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cell culture [keywords]
- The antimicrobial effect of lactobacillus casei culture supernatant against multiple drug resistant clinical isolates of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri in vitro. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):122-6.
Shigellosis remains an important public health problem in developing countries with S. sonnei and S. flexneri in US, Europe and in Asian countries being of importance.This study evaluates the protective effect of Lactobacillus casei cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) against multiple drug resistance (MDR) clinical samples of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri in vitro.S. sonnei and S .flexneri was identified by common microbiological and serological methods. Antibiogram with 18 antibiotics were tested for 34 positive cultures by disc diffusion method. The Samples showed considerable resistance to antibiotics. Antimicrobial effects of CFCS were tested against S. sonnei and S. flexneri by agar-well assay and broth micro dilution methods. In addition, the antimicrobial activity remained active treatment after adjust pH 7, adding Proteinase K and heating for L. casei.The results implicate that L. casei strongly inhibits the development of pathogen samples. In contrast, via the disc diffusion method 4 out of 18 antibiogram have shown complete resistance against the pathogen samples. In addition, the natures of antimicrobial properties have been tested in different conditions such as various pH, temperature and presence of proteinase K. The MIC50 (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MIC90 of CFCS of L. casei were determined, for S. sonnei were 2.25 and 10.5, for S .flexneri were 5.25 and 5.25 respectively. The results have shown a significant resistance pattern by these four antibiotics in this case.The data indicates that. L. casei highly resistant against to antibiotics, heat, Proteinase K and so many activities against MDR Shigella pathogenic strains . L. casei is the best probiotics candidate.
- Engineering of the embryonic and adult stem cell niches. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):83-92.
Stem cells have the potential to generate a renewable source of cells for regenerative medicine due to their ability to self-renew and differentiate to various functional cell types of the adult organism. The extracellular microenvironment plays a pivotal role in controlling stem cell fate responses. Therefore, identification of appropriate environmental stimuli that supports cellular proliferation and lineage-specific differentiation is critical for the clinical application of the stem cell therapies.Traditional methods for stem cells culture offer limited manipulation and control of the extracellular microenvironment. Micro engineering approaches are emerging as powerful tools to control stem cell-microenvironment interactions and for performing high-throughput stem cell experiments.In this review, we provided an overview of the application of technologies such as surface micropatterning, microfluidics, and engineered biomaterials for directing stem cell behavior and determining the molecular cues that regulate cell fate decisions.Stem cells have enormous potential for therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications, because they can give rise to various cell types. Despite their therapeutic potential, many challenges, including the lack of control of the stem cell microenvironment remain. Thus, a greater understanding of stem cell biology that can be used to expand and differentiate embryonic and adult stem cells in a directed manner offers great potential for tissue repair and regenerative medicine.
- Viability of primary term cytotrophoblast cell culture in normoxia and hypoxia. [Journal Article]
- Mol Hum Reprod 2013 Jun; 19(6):405.
- Functional transplantation of salivary gland cells differentiated from mouse early ES cells in vitro. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Cell 2013 May 17.
Atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland because of aging or disease causes hyposalivation and has an effect on the quality of life of patients, for example not only dry mouth but deterioration in mastication/deglutition disorder and the status of oral hygiene. Currently conducted therapies for atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland in clinical practice are only symptomatic treatments with drugs and artificial saliva, and therefore it is preferable to establish a radical therapy. At this time, as a fundamental investigation, by co-culturing mouse early ES (mEES-6) cells with human salivary gland-derived fibroblasts (hSG-fibro), differentiation of mEES-6 cells to salivary gland cells has been attempted. Also, the possibility of cell engraftment was examined. After identifying the cells which were co-cultured with GFP-transfected mEES-6 cells and hSG-fibro, the cells were transplanted into the submandibular gland of SCID mice, and the degree of differentiation into tissues was examined. The possibility of tissue functional reconstitution from co-cultured cells in a three-dimensional culture system was examined. Our results confirmed that the co-cultured cells expressed salivary gland-related markers and had an ability to generate neo-tissues by transplantation in vivo. Moreover, the cells could reconstitute gland structures in a three-dimensional culture system. By co-culture with hSG-fibro, mEES-6 cells were successfully differentiated into salivary gland cells which were transplantable and have tissue neogenetic ability.
- A novel bidirectional continuous perfusion bioreactor for the culture of large-sized bone tissue-engineered constructs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2013 May 17.
This works reports the development and preliminary assessment of a new bioreactor for culturing large-sized three-dimensional constructs in bone tissue engineering. The bidirectional continuous perfusion bioreactor (BCPB) promotes mechanical stimulation of cells through the creation of shear forces induced by flow perfusion. The main innovation consists in the possibility of culturing scaffolds of large dimensions that can be suitable for the regeneration of critical sized defects. The functionality of BCPB was preliminarily evaluated by culturing starch-polycaprolactone scaffolds/goat bone marrow stromal cells for 14 and 21 days. Cylindrical blocks were stacked (42 mm thick). Static culture was used as controls. The samples were collected for DNA, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histological analysis. The results showed higher ALP levels in the bioreactor cultures than those obtained under static conditions. The number of cells in constructs cultured in the bioreactor showed lower values compared to static cultures, suggesting that static conditions tend to privilege the metabolic path way for cellular proliferation while dynamic conditions tend to privilege the metabolic path for osteogenic differentiation. SEM observations show that, the migration and cell distribution was observed in the bioreactor. These results demonstrate the feasibility and the benefit of culturing constructs in BCPB. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013.
- Selective tracking of template DNA strands after induction of mitosis with unreplicated genomes (MUGs) in Drosophila S2 cells. [Journal Article]
- Chromosome Res 2013 May; 21(3):329-37.
According to the "immortal" DNA strand hypothesis (Cairns Nature 255:197-200, 1975), stem cells would keep their template strands in order to prevent the accumulation of mutations, which could occur during DNA replication. Despite the growing number of studies that attempt to test this hypothesis, the conclusions remain highly controversial. In the base of this controversy lie the current limitations of available methodology to selectively and faithfully track the fate of template DNA strands throughout and upon cell division. Here, we developed a method that allows the unequivocal tracking of single chromatids containing template DNA strands in Drosophila S2 cells in culture. This method consists in the induction of mitosis with unreplicated genomes (MUGs) in which cells are allowed to enter mitosis without prior DNA replication. This is achieved by RNAi-mediated knockdown of Double parked, a conserved protein required for the initiation of DNA replication and post-replication checkpoint response. The advantages of this system when compared with MUGs generated in mammalian cells is the preservation of chromatid morphology, the ease of loss-of-function studies and the possibility of in vivo applications. Altogether, this approach allows for the readily visualization and tracking of template DNA strands by simply monitoring cells stably expressing GFP-fusions with either Histone H2B or the centromeric Histone variant CID/CENP-A by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. This might be useful for the dissection of the molecular mechanism behind asymmetric DNA strand segregation.
- Adult hair follicle stem cells do not retain the older DNA strands in vivo during normal tissue homeostasis. [Journal Article]
- Chromosome Res 2013 May; 21(3):203-12.
Tissue stem cells have been proposed to segregate the chromosomes asymmetrically (in a non-random manner), thereby retaining preferentially the older "immortal" DNA strands bearing the stemness characteristics into one daughter cell, whereas the newly synthesized strands are segregated to the other daughter cell that will commit to differentiation. Moreover, this non-random segregation would protect the stem cell genome from accumulating multiple mutations during repeated DNA replication. This long-standing hypothesis remains an active subject of study due to conflicting results for some systems and lack of consistency among different tissue stem cell populations. In this review, we will focus on work done in the hair follicle, which is one of the best-understood vertebrate tissue stem cell system to date. In cell culture analysis of paired cultured keratinocytes derived from hair follicle, stem cells suggested a non-random segregation of chromosome with respect to the older DNA strand. In vivo, the hair follicle stem cells appear to self-renew and differentiate at different phases of their homeostatic cycle. The fate decisions occur in quiescence when some stem cells migrate out of their niche and commit to differentiation without self-renewal. The stem cells left behind in the niche self-renew symmetrically and randomly segregate the chromosomes at each division, making more stem cells. This model seems to apply to at least a few other vertebrate tissue stem cells in vivo.
- Semiautomated analysis of dendrite morphology in cell culture. [Journal Article]
- Methods Mol Biol 2013.:261-8.
Quantifying dendrite morphology is a method for determining the effect of biochemical pathways and extracellular agents on neuronal development and differentiation. Quantification can be performed using Sholl analysis, dendrite counting, and length quantification. These procedures can be performed on dendrite-forming cell lines or primary neurons grown in culture. In this protocol, we describe the use of a set of computer programs to assist in quantifying many aspects of dendrite morphology, including changes in total and localized arbor complexity.
- Microcontact printing of substrate-bound protein patterns for cell and tissue culture. [Journal Article]
- Methods Mol Biol 2013.:247-59.
Patterned distributions of signalling molecules play fundamental roles during embryonic development. Several attempts have been made to reproduce these patterns in vitro. In order to study substrate-bound or membrane proteins, microcontact printing (μCP) is a suitable method for tethering molecules on various surfaces. Here, we describe three μCP variants to produce patterns down to feature sizes of about 300 nm, which are highly variable with respect to shape, protein spacing, and density. Briefly, the desired pattern is etched into a silicon master, which is then used as a master for the printing process. Each variant offers certain advantages and the method of choice depends on the desired protein and the biological question.
- Isolation and culture of schwann cells. [Journal Article]
- Methods Mol Biol 2013.:93-104.
Primarily cultured Schwann cells are essential for the investigation of molecular mechanisms regulating proliferation, survival, differentiation, and myelination of Schwann cell and for the development of efficient transplantation for regeneration of injured spinal cord or peripheral nervous system. Here we describe a basic protocol for isolation and purification of primary Schwann cell from neonatal rat or mouse and discuss some modifications adapted to the culturing from adult nerves and optional methods for Schwann cell enrichment.