(bypass) articles in PubMed
- Bilateral internal thoracic artery graft configuration and coronary artery bypass grafting conduits. [Journal Article]
- Curr Opin Cardiol 2016 Sep 24CO
- CONCLUSIONS: BITA grafting provides long-term clinical benefit over conventional grafting. Efforts should be directed toward a more efficient use of internal thoracic arteries, reducing the need for a third complementary graft, and toward identification of the best alternative to the saphenous vein graft as the third graft material for complete revascularization. Surgeons should ask their cardiologists to be as accurate as possible regarding the severity of the coronary lesion. If the severity of the lesion is not obvious upon an informal qualitative assessment, a functional flow reserve of the lesion should be performed, in order to identify the optimal graft.
- Short-Term Experience with Off-Pump vs On-Pump Implantation of the HeartWare Left Ventricular Assist Device. [Journal Article]
- ASAIO J 2016 Sep 22AJ
- Implantation of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) while avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may decrease bleeding and improve postoperative recovery. To understand the effectiveness of this ap...
Implantation of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) while avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may decrease bleeding and improve postoperative recovery. To understand the effectiveness of this approach, we reviewed the charts of 26 patients who underwent HeartWare left ventricular assist device (HVAD) implantation without use of CPB (off-CPB group) and 22 patients who had HVAD implanted with CPB (CPB group) with an emphasis on the 30-day postoperative period. Preoperatively, both groups had similar demographic, functional, and hemodynamic characteristics. Off-CPB patients had significantly shorter surgery times compared to CPB patients 188.5 (161.5-213.3) min vs 265.0 (247.5-299.5) min, respectively; p<0.001. Blood transfusion requirements during surgery and within the postoperative 48-hour period were significantly lower in the off-CPB group compared to the CPB group (OR 5.9 95% CI (1.1-31.1, p=0.042). Compared to the CPB group, the off-CPB group patients had a shorter intubation time, 21 (17.4-48.5) hours vs 41 (20.6-258.4) hours; p=0.042. Intensive care unit stay was 7.0 (4.75-13.5) days for off-CPB vs. 10.0 (6.0-19.0) days for CPB (P=0.256). The off-CPB approach allows HVAD to be implanted quickly with significantly less perioperative bleeding and transfusion requirements and facilitates postoperative rehabilitation.
- Validation of CoaBC as a bactericidal target in the coenzyme A pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. [Journal Article]
- ACS Infect Dis 2016 Sep 27AI
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on its own ability to biosynthesise coenzyme A in order to meet the needs of the myriad enzymatic reactions that depend on this cofactor for activity. As such, the e...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on its own ability to biosynthesise coenzyme A in order to meet the needs of the myriad enzymatic reactions that depend on this cofactor for activity. As such, the essential pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis pathways have attracted attention as targets for tuberculosis drug development. To identify the optimal step for coenzyme A pathway disruption in M. tuberculosis, we constructed and characterised a panel of conditional knockdown mutants in coenzyme A pathway genes. Here, we report that silencing of coaBC was bactericidal in vitro whereas silencing of panB, panC or coaE was bacteriostatic over the same time course. Silencing of coaBC was likewise bactericidal in vivo, whether initiated at infection, or during either the acute or chronic stages of infection, confirming that CoaBC is required for M. tuberculosis to grow and persist in mice, and arguing against significant CoaBC bypass via transport and assimilation of host-derived pantetheine in this animal model. These results provide convincing genetic validation of CoaBC as a new bactericidal drug target.
- Biomaterial-Based Approaches to Address Vein Graft and Hemodialysis Access Failures. [Journal Article]
- Macromol Rapid Commun 2016 Sep 27MR
- Veins used as grafts in heart bypass or as access points in hemodialysis exhibit high failure rates, thereby causing significant morbidity and mortality for patients. Interventional or revisional sur...
Veins used as grafts in heart bypass or as access points in hemodialysis exhibit high failure rates, thereby causing significant morbidity and mortality for patients. Interventional or revisional surgeries required to correct these failures have been met with limited success and exorbitant costs, particularly for the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Vein stenosis or occlusion leading to failure is primarily the result of neointimal hyperplasia. Systemic therapies have achieved little long-term success, indicating the need for more localized, sustained, biomaterial-based solutions. Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of external stents to reduce neointimal hyperplasia. However, successful results from animal models have failed to translate to the clinic thus far, and no external stent is currently approved for use in the US to prevent vein graft or hemodialysis access failures. This review discusses current progress in the field, design considerations, and future perspectives for biomaterial-based external stents. More comparative studies iteratively modulating biomaterial and biomaterial-drug approaches are critical in addressing mechanistic knowledge gaps associated with external stent application to the arteriovenous environment. Addressing these gaps will ultimately lead to more viable solutions that prevent vein graft and hemodialysis access failures.
- Association Between Lowering LDL-C and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Among Different Therapeutic Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2016 Sep 27; 316(12):1289-1297JAMA
- CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-regression analysis, the use of statin and nonstatin therapies that act via upregulation of LDL receptor expression to reduce LDL-C were associated with similar RRs of major vascular events per change in LDL-C. Lower achieved LDL-C levels were associated with lower rates of major coronary events.
- Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of Common Bile Duct in a Girl. [Journal Article]
- APSP J Case Rep 2016 Sep-Oct; 7(4):28AJ
- Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, low grade malignant lesion which can occur anywhere in the body. In children it is usually found in the visceral soft tissues with a potential for ...
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, low grade malignant lesion which can occur anywhere in the body. In children it is usually found in the visceral soft tissues with a potential for local invasion and recurrence, and rarely distant metastasis. We report the diagnostic dilemma faced in the management of a 12-year old girl who presented with obstructive jaundice with a mass lesion at the distal end of the common bile duct. She underwent a tumor resection with a bilio-enteric bypass followed by a course of oral steroids and celecoxib.
- Single-molecule imaging of electroporated dye-labelled CheY in live Escherichia coli. [Journal Article]
- Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2016 Nov 5; 371(1707)PT
- For the past two decades, the use of genetically fused fluorescent proteins (FPs) has greatly contributed to the study of chemotactic signalling in Escherichia coli including the activation of the re...
For the past two decades, the use of genetically fused fluorescent proteins (FPs) has greatly contributed to the study of chemotactic signalling in Escherichia coli including the activation of the response regulator protein CheY and its interaction with the flagellar motor. However, this approach suffers from a number of limitations, both biological and biophysical: for example, not all fusions are fully functional when fused to a bulky FP, which can have a similar molecular weight to its fused counterpart; they may interfere with the native interactions of the protein and the chromophores of FPs have low brightness and photostability and fast photobleaching rates. A recently developed technique for the electroporation of fluorescently labelled proteins in live bacteria has enabled us to bypass these limitations and study the in vivo behaviour of CheY at the single-molecule level. Here we show that purified CheY proteins labelled with organic dyes can be internalized into E. coli cells in controllable concentrations and imaged with video fluorescence microscopy. The use of this approach is illustrated by showing single CheY molecules diffusing within cells and interacting with the sensory clusters and the flagellar motors in real time.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.
- Physiological and molecular responses to bariatric surgery: markers or mechanisms underlying T2DM resolution? [Journal Article]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2016 Sep 26AN
- Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity and associated comorbidities, including rapid resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the weight loss itself ha...
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity and associated comorbidities, including rapid resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the weight loss itself has substantial impact, bariatric surgery also has weight loss-independent effects on T2DM. Several variations of bariatric surgery exist, including the widely studied Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy. The success of both of these bariatric surgeries was originally attributed to restrictive and malabsorptive modes of action; however, mounting evidence from both human and animal studies implicates mechanisms beyond surgery-induced mechanical changes to the gastrointestinal (GI) system. In fact, with bariatric surgery comes a spectrum of physiological responses, including postprandial enhancement of gut peptide and bile acids levels, restructuring of microbial composition, and changes in GI function and morphology. Although many of these processes are also essential for glucoregulation, the independent role of each in the success of surgery is still an open question. In this review, we explore whether these changes are necessary for the improvements in body mass and glucose homeostasis or whether they are simply markers of the physiological effect of surgery.
- Emergency Endovascular interventions for ruptured descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm. [Journal Article]
- Ann Vasc Surg 2016 Sep 23AV
- CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and morbidity remain high in patients treated for rDAA by TEVAR. Nonetheless, TEVAR remains an interesting alternative to open aortic surgery especially for older patients with a poor general health and functional status.
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- Short- and Medium-Term Effects of Combined Mitral Valve Surgery and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Alone for Patients with Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: A Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]
- J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2016 Jun 29JC
- CONCLUSIONS: The potential benefits of combined MVS and CABG could outweigh its risks for patients with moderate IMR.