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- Early results from an angiosome-directed open surgical technique for venous arterialization in patients with critical lower limb ischemia. [Journal Article]
- Diabet Foot Ankle 2013.
Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb.Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow was from the most distal unobstructed segment. Run-off was the dorsal pedal venous arch (n=5), the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the posterior tibial artery (n=3), or the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the common plantar artery (n=2) depending on the location of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision.Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1-256) days (median [range]). The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either the original wound, of incisional wounds on the foot, or persisting pain at rest. In three cases, the bypass was open at the time of amputation. Two patients experienced complete wound healing after 231 and 342 days, respectively. By the end of follow-up, the last patient was ambulating with slow wound healing but without pain 309 days after surgery.Venous arterialization may be used as a treatment of otherwise unsalveable limbs. The success rate is, however, limited. Technical optimization of the technique is warranted.
- Live birth from slow-frozen rabbit oocytes after in vivo fertilisation. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(12):e83399.
In vivo fertilisation techniques such as intraoviductal oocyte transfer have been considered as alternatives to bypass the inadequacy of conventional in vitro fertilisation in rabbit. There is only one study in the literature, published in 1989, that reports live offspring from cryopreserved rabbit oocytes. The aim of the present study was to establish the in vivo fertilisation procedure to generate live offspring with frozen oocytes. First, the effect of two recipient models (i) ovariectomised or (ii) oviduct ligated immediately after transfer on the ability of fresh oocytes to fertilise were compared. Second, generation of live offspring from slow-frozen oocytes was carried out using the ligated oviduct recipient model. Throughout the experiment, recipients were artificially inseminated 9 hours prior to oocyte transfer. In the first experiment, two days after unilateral transfer of fresh oocytes, oviducts and uterine horns were flushed to assess embryo recovery rates. The embryo recovery rates were low compared to control in both ovariectomised and ligated oviduct groups. However, ligated oviduct recipient showed significantly (P<0.05) higher embryo recovery rates compared to ovariectomised and control-transferred. In the second experiment, using bilateral oviduct ligation model, all females that received slow-frozen oocytes became pregnant and delivered a total of 4 live young naturally. Thus, in vivo fertilisation is an effective technique to generate live offspring using slow-frozen oocytes in rabbits.
- Myocardial scar identified by magnetic resonance imaging can predict left ventricular functional improvement after coronary artery bypass grafting. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(12):e81991.
Previous studies have shown that viable myocardium predicts recovery of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after revascularization. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of myocardial scar assessed by late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR) on functional recovery in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).From November 2009 to September 2012, 63 patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) referred for first-time isolated CABG were prospectively enrolled, 52 were included in final analysis. LV functional parameters and scar tissue were assessed by LGE-CMR at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Patency of grafts was evaluated by computed tomography angiography (CTA) 6 months post-CABG. Predictors for global functional recovery were analyzed.The baseline LVEF was 32.7±9.2%, which improved to 41.6±11.0% 6 months later and 32/52 patients improved LVEF by ≥5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most significant negative predictor for global functional recovery was the number of scar segments (Odds ratio 2.864, 95% Confidence Interval 1.172-6.996, p = 0.021). Receiver-Operator-Characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that ≤4 scar segments predicted global functional recovery with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.0% and 87.5%, respectively (AUC = 0.91, p<0.001). Comparison of ROC curves also indicated that scar tissue was superior to viable myocardium in predicting cardiac functional recovery (p<0.001).Our findings indicated that scar tissue on LGE-CMR is an independent negative predictor of cardiac functional recovery in patients with impaired LV function undergoing CABG. These observations may be helpful for clinicians and cardiovascular surgeons to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from surgical revascularization.
- The mechanism of translation initiation on Type 1 picornavirus IRESs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- EMBO J 2013 Dec 19.
Picornavirus Type 1 IRESs comprise five principal domains (dII-dVI). Whereas dV binds eIF4G, a conserved AUG in dVI was suggested to stimulate attachment of 43S ribosomal preinitiation complexes, which then scan to the initiation codon. Initiation on Type 1 IRESs also requires IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), and several candidates have been proposed. Here, we report the in vitro reconstitution of initiation on three Type 1 IRESs: poliovirus (PV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and bovine enterovirus (BEV). All of them require eIF2, eIF3, eIF4A, eIF4G, eIF4B, eIF1A, and a single ITAF, poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2). In each instance, initiation starts with binding of eIF4G/eIF4A. Subsequent recruitment of 43S complexes strictly requires direct interaction of their eIF3 constituent with eIF4G. The following events can differ between IRESs, depending on the stability of dVI. If it is unstructured (BEV), all ribosomes scan through dVI to the initiation codon, requiring eIF1 to bypass its AUG. If it is structured (PV, EV71), most initiation events occur without inspection of dVI, implying that its AUG does not determine ribosomal attachment.
- Optimal coronary artery bypass grafting strategy for acute coronary syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013 Dec 20.
Conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest is associated with higher mortality and morbidity rates in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing surgery. Although off-pump CABG (OPCAB) is beneficial for high-risk patients, its efficacy for ACS is unknown, with on-pump beating CABG an adjunctive method. We investigated the effects of OPCAB and on-pump beating CABG for ACS.We evaluated 121 consecutive patients with ACS (91 males, 30 females; mean age 69.5 ± 10.3 years) who underwent CABG since 2000. Seventy-five had unstable angina (UA) and 46 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) [non-ST elevation (NSTEMI): 22, ST elevation (STEMI): 24]. We assessed CABG for acute coronary syndrome under our primary OPCAB strategy, and compared perioperative status between UA and AMI patients.(1) Sixty-five (87 %) with UA underwent OPCAB, 8 on-pump beating CABG, and 2 conventional CABG. Conversion from OPCAB was seen in 4 patients. In-hospital mortality was 1.3 %. (2) All UA patients who had intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) underwent OPCAB. No patients with preoperative IABP experienced conversion from OPCAB. (3) In AMI patients, hospital mortality was higher (8.9 %) and the ratios for OPCAB, on-pump beating CABG, and conventional CABG were 39, 57, and 4 %, respectively. Mortality was exclusively seen in patients with STEMI who underwent conventional CABG.OPCAB might have beneficial effects for ACS patients with UA, while IABP was found essential for completing OPCAB. In AMI patients, on-pump beating CABG might be reasonable for avoiding conversion from OPCAB and ischemic perfusion injury.
- The Impact of Preoperative Weight Loss Before Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Obes Surg 2013 Dec 20.
The impact of preoperative weight loss on outcomes following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is a controversial issue. We evaluated our outcomes of LRYGB in patients who lost different amount of weight prior to surgery.Patients who underwent primary LRYGB were divided in three groups on the basis of preoperative weight loss percentage. Group A comprised 166 patients, who lost <5 % of their weight preoperatively; group B comprised 239 patients who lost >5 to 10 % and group C included 143 patients who lost >10 %. Intra- and postoperative complications at 30 days, hospital stay, and outcomes were evaluated.Significant difference was found in operative (mean ± SD) time [104.43 ± 36.40 min in group A, 80.08 ± 23.07 min in group B, and 76.99 ± 23.23 min in group C; p < 0.001 in group A versus group B or group C; p = 0.210 in group B versus group C]. Difference in hospital stay was significant (3.33 ± 3.22 days in group A, 2.10 ± 2.77 in group B, and 1.87 ± 1.44 in group C; p < 0.001 in group A versus groups B or C). Overall postoperative morbidity rate was 33.13 % in group A, 19.25 % in group B, and 11.89 % in group C, with significant difference in group A versus groups B or C (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001). Mean excess weight loss was significantly higher (72.7 %) in group C versus group A (63.1 %) (p = 0.015) at 12 months.Weight loss >5 % prior to LRYGB may reduce morbidity, and preoperative weight loss >10 % may improve weight loss outcomes at 1-year follow-up.
- Six Months of Treatment with the Endoscopic Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass Liner Does Not Lead to Decreased Systemic Inflammation in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Obes Surg 2013 Dec 20.
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Bariatric surgery has been shown to reduce this inflammation. Here, the effect of a nonsurgical bariatric technique, the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL), on systemic inflammation was investigated. Seventeen obese patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with the DJBL for 6 months. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined prior to and during DJBL treatment. Three months after initiation of DJBL treatment, TNF-α levels had increased from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 2.1 ± 0.1 pg/mL, whereas IL-6 increased from 2.7 ± 0.3 to 4.0 ± 0.5 pg/mL (both p < 0.05). CRP and MPO also increased, though the differences were not significant. After 6 months, the levels of all parameters were similar to baseline levels (CRP, 4.2 ± 0.6 mg/L; TNF-α, 2.0 ± 0.1 pg/mL; IL-6, 3.5 ± 0.5 pg/mL; MPO, 53.6 ± ng/mL; all p = ns compared to baseline). In the current study, 6 months of endoscopic DJBL treatment did not lead to decreased systemic inflammation.
- Cognitive and social lifestyle: links with neuropathology and cognition in late life. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Neuropathol 2013 Dec 20.
Many studies report an association of cognitive and social experiential factors and related traits with dementia risk. Further, many clinical-pathologic studies find a poor correspondence between levels of neuropathology and the presence of dementia and level of cognitive impairment. The poor correspondence suggests that other factors contribute to the maintenance or loss of cognitive function, with factors associated with the maintenance of function referred to as neural or cognitive reserve. This has led investigators to examine the associations of cognitive and social experiential factors with neuropathology as a first step in disentangling the complex associations between these experiential risk factors, neuropathology, and cognitive impairment. Despite the consistent associations of a range of cognitive and social lifestyle factors with cognitive decline and dementia risk, the extant clinical-pathologic data find only a single factor from one cohort, linguistic ability, related to AD pathology. Other factors, including education, harm avoidance, and emotional neglect, are associated with cerebrovascular disease. Overall, the associations are weak. Some factors, such as education, social networks, and purpose in life, modify the relation of neuropathology to cognition. Finally, some factors such as cognitive activity appear to bypass known pathologies altogether suggesting a more direct association with biologic indices that promote person-specific differences in reserve and resilience. Future work will first need to replicate findings across more studies to ensure the veracity of the existing data. Second, effort is needed to identify the molecular substrates of neural reserve as potential mediators of the association of lifestyle factors with cognition.
- Premeasured neochordae loop maker: a new technology in mitral valve repair. [Journal Article]
- Innovations (Phila) 2013 Nov-Dec; 8(6):443-9.
The exact length of neochordae loops plays the major role in the success of mitral valve repair. The Neochordae Loop Maker is a novel device that models the left ventricular structure in an individual patient. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography is used to identify the geometry of each papillary muscle and set up the device for the patient. All required neochordae loops are made in the operating room before initiating the cardiopulmonary bypass. In the calibration phase, seven consecutive patients who were candidates for mitral valve replacement underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The device was set up for each patient, and the length of their normal chordae and their respective neochordae was compared by the Bland-Altman analysis. From seven excised mitral valves, 21 chordae were considered normal (gold standard). The length of these gold standards (1.92 ± 0.67 cm) and their respective neochordae (1.93 ± 0.69 cm) showed agreement by the Bland-Altman analysis. The proposed technology showed satisfactory preliminary results in creating the premeasured neochorda loops inasmuch as it reduced the complexity of minimally invasive surgeries.
- Minimally invasive valve surgery with bypass to the right coronary artery. [Journal Article]
- Innovations (Phila) 2013 Nov-Dec; 8(6):440-2.
Herein, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with increasing dyspnea on exertion. Echocardiography revealed significant aortic and mitral regurgitation, which were most likely secondary to previous radiation therapy for breast cancer. On cardiac catheterization a 90% ostial right coronary artery lesion was found and treated with a drug-eluting stent. During minimally invasive valve surgery, via a right anterior thoracotomy, it was noted that the stent had restenosed. Therefore, the right coronary artery was bypassed with a segment of venous graft through the same incision.