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- Supplemental Postoperative Oxygen Does Not Reduce Surgical Site Infection and Major Healing-Related Complications from Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients: A Randomized, Blinded Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anesth Analg 2014 Aug; 119(2):357-365.
Morbidly obese patients are at high risk for perioperative complications, including surgical site infections. Baseline arterial oxygenation is low in the morbidly obese, leading to low tissue oxygenation, which in turn is a primary determinant of infection risk. We therefore tested the hypothesis that extending intraoperative supplemental oxygen 12 to 16 hours into the postoperative period reduces the risk of surgical site infection and healing-related complications.Morbidly obese patients having open or laparoscopic bariatric surgery were given 80% inspired oxygen intraoperatively. Postoperatively, patients were randomly assigned to either 2 L/min of oxygen via nasal cannula or approximately 80% supplemental inspired oxygen after tracheal extubation until the first postoperative morning. The risks of surgical site infection and of major healing-related complications were evaluated 60 days after surgery.In a preplanned interim analysis based on the initial 400 patients, the overall observed incidence of the collapsed composite of major complications was 13.3%; the observed incidence of components of the composite outcome ranged from 0% (peritonitis) to 8.5% (surgical wound infection). The estimated relative risk of any ≥1 major complications occurring within the first 60 days after surgery, adjusting for study site, was 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.68) (P = 0.80, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel). The Executive Committee thus stopped the trial for futility.Supplemental postoperative oxygen does not reduce the risk of surgical site infection rate and healing-related postoperative complications in patients having gastric bypass surgery.
- An Evaluation of a Zero-Heat-Flux Cutaneous Thermometer in Cardiac Surgical Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anesth Analg 2014 Jul 18.
Although core temperature can be measured invasively, there are currently no widely available, reliable, noninvasive thermometers for its measurement. We thus compared a prototype zero-heat-flux thermometer with simultaneous measurements from a pulmonary artery catheter. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that zero-heat-flux temperatures are sufficiently accurate for routine clinical use.Core temperature was measured from the thermistor of a standard pulmonary artery catheter and with a prototype zero-heat-flux deep-tissue thermometer in 105 patients having nonemergent cardiac surgery. Zero-heat-flux probes were positioned on the lateral forehead and lateral neck. Skin surface temperature probes were attached to the forehead just adjacent to the zero-heat-flux probe. Temperatures were recorded at 1-minute intervals, excluding the period of cardiopulmonary bypass, and for the first 4 postoperative hours. Zero-heat-flux and pulmonary artery temperatures were compared with bias analysis; differences exceeding 0.5°C were considered to be potentially clinically important.The mean duration in the operating room was 279 ± 75 minutes, and the mean cross-clamp time was 118 ± 50 minutes. All subjects were monitored for an additional 4 hours in the intensive care unit. The average overall difference between forehead zero-heat-flux and pulmonary artery temperatures (i.e., forehead minus pulmonary artery) was -0.23°C (95% limits of agreement of ±0.82); 78% of the differences were ≤0.5°C. The average intraoperative temperature difference was -0.08°C (95% limits of agreement of ±0.88); 84% of the differences were ≤0.5°C. The average postoperative difference was -0.32°C (95% limits of agreement of ±0.75); 84% of the differences were ≤0.5°C. Bias and precision values for neck site were similar to the forehead values. Uncorrected forehead skin temperature showed an increasing negative bias as core temperature decreased.Core temperature can be noninvasively measured using the zero-heat-flux method. Bias was small, but precision was slightly worse than our designated 0.5°C limits compared with measurements from a pulmonary artery catheter.
- Arachnoid Membrane Suturing for Prevention of Subdural Fluid Collection in Extracranial-intracranial Bypass Surgery. [Journal Article]
- J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg 2014 Jun; 16(2):71-7.
Water-tight closure of the dura in extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass is impossible because the superficial temporal artery (STA) must run through the dural defect. Consequently, subdural hygroma and subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection frequently occur postoperatively. To reduce these complications, we prospectively performed suturing of the arachnoid membrane after STA-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) and evaluated the clinical usefulness.Between Mar. 2005 and Oct. 2010, extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass (EIAB) with/without encephalo-myo-synangiosis was performed in 88 cases (male : female = 53 : 35). As a control group, 51 patients (57 sides) underwent conventional bypass surgery without closure of the arachnoid membrane. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan was performed twice in three days and seven days later, respectively, for evaluation of the presence of subdural fluid collection and other mass lesions.The surgical result was excellent, with no newly developing ischemic event until recent follow-up. The additional time needed for arachnoid suture was five to ten minutes, when three to eight sutures were required. Post-operative subdural fluid collection was not seen on follow-up computed tomography scans in all patients.Arachnoid suturing is simple, safe, and effective for prevention of subdural fluid collection in EC-IC bypass surgery, especially the vulnerable ischemic hemisphere.
- Outcome of inflammatory response after normothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in infants with isolated ventricular septal defect. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Pediatr 2014 May; 57(5):222-5.
A recent study analyzing several cytokines reported that long cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and long aortic cross clamp (ACC) time were accompanied by enhanced postoperative inflammation, which contrasted with the modest influence of the degree of hypothermia. In this present study, we aimed to examine the effect of CPB temperature on the clinical outcome in infants undergoing repair of isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD).Of the 212 infants with isolated VSD who underwent open heart surgery (OHS) between January 2001 and December 2010, 43 infants were enrolled. They were classified into 2 groups: group 1, infants undergoing hypothermic CPB (26℃-28℃; n=19) and group 2, infants undergoing near-normothermic CPB (34℃-36℃; n=24).The age at the time of the OHS, and number of infants aged<3 months showed no significant differences between the groups. The CPB time and ACC time in group 1 were longer than those in group 2 (88 minutes vs. 59 minutes, P=0.002, and 54 minutes vs. 37 minutes, P=0.006 respectively). The duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation was 1.6 days in group 1 and 1.8 days in group 2. None of the infants showed postoperative neurological and developmental abnormalities. Moreover, no postoperative differences in the white blood cell count and C-reactive protein levels were noted between two groups.This study revealed that hypothermic and near-normothermic CPB were associated with similar clinical outcomes and inflammatory reactions in neonates and infants treated for simple congenital heart disease.
- SCAI/ACC/AHA Expert Consensus Document: 2014 Update on Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Without On-Site Surgical Backup. [Journal Article]
- Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2014 Aug 1; 84(2):169-87.
- Aliphatic Amine Discrimination by Pentafluorophenyl Dibromo BODIPY. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Asian J 2014 Jul 13.
Two new fluorescent BODIPY dyes have been designed and synthesized. They dyes differ in their meso substituents, which have different electronic properties. Their selective reactivity towards an Ar-SN 2 reaction has been explored as a potential basis for colorimetric and fluorescent discrimination of primary, secondary and tertiary aliphatic amines. This dual-mode, instantaneous recognition event is unprecedented.
- Metric field construction for anisotropic mesh adaptation with application to blood flow simulations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 2014 Jul 5.
The goal of this paper is to generate an anisotropic metric field suitable for cardiovascular geometries before a fluid simulation. Starting from a curvature map, an initial surface metric field is computed. This metric is used for anisotropic surface mesh adaptation and consecutively extended inside the volume in a frontal manner. The algorithm is based on the method of , but replaces the metric intersection steps by an original metric "blending". This allows for a graded anisotropic volume mesh with a refinement layer close to the walls. The benefits of the resulting mesh are multiple: a reduced number of degrees of freedom, a-priori refinement in areas with strong gradients of velocity and automatically increased resolution in regions with high surface curvature. The primal application of this method is in the domain of cardiovascular flows. Flow fields and derived quantities (wall shear stress) through a model bypass around a stenosed artery obtained on an adapted and standard isotropic mesh are compared. In addition, the mesh generation method is tested on a more complex patient-specific geometry. Values of computed wall shear stress are shown to be close to values obtained on anisotropic Hessian-adapted mesh, demonstrating the computational efficiency of the approach in comparison with adaptation based on error indicators derived from flow field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Reframing the impact of combined heart-liver allocation on liver transplant waitlist candidates. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Liver Transpl 2014 Jul 11.
Simultaneous heart-liver transplantation, although rare, has become more common in the U.S. When the primary organ is a heart or liver, patients receiving an offer for the primary organ automatically receive the second, non-primary organ from that donor. This policy raises issues of equity-i.e. whether liver transplant-alone candidates bypassed by heart-liver recipients are disadvantaged. No prior published analyses have addressed this issue, and few methods have been developed as a means to measure the impact of such allocation policies. We analyzed OPTN match run data from 2007-2013 to determine whether this combined organ allocation policy disadvantages bypassed liver transplant waitlist candidates in a clinically meaningful way. Among 65 heart-liver recipients since May 2007, 42 had substantially higher priority for the heart relative to the liver, and bypassed 268 liver-alone candidates ranked 1-10 on these match runs. Bypassed patients had lower risk of waitlist removal for death or clinical deterioration compared to controls selected by match MELD score (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.40-0.79), and similar risk as controls selected by laboratory MELD score (HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.63-1.33) or on match runs of similar graft quality (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.73-1.37). The waiting time from bypass to subsequent transplantation was significantly longer among bypassed candidates versus controls on match runs of similar graft quality (median: 87 (IQR: 27-192) days versus 24 (5-79) days; p<0.001). Although transplant is delayed, liver transplant waitlist candidates bypassed by heart-liver recipients do not have excess mortality compared to three sets of matched controls. These analytic methods serve as a starting point to consider other potential approaches to evaluate the impact of multi-organ transplant allocation policies. Liver Transpl , 2014. © 2014 AASLD.
- Cancer Therapy: Vaginal Delivery of Paclitaxel via Nanoparticles with Non-Mucoadhesive Surfaces Suppresses Cervical Tumor Growth (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 7/2014). [Journal Article]
- Adv Healthc Mater 2014 Jul; 3(7):1120.
Mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) efficiently bypass the sticky mucus layer in the female reproductive tract, whereas conventional nanoparticles (CP) are trapped and rapidly cleared. On page 1044, J. Hanes and team show how MPP achieve close proximity to mouse cervical tumors and provide sustained release of chemodrugs, resulting in superior efficacy compared to CP. The MPP platform may hold similar promise for local chemotherapy against tumors at other mucosal surfaces.
- Defining utility and predicting outcome of cadaveric lower extremity bypass grafts in patients with critical limb ischemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2014 Jul 16.
Despite poor long-term patency, acceptable limb salvage has been reported with cryopreserved saphenous vein bypass (CVB) for various indications. However, utility of CVB in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) remains undefined. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the role of CVB in CLI patients and to identify predictors of successful outcomes.A retrospective review of all lower extremity bypass (LEB) procedures at a single institution was completed, and CVB in CLI patients were further analyzed. The primary end point was amputation-free survival. Secondary end points included primary patency and limb salvage. Life tables were used to estimate occurrence of end points. Cox regression analysis was used to determine predictors of limb salvage.From 2000 to 2012, 1059 patients underwent LEB for various indications, of whom 81 received CVB for either ischemic rest pain or tissue loss. Mean age (±standard deviation) was 66 ± 10 years (male, 51%; diabetes, 51%; hemodialysis dependence, 12%), and 73% (n = 59) had history of failed ipsilateral LEB or endovascular intervention. None had sufficient autogenous conduit for even composite vein bypass. Infrainguinal CVB (infrapopliteal target, 96%; n = 78) was completed for multiple indications including Rutherford class 4 (42%; n = 34), class 5 (40%; n = 32), and class 6 (18%; n = 15). Eleven (14%) had CLI and concomitant graft infection (n = 8) or acute on chronic ischemia (n = 3). Intraoperative adjuncts (eg, profundaplasty, suprainguinal stent or bypass) were completed in 49% (n = 40) of cases. Complications occurred in 36% (n = 29), with 30-day mortality of 4% (n = 3). Median follow-up for CLI patients was 11.8 (interquartile range, 0.4-28.4) months with corresponding 1- and 3-year actuarial estimated survival (±standard error mean) of 84% ± 4% and 62% ± 6%. Primary patency of CVB for CLI was 27% ± 6% and 17% ± 6% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Amputation-free survival was 43% ± 6% and 23% ± 6% at 1 and 3 years, respectively, and significantly higher for rest pain (59% ± 9%, 36% ± 10%) compared with tissue loss (31% ± 7%, 14% ± 7%; log-rank, P = .04). Freedom from major amputation after CVB for CLI was 57% ± 6% and 43% ± 7% at 1 and 3 years. Multivariable predictors of limb salvage for the CVB CLI cohort included postoperative warfarin (hazard ratio [HR], 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-0.8), dyslipidemia (HR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), and rest pain (HR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). Predictors of major amputation included graft infection (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1-9.0).In CLI patients with no autologous conduit and prior failed infrainguinal bypass, CVB outcomes are disappointing. CVB performs best in patients with rest pain, particularly those who can be anticoagulated with warfarin. However, it may be an acceptable option in patients with minor tissue loss or concurrent graft infection, but consideration should be weighed against the known natural history of nonrevascularized CLI and nonbiologic conduit alternatives, given potential cost implications.