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- Unique Brain Region-Dependent Cytokine Signatures After Prolonged Hypothermic Cardiac Arrest in Rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag 2014 Nov 25.
We previously showed that prolonged cardiac arrest (CA) produces neuronal death with microglial proliferation. Microglial proliferation, but not neuronal death, was attenuated by deeper hypothermia. Microglia are reportedly a major source of cytokines. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that (1) CA will result in highly specific regional and temporal increases in brain cytokines; and (2) these increases will be attenuated by deep hypothermia. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to rapid exsanguination. After 6 minutes of normothermic no-flow, different levels of hypothermia were induced by either ice-cold (IC) or room-temperature (RT) aortic flush. After 20 minutes CA, rats were resuscitated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and sacrificed at 6 or 24 hours. Rats subjected to CPB only (without CA) and shams (no CPB or CA) served as controls (n=6 per group). Cytokines were analyzed in cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Immunofluorescence was used to identify cell types associated with individual cytokines. Intra-CA temperature was lower after IC versus RT flush (21°C vs. 28°C, p<0.05). At 6 hours, striatum showed a massive increase in interleukin (IL)-1α and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (>100-fold higher than in hippocampus), which was attenuated by deeper hypothermia in the IC versus RT group. In contrast, IL-12 was 50-fold higher in hippocampus versus striatum. At 24 hours, cytokines decreased. In striatum, IL-1α colocalized with astrocytes while TNF-α colocalized with neurons. In hippocampus, IL-12 colocalized with hippocampal hilar neurons, the only region where neuronal degeneration was observed at 24 hours at both IC and RT groups. We report important temporo-spatial differences in the brain cytokine response to hypothermic CA, with a novel role of striatum. Astrocytes and neurons, but not microglia colocalized with individual cytokines. Hypothermia showed protective effects. These neuroinflammatory reactions precede neuronal death. New therapeutic strategies may need to target early regional neuroinflammation.
- Intermittent Cold-Blood Cardioplegia and Its Impact on Myocardial Acidosis during Coronary Bypass Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Nov 25.
Background The purpose of the study was to assess the degree of myocardial acidosis in patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery, in whom intermittent cold-blood cardioplegia (ICBC) was used for myocardial protection. The results of this study are presented in comparison to those of a previous trial conducted by the same investigators, using a similar methodology, but with intermittent warm-blood cardioplegia (IWBC). Patients and Methods In 15 patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization with ICBC for myocardial protection, metabolic changes of global ischemia indicators, lactate and pH values (measured simultaneously in coronary sinus and arterial blood) were analyzed. Lactate concentrations and pH values were measured at the beginning and the end of each cardioplegia administration, and the change-overtime analysis of the values was performed. For comparison with the results of the previous study (IWBC method) consisting of 12 patients, the analysis of variance with repeated measurements, including tests for a crossover, group, and time effect were used. Results Using the ICBC method, as compared with IWBC, no significant difference in the lactate production was observed during the first two successive cardioplegia administrations. During the third and fourth administrations, especially at the end of reperfusions, ICBC patients had a significantly lower lactate release and higher pH values, as compared with IWBC patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that ICBC has an inhibiting effect on potentially progressive myocardial acidosis during cross-clamp period.
- Unstable moyamoya disease: clinical features and impact on perioperative ischemic complications. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosurg 2014 Nov 25.:1-8.
OBJECT Unstable moyamoya disease, reasonably defined as cases exhibiting either rapid disease progression or repeated ischemic stroke, represents a challenge in the treatment of moyamoya disease. Despite its overall efficacy, direct bypass for such unstable disease remains controversial in terms of safety. This study aims to reveal factors associated with unstable disease and to assess its impact on postoperative silent or symptomatic ischemic lesions. METHODS This retrospective cohort study included both pediatric and adult patients with moyamoya disease who had undergone 140 consecutive direct bypass procedures at Kyoto University Hospital. "Unstable moyamoya disease" was defined as either the rapid progression of a steno-occlusive lesion or repeat ischemic stroke, either occurring within 6 months of surgery. The extent of progression was determined through a comparison of the findings between 2 different MR angiography sessions performed before surgery. The clinical variables of the stable and unstable disease groups were compared, and the association between unstable disease and postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-detected lesion was assessed through univariate and multivariate analyses with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS Of 134 direct bypass procedures performed after patients had undergone at least 2 sessions of MR angiography, 24 (17.9%) were classified as cases of unstable disease. Age younger than 3 years (p = 0.029), underlying disease causing moyamoya syndrome (p = 0.049), and radiographic evidence of infarction (p = 0.030) were identified as factors associated with unstable disease. Postoperative DWI-defined lesions were detected after 13 of 140 procedures (9.3%), although only 4 lesions (2.9%) could be classified as a permanent complication. The incidence of postoperative DWI-detected lesions in the unstable group was notable at 33.3% (8 of 24). Univariate analysis revealed that unstable disease (p < 0.001), underlying disease (p = 0.028), and recent stroke (p = 0.012) were factors associated with DWI-detected lesions. Unstable disease remained statistically significant after adjustment for covariates in both the primary and sensitivity analyses (primary analysis: OR 6.62 [95% CI 1.79-24.5]; sensitivity analysis: OR 5.36 [95% CI 1.47-19.6]). CONCLUSIONS Unstable moyamoya disease, more prevalent in younger patients and those with underlying disease, is a possible risk factor for perioperative ischemic complications. Recognition of unstable moyamoya disease may contribute to an improved surgical result through focused perioperative management based on appropriate surgical risk stratification.
- Preoperative visualization of the marginal tentorial artery as an unusual collateral pathway in a patient with symptomatic bilateral vertebral artery occlusion undergoing arterial bypass surgery: A 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Neurol Int 2014.:157.
Extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass surgery is rarely performed for recurrent or progressing stroke due to vertebrobasilar artery steno-occlusive disease. Non-enhanced 7.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging reveals cerebral arteries more clearly than 3.0-T or less MR imaging.A 45-year-old man developed recurrent transient ischemic attacks due to hemodynamic ischemia caused by occlusion of bilateral vertebral arteries despite antiplatelet therapy. MR angiography with a 7.0-T imager demonstrated that each marginal tentorial artery ran along the tentorial edge and anastomosed with each posterior cerebral artery (PCA) as collateral circulation. Superficial temporal artery (STA)-superior cerebellar artery (SCA) or PCA bypass surgery was planned through a subtemporal approach. During surgery, the SCA was not visible when the tentorial edge was elevated. The tentorium was not cut, and the STA was anastomosed with the P2 segment of the PCA. Ischemic symptoms completely resolved after surgery.Preoperative 7.0-T MR imaging visualized the marginal tentorial artery as an unusual collateral pathway in a patient with symptomatic bilateral vertebral artery occlusion undergoing arterial bypass surgery.
- Decreased serum CA19-9 is associated with improvement of insulin resistance and metabolic control in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Diabetes Investig 2014 Nov; 5(6):694-700.
Patients with type 2 diabetes are known to show elevated serum levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships of CA19-9 with metabolic control, insulin resistance (IR), and pancreatic β-cell function in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes who underwent Roux-En-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).The present study included 81 healthy volunteers, and 33 patients diagnosed with obesity and type 2 diabetes who underwent RYGB. Anthropometry, serum levels of CA19-9, glucose and lipid metabolic profiles, and serum insulin levels were determined at baseline and at 12 weeks after RYGB.Changes in CA19-9 were significantly and positively correlated with changes in fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.552, P = 0.001), 2-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels (r = 0.623, P = 0.000), glycated hemoglobin levels (r = 0.819, P = 0.000), glycated albumin levels (r = 0.711, P = 0.000), total cholesterol (r = 0.449, P = 0.009) and the Homeostasis Model of Assessment-IR index (r = 0.407, P = 0.019). Furthermore, a multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the changes in serum levels of CA19-9 were independently and significantly associated with changes in glycated hemoglobin (β = 0.598, P = 0.000), fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.309, P = 0.000) and Homeostasis Model of Assessment-IR (β = 0.235, P = 0.010) after adjusting for confounding factors.CA19-9 could be an effective indicator of IR, and glycemic and lipid metabolism in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes after rapid metabolic control by RYGB. Additionally, CA19-9 might be a marker with which to evaluate the short-term effects of glycolipid toxicity on IR in these patients.
- Peri-operative challenges in post myocardial infarction ventricular septal rupture: A case series and review of literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Saudi J Anaesth 2014 10; 8(4):546-549.
Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a life threatening complication of myocardial infarction (MI). The incidence of post-MIVSR varied from 1% to 3% in the pre-thrombolytic era. There is almost a 10-fold decrease in the reported incidences (0.2-0.3%) of MIVSR today. The mortality in such an event is as high as 50-90%. Prognosis of post-MIVSR depends on prompt echo diagnosis and proactive surgical therapy. The peri-operative challenges during management of such a case can be enormous.
- On-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
A 58-year-old woman with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS; type IV) presented to a Canadian tertiary care emergency department with a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. The patient failed medical therapy and after careful consideration of the options, elected to undergo urgent coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a successful on-pump CABG surgery in a patient with vascular EDS.
- Starting minimally invasive valve surgery using endoclamp technology: safety and results of a starting surgeon. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2014 Nov 23.
To critically review the learning curve, safety issues and outcome of a single surgeon while starting up minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS).We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of 138 patients with minimally invasive mitral valve surgery between March 2004 and December 2010. The learning curve was assessed using a logarithmic curve-fit regression analysis of the cardiopulmonary bypass parameters and defined as the end of the steepest part. Complexity was assessed by the number of different techniques performed on the mitral valve and the number of concomitant procedures. Follow-up was obtained for embolic events, endocarditis, bleeding, reintervention, echocardiographic data and NYHA class.The learning curve was found in the last 30 cases. There was a significant reduction in aortic cross-clamp time before and after the end of the learning curve [Patients 1-30: 120.77 (±28.28); Patients 31-138: 97.57 (±5.66); P <0.0001]. Operations during the learning curve did not correlate with intensive care unit (ICU) [1.77 (±0.97) vs 2.06 (±1.38)] and hospital stay [10.00 (±2.74) vs 9.10 (±3.36)]. In 104 patients, the valve was reconstructed, whereas in 34 it was replaced. The complexity of mitral valve reconstruction gradually increased and proportion of mitral valve replacement decreased, partly by expanding minimally invasive mitral valve surgery indications. Eighteen patients underwent 25 concomitant procedures and four conversions were necessary (after Patient 30). Minimal follow-up was 1 year with a mean follow-up of 1211 ± 651 days. No procedure-related mortality was encountered and mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair was classified as Grade 1 or less in 101 of 104 patients at the end of follow-up.Implementation of new equipment and techniques is challenging. However, minimally invasive mitral valve surgery with the endoclamp system is safe even during the learning curve. During our evolution from simple reconstructions/replacements to complex valve surgery with concomitant procedures, we could safely optimize our technique without mortality. A longer aortic cross-clamp time during the learning curve did not result in longer ICU and hospital stay.
- Patterns of Weight Loss Response Following Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Obes Surg 2014 Nov 25.
Despite the health benefits of bariatric surgery (BS) extend beyond WL, better understanding of the WL response may help improve the outcomes of BS. In this context, we aimed to assess patterns within the variability of weight loss (WL) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG).WL data from 658 subjects that underwent RYGB (n = 464) or SG (n = 194) as first BS were analyzed. Based on excess WL (EWL), subjects were categorized as good WL responders (EWL ≥ 50 % at nadir weight and throughout follow-up), primarily poor WL responders (1-PWL:EWL < 50 % at nadir weight and thereafter), and secondarily poor WL responders (2-PWL:EWL ≥ 50 % at nadir weight, but <50 % at last follow-up visit). Predictors associated with different WL outcomes were ascertained using regression analysis.Median follow-up was 55.7 months. Nadir EWL ranged 12.4-143.6 %; last follow-up visit EWL ranged -22.1-143.6 % and weight regain (WR) ranged 0-64.1 kg. Good WL was found in 75.7 of the cohort. 1-PWL response (4.7 %) was characterized by lesser WL but similar WR as compared to good WL and was associated with larger BMI and diabetes prior to surgery. 2-PWL response (19.6 %) was characterized by larger WR as compared to the other groups and was more common following SG. Lesser percentage of medical appointments kept was associated with 1-PWL and 2-PWL.Our data show the high inter-individual variability of the WL response at mid-term after RYGB and SG and that poor WL after BS could be illustrated by two different patterns, characterized either by sustained limited WL (1-PWL), or pronounced weight regain (2-PWL).
- Quality of life after peripheral bypass surgery: a 1 year follow-up. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Wien Klin Wochenschr 2014 Nov 25.
The aim of the study was to assess quality of life (QoL) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) after aortobifemoral bypass.QoL assessments were completed by 78 patients, 61 (78.2 %) men and 17 (21.8 %) women. QoL was measured, using Medical Outcome Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36), before surgery and 1 year later.QoL significantly improved after revascularization in about two-third of patients with PAD. Improvement was present in all the SF-36 subscales with the exception of the score for mental health which significantly decreased after operation. Mean SF-36 scores, which were for almost all subscales significantly decreased in patients with PAD in comparison with reference populations, after operation reached or exceeded values of the populations with which they were compared.In the present study 1 year after revascularization QoL in patients with PAD was significantly improved in comparison with QoL before operation. Long-term follow-up is needed in order to assess duration of this beneficial effect of bypass surgery.