 1.:500-505.
In the present study, a facile electrochemical approach is proposed for the determination of buprenorphine (BPR) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS was applied for amplification of oxidation signal. Carbon paste electrode (CPE) used as working electrode and cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in phosphate buffer solution (pH3.0). Under optimal experimental conditions, the oxidation current increased with the addition of BPR in the sample and two dynamic ranges obtained from 4.00nM to 0.126μM and from 0.126 to 0.317μM by DPV and exhibited a low detection limit (LOD) of 1.33nM (S/N=3). This offered method has been used for the determination of BPR in the real samples and has validated with the recovery test for BPR spiked urine samples. The result demonstrated that this method is a simple, sensitive, rapid, low-cost, and stable method for BPR detection.
- Care of the Infant With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Strength of the Evidence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2014 July/September; 28(3):204-211.
There is little empirical evidence that guides management of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome. The standard of care first described in the 1970s is still prevalent today, although it has never been tested in this population. Standard of care interventions include decreasing external stimulation, holding, nonnutritive sucking, swaddling, pressure/rubbing, and rocking. These interventions meet the goals of nonpharmacologic interventions, which are to facilitate parental attachment and decrease external stimuli. Many nursing interventions used in infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome have been tested in low-birth-weight infants, whose treatment often includes the same goals. Those interventions include music therapy, kangaroo care, massage, and use of nonoscillating water beds. Nursing attitude has also been shown to be impactful on parental attachment. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breast-feeding in infants whose mothers are on methadone who do not have any other contraindication. It also provides guidelines for pharmacologic management but cannot provide specific recommendations about a standard first dose, escalation, or weaning schedule. Buprenorphine has some evidence about its safety in newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome, but high-powered studies on its efficacy are currently lacking. There are many opportunities for both evidence-based projects and nursing research projects in this population.
- Buprenorphine for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence in Pregnancy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2014 July/September; 28(3):178-184.
The treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy has historically consisted of either medication-assisted withdrawal or maintenance treatment with methadone. Buprenorphine maintenance treatment is emerging as a treatment during pregnancy with distinct benefits for the neonate and the pregnant woman. Buprenorphine is effective in decreasing the risk of relapse in pregnant women. In addition, prenatal use of buprenorphine appears to decrease the severity and duration of neonatal abstinence syndrome as compared with methadone maintenance. Management of buprenorphine includes initiation and maintenance treatment as well as careful planning for pain control during and after delivery and prevention of postpartum relapse risk. Only very small amounts of buprenorphine enter breast milk, making it a good option for those who elect to breast-feed. There is evidence that emerging collaborative care models are effective ways to deliver buprenorphine maintenance treatment, although more investigation is needed to generalize this to the obstetric setting.
- Neonatales Abstinenzsyndrom bei europäischen und nordamerikani-schen Neugeborenen: Unterschiede im klinischen Verlauf an Hand von Daten einer prospektiven randomisierten Studie. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Klin Padiatr 2014 Jul 25.
Background: Due to the steady increase of substance-dependent pregnant women the neonatal abstinence syndrome has become an increasingly important issue in neonatology. The present study investigates site-specific differences of detailed symptoms and treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome within the context of an international multicenter clinical trial. Methods: Site specific neonatal data analyses from a prospective randomized, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial (MOTHER study) was performed. A standardized NAS rating and treatment protocol was applied, while non-pharmacological care of NAS symptoms differed across the sites. Results: Urban US neonates exhibited most neurological symptoms (p<0.001) while in Europe autonomous, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms were found significantly more often compared to urban and/or rural US (p<0.05). Methadone produced significantly greater scores than buprenorphine in neurological, behavioural and respiratory symptoms regardless of the sites (ps<0.05). NAS treatment rates in all site clusters were similar for methadone-exposed neonates, while in Europe significantly more buprenorphine-exposed neonates were treated (p=0.001) than in US site clusters. Urban US neonates had significantly higher NAS scores (p<0.01) compared to rural US and European neonates, and needed significantly higher morphine doses (p<0.05) with longer treatment duration. Birth weight, length and head circumference did not differ significantly among the site clusters, but APGAR scores were significantly higher in European (p<0.01) neonates. Conclusion: In addition to intrauterine medication exposure other aspects such as different addiction severity of the mothers, different treatment modalities including rooming-in as well as the frequency of NAS ratings may be influencing the course of NAS.
- Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride following intramuscular and intravenous administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Vet Res 2014 Aug; 75(8):711-715.
Objective-To determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM and IV administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Animals-13 healthy 3-year-old captive-bred American kestrels. Procedures-Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 9 times, ranging from 5 minutes to 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured by use of tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by use of least squares linear regression and noncompartmental analysis of naïve pooled data. After a washout period of 2 weeks, the same dose of buprenorphine was administered IV to all birds and blood samples were collected at the same times after drug administration. Results-Maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was achieved within 5 minutes after IM administration. For IM administration, bioavailability was 94.8% and elimination half-life was 92.1 minutes. For IV administration, steady-state volume of distribution was 4,023.8 mL/kg, plasma clearance was 49.2 mL/min/kg, and elimination half-life was 105.5 minutes. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Buprenorphine was rapidly absorbed, and bioavailability was good after IM administration to American kestrels. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 9 hours after both IM and IV administration. These results, in combination with those of a pharmacodynamic study, suggested that the analgesic effects of buprenorphine could last at least 6 to 9 hours in this species. Further investigations of the duration of analgesic effects, multiple-dose protocols, and potential adverse effects of buprenorphine are warranted in American kestrels and other raptors.
- Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Vet Res 2014 Aug; 75(8):705-710.
Objective-To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Animals-12 healthy 3-year-old American kestrels. Procedures-Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg) and a control treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) were administered IM in a randomized crossover experimental design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal stimulus. Adverse effects were monitored for 6 hours after treatment administration. Results-Buprenorphine hydrochloride at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg, IM, increased thermal threshold for 6 hours, compared with the response for the control treatment. There were no significant differences among buprenorphine treatments. A mild sedative effect was detected at a dose of 0.6 mg of buprenorphine/kg. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance-At the doses tested, buprenorphine hydrochloride resulted in thermal antinociception in American kestrels for at least 6 hours, which suggested that buprenorphine has analgesic effects in this species. Further studies with longer evaluation periods and additional forms of noxious stimuli, formulations, dosages, and routes of administration are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of buprenorphine in American kestrels.
- Abuse potential of intranasal buprenorphine versus buprenorphine/naloxone in buprenorphine-maintained heroin users. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Addict Biol 2014 Jul 25.
In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital for 8-9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16 mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4 mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100 mg, naloxone 4 mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8 mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse.
- Compulsive-Like Responding for Opioid Analgesics in Rats with Extended Access. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuropsychopharmacology 2014 Jul 25.
The abuse of prescription opioids that are used for the treatment of chronic pain is a major public health concern, costing approximately $53.4 billion annually in lost wages, healthcare costs, and criminal costs. Although opioids remain a first-line therapy for the treatment of severe chronic pain, practitioners remain cautious because of the potential for abuse and addiction. Opioids such as heroin are considered very rewarding and reinforcing, but direct and systematic comparisons of compulsive intake between commonly prescribed opioids and heroin in animal models have not yet been performed. In the present study, we evaluated the potential for compulsive-like drug seeking and taking using intravenous self-administration of oxycodone, fentanyl, and buprenorphine in rats allowed long access sessions (12 h). We measured compulsive-like intake using an established escalation model and responding on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement. We compared the potential for compulsive-like self-administration of these prescription opioids and heroin, which has been previously established to induce increasing intake that models the transition to addiction in humans. We found that animals that self-administered either oxycodone, fentanyl, or heroin, but not buprenorphine had similar profiles of escalation and increases in breakpoints. The use of extended access models of prescription opioid intake will help better understand the biological factors that underlie opioid dependence.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 25 July 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.188.
- Buprenorphine Prescription Compliance: An Original Observational and Longitudinal Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Psychoactive Drugs 2014 April-June; 46(2):162-167.
Abstract Introduction: Buprenorphine is one of the main opioid dependence treatments, especially in France, where it has been widely prescribed since 1996. But it can easily be misused and its prescription has to be followed up. In the literature, we found several studies on buprenorphine, but we did not find long-term ecological follow-up studies on buprenorphine prescription and compliance. Material and Method: The main purpose of this study was to define stability or instability of the prescription of buprenorphine to opiate-addicted patients. We carried out a forecast study on prescription of buprenorphine over a 10-year period, using software collecting prescription data. We performed statistical analysis of the conditions and transitions of opiate-addicted patients treated with buprenorphine along appointments. Discussion/Conclusion: We showed that 70% of buprenorphine prescriptions are stable; we assumed that our results correspond to buprenorphine compliance. The retention in treatment was associated with a positive evolution of prescription stability. Prior criminal records were the only factor linked to instability. We showed that collecting precise prescription data in face to face appointments using software, including legal prescription rules that guide practitioners in following buprenorphine prescription compliance, seemed to be a useful method to measure buprenorphine compliance.
- Intravenous sufentanil-midazolam versus sevoflurane anaesthesia in medetomidine pre-medicated Himalayan rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Jul 21.
To compare physiological effects of sufentanil-midazolam with sevoflurane for surgical anaesthesia in medetomidine premedicated rabbits.Prospective, randomized controlled experimental study.Eighteen female Himalayan rabbits, weight 2.1 ± 0.1 kg.Premedication with 0.1 mg kg(-1) medetomidine and 5 mg kg(-1) carprofen subcutaneously, was followed by intravenous anaesthetic induction with sufentanil (2.3 μg mL(-1) ) and midazolam (0.45 mg mL(-1) ). After endotracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained with sufentanil-midazolam (n = 9) or sevoflurane (n = 9). Ovariohysterectomy was performed. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation was performed as required. Physiological variables were studied perioperatively. Group means of physiologic data were generated for different anaesthetic periods. Data were compared for changes from sedation, and between groups by anova. Post-operatively, 0.05 mg kg(-1) buprenorphine was administered once and 5 mg kg(-1) carprofen once daily for 2-3 days. Rabbits were examined and weighed daily until one week after surgery.Smooth induction of anaesthesia was achieved within 5 minutes. Sufentanil and midazolam doses were 0.5 μg kg(-1) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) , during induction and 3.9 μg kg(-1) hour(-1) and 0.8 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) during surgery, respectively. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration was 2.1% during surgery. Assisted ventilation was required in nine rabbits receiving sufentanil-midazolam and four receiving sevoflurane. There were no differences between groups in physiologic data other than arterial carbon dioxide. In rabbits receiving sevoflurane, mean arterial pressure decreased pre-surgical intervention, heart rate increased 25% during and after surgery and body weight decreased 4% post-operatively. Post-operative problems sometimes resulted from catheterization of the ear artery.Sevoflurane and sufentanil-midazolam provided surgical anaesthesia of similar quality. Arterial blood pressure was sustained during sufentanil-midazolam anaesthesia and rabbits receiving sevoflurane lost body weight following ovariohysterectomy. Mechanical ventilation was required with both anaesthetic regimens.Anaesthesia with sufentanil-midazolam in medetomidine premedicated healthy rabbits is useful in the clinical and the research setting, as an alternative to sevoflurane.