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cervical incompetence [keywords]
- Treatment options for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. [Journal Article]
- Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2013 Jun; 40(2):291-316.
The introduction of testing for high-risk HPV types and P16 immunostaining of CIN2 histologic specimens allows for determination of the risk of progression versus regression for a woman with a particular cytologic or histologic specimen. Observation with serial cytological or colposcopic examinations is now appropriate for women with low-grade histologic lesions as well as pregnant and young women with certain high-grade histologic lesions. Current recommendations for management of high-grade lesions, the efficacy of treatment options (cryotherapy and LEEP), and the immediate (bleeding, infection) and longer term complications (cervical incompetence, preterm delivery) of cervical dysplasia treatment are presented.
- Cervical pessary for preventing preterm birth. [Journal Article]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD007873.
Preterm birth is a major health problem and contributes to more than 50% of the overall perinatal mortality. Preterm birth has multiple risk factors including cervical incompetence and multiple pregnancy. Different management strategies have been tried to prevent preterm birth, including cervical cerclage. Cervical cerclage is an invasive technique that needs anaesthesia and may be associated with complications. Moreover, there is still controversy regarding the efficacy and the group of patients that could benefit from this operation. Cervical pessary has been tried as a simple, non-invasive alternative that might replace the above invasive cervical stitch operation to prevent preterm birth.To evaluate the efficacy of cervical pessary for the prevention of preterm birth in women with risk factors for cervical incompetence.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 September 2012), Current Controlled Trials and the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (1 September 2012).We selected all published and unpublished randomised clinical trials comparing the use of cervical pessary with cervical cerclage or expectant management for prevention of preterm birth. We did not include quasi-randomised trials. Cluster-randomised or cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion.Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion.The review included one randomised controlled trial. The study included 385 pregnant women with a short cervix of 25 mm or less who were between 18 to 22 weeks of pregnancy. The use of cervical pessary (192 women) was associated with a statistically significantly decrease in the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation compared with expectant management (22% versus 59 %; respectively, risk ratio (RR) 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27 to 0.49). Spontaneous preterm birth before 34 weeks was statistically significantly reduced in the pessary group (6% and 27% respectively, RR 0.24; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.43). Mean gestational age at delivery was 37.7 + 2 weeks in the pessary group and 34.9 + 4 weeks in the expectant group. Women in the pessary group used less tocolytics (RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.81) and corticosteroids (RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81) than the expectant group. Vaginal discharge was more common in the pessary group (RR 2.18; 95% CI 1.87 to 2.54). Among the pessary group, 27 women needed pessary repositioning without removal and there was one case of pessary removal. Ninety-five per cent of women in the pessary group would recommend this intervention to other people. Neonatal paediatric care admission was reduced in the pessary group in comparison to the expectant group (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.42).The review included only one well-designed randomised clinical trial that showed beneficial effect of cervical pessary in reducing preterm birth in women with a short cervix. There is a need for more trials in different settings (developed and developing countries), and with different risk factors including multiple pregnancy.
- Cervical incompetence associated with congenital uterine malformations. [Journal Article]
- Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2012 Oct-Dec; 116(4):1063-8.
Cervical incompetence is basically a cervix that is too weak to stay closed during a pregnancy. It is generally categorized as premature opening of the cervix without labor or contractions.To estimate the incidence of incompetence of the uterine cervix at patients with congenital uterine malformations.Our study was a retrospective and prospective one between 2002 and 2009. We evaluate the length of the cervix by transvaginal ultrasonography during the second trimester of pregnancy.We had 316 cases with congenital uterine malformations. From these we found 49 (15.3%) women with incompetence of the cervix: 8 (2.5%) with unicornuate uterus, 11 (3.4%) with bicornuate uterus and 30 (9.5%) cases uterus with septum. For all these wad made cerclage when we found funneling of the cervix or the cervix was open less than 4 cm. The use of ultrasonography has been very helpful with the diagnosis, and is made when the cervical os (opening) is greater than 2.5 cm, or the length has shortened to less than 20 mm. All patients had preterm delivery.When we have cases with congenital uterine malformations we must think that incompetence of the cervix could be associated, so we must assess the status of the cervix for these patients by serial ultrasound examinations starting between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. Our patients had preterm delivery caused not only the incompetent cervix, but the malformation of the uterus is implicated also.
- Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013 Jun; 26(3):231-40.
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may colonize the human genital tract and have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chorioamnionitis, spontaneous preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes are significant contributors to neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, as these bacteria can reside in the normal vaginal flora, there are controversies regarding their true role during pregnancy and thus the need to treat these organisms.We review here the recent data on the epidemiology of mycoplasmas and their clinical role during pregnancy. The association of these organisms with preterm labour has been suggested by many observational studies, but proof of causality remains limited. PCR is an excellent alternative to culture to detect the presence of these organisms, but culture allows antibiotic susceptibility testing. Whether antimicrobial treatment of mycoplasma-colonized pregnant patients can effectively reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes warrants further investigations.The role of Mycoplasma spp. and U. urealyticum in adverse pregnancy outcomes is increasingly accepted. However, sole presence of these microorganisms in the vaginal flora might be insufficient to cause pathological issues, but their combination with other factors such as bacterial vaginosis or cervical incompetence may be additionally needed to induce preterm birth.
- Results of midtrimester emergency cerclage. [Journal Article]
- J Reprod Med 2013 Mar-Apr; 58(3-4):143-8.
To evaluate the outcomes of midtrimester emergency cerclage and to find out the contributing factors.Twenty-five patients presenting with cervical dilation and effacement with the membranes at the level of the external os or prolapsed into the vagina were included in the study. At the time of the cervical cerclage placement, gestational age ranged from 14-26 weeks. A good outcome was defined as the take-home baby rate, but also the interval between the time of the cervical cerclage placement and delivery and the gestational age at delivery were discussed.The mean gestational age at the time of the cervical cerclage placement was 21.2 +/- 2.73 weeks, the mean gestational age at delivery was 29.4 +/- 5.37 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1,511 g. Eighteen patients had McDonald type cerclage, and 7 patients had both McDonald and Saling type cerclages. The overall take-home baby rate was 64%. Patients presenting with membranes at the level of external os had a take-home baby rate of 68.8%, whereas patients presenting with membranes prolapsed into the vagina had a take-home baby rate of 31.3%.Cervical dilation at midtrimester has a poor outcome which can be improved with emergency cerclage. Patients presenting with membranes prolapsed into the vagina have a decreased success rate. Total closure of the cervix may improve results.
- Effective treatment of cervical incompetence in a monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy with a rescue cervical cerclage and pessary--a case report and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- Ginekol Pol 2012 Dec; 83(12):946-9.
A monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twin pregnancy is the rarest form of twin gestation, accounting for around 1:10000 to 1:20000 of all deliveries regardless of the region of the world. All multiple gestations have a higher risk of preterm delivery due to either preterm uterine contractions or asymptomatic cervical shortening (cervical incompetence). A case of a 28-year-old primigravida in MCMA twin pregnancy with cervical incompetence diagnosed at 22 weeks of gestation is presented. After obtaining cervical swabs, negative laboratory infection parameters and confirming concordant gestational age on ultrasound scan with no structural abnormalities of both fetuses, the patient was qualified for an emergency cervical cerclage according to Wurm-Hefner method. Five days after the procedure, a cervical pessary was additionally inserted. She was administered antibiotics and steroids. The wellbeing of both fetuses was strictly monitored by means of cardiotocography tracing and ultrasound examinations, on which they were both eutrophic, with no abnormalities in Doppler blood flow patterns. Spontaneous premature rupture of membranes took place at 32 weeks of gestation, a cesarean section was performed and two female fetuses of 1740 g and 1760 g were delivered. They both required antibiotics because of congenital pneumonia, but no respiratory support was necessary The twins were discharged from the hospital 22 days after birth in good general condition. This case of a rescue cervical cerclage and pessary used simultaneously can be an example of an effective method of cervical incompetence treatment in twin pregnancies.
- Pregnancy outcome after cerclage for cervical incompetence at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt. [Journal Article]
- Afr J Reprod Health 2012 Sep; 16(3):180-4.
Cervical incompetence is often associated with mid trimester pregnancy losses and preterm labour. cervical cerclage to prevent miscarriage and preterm labour is practiced world wide. The objective of this study was to document the feto-maternal outcome following cervical cerclage for cervical incompetence. The study reviewed all case files of pregnant women who had cervical cerclage for cervical incompetence between January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008, at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. The study found an incidence of 0.17% of cervical incompetence among the antenatal population. Following cervical cerclage, miscarriage rate was 9.4%. Preterm delivery occurred in 21.8% while term pregnancy occurred in 68.8% of the women. There is improvement in pregnancy outcome after cervical cerclage for cervical incompetence hence we recommend the insertion for true cases of cervical incompetence.
- MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome). [Journal Article]
- J Inherit Metab Dis 2013 Mar; 36(2):329-37.
Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis.
- Randomised trial of cervical cerclage, with and without occlusion, for the prevention of preterm birth in women suspected for cervical insufficiency. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BJOG 2013 Apr; 120(5):613-20.
To evaluate the effect of cerclage, with and without cervical occlusion.Multicentre, stratified, randomised controlled trial.Hospital-based multicentre study with 18 tertiary centres from nine countries.Women with a history of cervical insufficiency (prophylactic trial) and women with a short cervix (therapeutic trial) were recruited from August 2006 to August 2011.A centralised telephone randomisation service with a computer system was used to randomise women to cervical cerclage with or without cervical occlusion. Only the analyst performing the interim analyses was blinded.The take-home baby rate (number of infants discharged alive from the hospital), gestational age at delivery, and the number of days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).Women (n = 309) were stratified into the prophylactic trial (n = 213) or the therapeutic trial (n = 96). The trial stopped early due to slow recruitment and an interim analysis showing no benefit of occlusion. Final analysis comprised 197 women in the prophylactic trial and 87 women in the therapeutic trial. No added effect of cervical occlusion was found in terms of the take-home baby rate in the prophylactic trial (92 versus 90%, RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94-1.12) or in the therapeutic trial (81 versus 85%, RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.79-1.16). No effect of cervical occlusion was found in terms of gestational age at delivery and number of days the neonate spent in the NICU. Cervical occlusion was associated with no harm.Cervical occlusion with cerclage had no significant additional effect.
- Prophylactic Cerclage in the Management of Twin Pregnancies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Perinatol 2013 Jan 9.
Objective To determine if prophylactic cerclage improves pregnancy outcomes in women with twin pregnancies without a history of cervical insufficiency.Study Design Women with twin pregnancies who received outpatient preterm labor surveillance services between January 1990 and May 2004 for ≥1 day beginning at < 28.0 weeks' gestation were identified from a database. Patients with previous preterm delivery or a diagnosis of cervical incompetence in a previous or in the index pregnancy were excluded. Twin pregnancies managed with prophylactic cerclage were compared with twin pregnancies in which cerclage was not placed. The primary outcome was incidence of preterm birth prior to 32 weeks. Groups were compared using Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney U test statistics.Results Overall, 8,218 twin pregnancies met inclusion criteria, of which 146 women (1.8%) received prophylactic cerclage. Patients who received prophylactic cerclage had a significantly higher incidence of preterm birth before 32 weeks and infants with lower mean birth weight and longer nursery stays. No significant difference was seen in mean gestational age at delivery. This study had 80% power to detect a 7% reduction in the primary outcome.Conclusion Prophylactic cerclage was not associated with a lower risk of preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcomes in twin pregnancies without history of cervical insufficiency.