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- Hypertrophy Dependent Doubling of L-Cells in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Operated Rats. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(6):e65696.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to a rapid remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mode of action remains incompletely understood. L-cell derived gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are thought to play a central role in the anti-diabetic effects of RYGB; therefore, an improved understanding of intestinal endocrine L-cell adaptability is considered pivotal.The full rostrocaudal extension of the gut was analyzed in rats after RYGB and in sham-operated controls ad libitum fed or food restricted to match the body weight of RYGB rats. Total number of L-cells, as well as regional numbers, densities and mucosa volumes were quantified using stereological methods. Preproglucagon and PYY mRNA transcripts were quantified by qPCR to reflect the total and relative hormone production capacity of the L-cells.RYGB surgery induced hypertrophy of the gut mucosa in the food exposed regions of the small intestine coupled with a doubling in the total number of L-cells. No changes in L-cell density were observed in any region regardless of surgery or food restriction. The total gene expression capacity of the entire gut revealed a near 200% increase in both PYY and preproglucagon mRNA levels in RYGB rats associated with both increased L-cell number as well as region-specific increased transcription per cell.Collectively, these findings indicate that RYGB in rats is associated with gut hypertrophy, an increase in L-cell number, but not density, and increased PYY and preproglucagon gene expression. This could explain the enhanced gut hormone dynamics seen after RYGB.
- Fabrication of small-diameter vascular scaffolds by heparin-bonded P(LLA-CL) composite nanofibers to improve graft patency. [Journal Article]
- Int J Nanomedicine 2013.:2131-9.
The poor patency rate following small-diameter vascular grafting remains a major hurdle for the widespread clinical application of artificial blood vessels to date. Our previous studies found that electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) (P[LLA-CL]) nanofibers facilitated the attachment and growth of endothelial cells (EC), and heparin incorporated into P(LLA-CL) nanofibers was able to release in a controlled manner. Hence, we hypothesized that heparin-bonded P(LLA-CL) vascular scaffolds with autologous EC pre-endothelialization could significantly promote the graft patency rate. To construct a small-diameter vascular scaffold, the inner layer was fabricated by heparin-bonded P(LLA-CL) nanofibers through coaxial electrospinning, while the outer layer was woven by pure P(LLA-CL) nanofibers. Except dynamic compliance (5.4 1.7 versus 12.8 2.4 × 10(-4)/mmHg, P < 0.05), maximal tensile strength, burst pressure, and suture retention of the composite, scaffolds were comparable to those of canine femoral arteries. In vitro studies indicated that the scaffolds can continuously release heparin for at least 12 weeks and obtain desirable endothelialization through dynamic incubation, which was confirmed by EC viability and proliferation assay and scanning electronic microscopy. Furthermore, in vivo studies demonstrated that pre-endothelialization by autologous ECs provided a better effect on graft patency rate in comparison with heparin loading, and the united application of pre-endothelialization and heparin loading markedly promoted the 24 weeks patency rate of P(LLA-CL) scaffolds (88.9% versus 12.5% in the control group, P < 0.05) in the canine femoral artery replacement model. These results suggest that heparin-bonded P(LLA-CL) scaffolds have similar biomechanical properties to those of native arteries and possess a multiporous and biocompatible surface to achieve satisfactory endothelialization in vitro. Heparin-bonded P(LLA-CL) scaffolds with autologous EC pre-endothelialization have the potential to be substitutes for natural small-diameter vessels in planned vascular bypass surgery.
- GLP-1R Agonism Enhances Adjustable Gastric Banding In Diet-Induced Obese Rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diabetes 2013 Jun 17.
Bariatric procedures vary in efficacy, but overall are more effective than behavioral and pharmaceutical treatment. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass causes increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and reduces body weight more than adjustable gastric banding (AGB), which does not trigger increased GLP-1 secretion. Since GLP-1-based drugs consistently reduce body weight, we hypothesized that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists would augment the effects of AGB. Male Long Evans rats with diet-induced obesity received AGB implantation or sham surgery. GLP-1R agonism, cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1-R) antagonism, or vehicle was combined with inflation to evaluate interaction between AGB and pharmacological treatments. GLP1-R agonism reduced BW in both sham and AGB rats (left un-inflated) compared to vehicle-treated animals. Subsequent band inflation was ineffective in vehicle-treated rats, but enhanced weight loss stimulated by GLP1-R agonism. In contrast, there were no additional BW loss when CB1-R antagonism was given with AGB. We found band inflation to trigger neural activation in areas of the nucleus of the solitary tract known to be targeted by GLP1-R agonism, offering potential mechanism for the interaction. These data show that GLP-1R agonism, but not CB1-R antagonism, improves weight loss achieved by AGB, and suggest an opportunity to optimize bariatric surgery with adjunctive pharmacotherapy.
- Comparison of the Effects of Desflurane and Propofol Anesthesia on the Inflammatory Response and S100β Protein During Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflammation 2013 Jun 18.
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) contributes to the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines that mediate the inflammatory response observed during open heart surgery. In addition to many factors, type of anesthesia management affects immune response and central nervous system in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of propofol versus desflurane anesthesia on systemic immune modulation and central nervous system on patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Forty patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery with CPB were included in this prospective randomized study. Patients were allocated to receive propofol (n = 20) or desflurane (n = 20) for maintenance of anesthesia. The blood samples for IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and S100β were drawn just prior to the operation before the induction of anesthesia, second before cardiopulmonary bypass, third after CPB, fourth 4 h postoperatively at the ICU. Major finding in our study is that S100β levels were lower in propofol group when compared to desflurane anesthesia. And also immune reaction was less in patients exposed to desflurane anesthesia when compared to propofol anesthesia as indicated by lower plasma concentrations of IL-8 and IL-6. Propofol is more preferable in terms of S100β for anesthetic management for CABG.
- A case of postpartum spontaneous coronary artery dissection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013 Jun 18.
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is rare and usually affects younger women in the peripartum period. Here, we report an interesting case of a 34-year-old woman with spontaneous coronary artery dissection that occurred 1 month after childbirth. Emergency coronary angiography showed stenosis of the left anterior descending artery, but immediately afterwards, a new occlusion of the right coronary artery occurred. Intravascular ultrasound was used to image both right and left coronary arteries. The new occlusion of the right coronary artery was probably iatrogenic, but the left coronary artery occlusion was spontaneous. The patient underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in the right coronary artery because of her unstable hemodynamic condition. Revascularization of the left coronary artery was performed by bypass grafting. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 30. As the optimal treatment for spontaneous coronary artery dissection has not yet been established, treatments should be based on the patient's clinical presentation.
- Off-pump coronary artery bypass: techniques, pitfalls, and results. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013 Jun 18.
In coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), coronary artery anastomosis is generally performed under cardiac arrest using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To avoid the invasiveness of CPB, off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) is currently also used. In Japan, in particular, OPCAB now accounts for 60 % of all CABG operations and has become a standard surgical procedure. We herein provide a discussion of OPCAB. The goals of coronary artery bypass surgery are to achieve complete revascularization and maintain a high rate of graft patency for the long term. This requires stable exposure of the coronary arteries, including those located on the posterior surface of the heart and the formation of good-quality anastomoses. Achieving this depends not only on the competency of the individual surgeon, but also on smooth and effective teamwork among everyone involved, including the other surgeons, anesthetists, clinical technicians, and nurses. It is important for surgeons and surgical teams to examine their own outcomes and engage in self-scrutiny in an endeavor to improve these outcomes.
- Video-Assisted Resection of Papillary Fibroelastoma Arising from a Miniature Tendinous Chord in the Apex of the Left Ventricle. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013 Jun 18.
We report a rare case of a papillary fibroelastoma (PFE) in the apex of the left ventricle.An 81-year-old woman with nonspecific symptoms was shown to have a mobile mass deep in the left ventricle. With videoscopic assistance, removal of the mass was accomplished through the mitral valve via a midline sternotomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. The tumor arose from a miniature tendinous chord in the apex, and histological examination revealed PFE. Videoscopy facilitated safe and effective removal of the lesion in this case.
- Neutrophil elastase inhibitor sivelestat attenuates perioperative inflammatory response in pediatric heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. [Journal Article]
- Int Heart J 2013; 54(3):149-53.
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) evokes activation of a systemic inflammatory response. Sivelestat has been used clinically to treat acute lung injury associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This prospective, doubleblind, randomized study was designed to evaluate the effects of sivelestat in the perioperative period of elective pediatric open-heart surgery with CPB. Twenty-six consecutive pediatric patients weighing between 5 and 10 kg and undergoing open-heart surgery with CPB were divided into a sivelestat group (n = 13) and a control group (n = 13). The patients in the sivelestat group were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 0.2 mg/kg/hour of sivelestat, and the patients in the control group were administered the same volume of 0.9% saline from the initiation of CPB to 24 hours after surgery. Blood samples were drawn for the measurement of cytokines, polymorphonuclear elastase (PMN-E), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NC), and C-reactive protein (CRP). There were no significant differences in cytokine data between the two groups. The peak PMN-E and WBC levels were significantly increased in the control group (P = 0.049, P = 0.039). The WBC and NC levels immediately after surgery in the control group were significantly greater than those in the sivelestat group (P = 0.049, P = 0.044). The peak CRP level in the control group was significantly greater than the sivelestat group (P = 0.04), and the CRP level on postoperative day 4 in the control group was significantly greater than in the sivelestat group (P = 0.014). This study showed that sivelestat attenuates the perioperative inflammatory response in pediatric heart surgery with CPB.
- Valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma and unrecognised portosystemic shunt. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epileptic Disord 2013 Jun 17.
Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a rare and potentially fatal complication of valproic acid treatment. The clinical presentation of hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is wide and includes seizures and coma. We present a case of hyperammonaemic coma precipitated by sodium valproate use for symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with unrecognised portosystemic shunt, secondary to earlier alcoholism. The absence of any stigmata of chronic liver disease and laboratory markers of liver dysfunction delayed the recognition of this alcohol-related complication. The portal vein bypass led to a refractory, valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma. The patient fully recovered after dialysis treatment.
- Fasudil Is a Superior Vasodilator for the Internal Thoracic Artery in Coronary Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Thorac Surg 2013 Jun 15.