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cervical incompetence [keywords]
- Oxidative status shifts in uterine cervical incompetence patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Syst Biol Reprod Med 2013 Dec 5.
Abstract Uterine cervical incompetence (UCI) is a pregnancy complication affecting about 10% of the pregnancies in the western world. Studying the etiology of the UCI requires a specific approach adequate for this highly heterogenous syndrome. Oxidative status disorders are associated with various pathologies, including pregnancy complications. As such, general oxidative status profiling is a promising methodology to treat UCI. We aimed at assaying the closely interrelated oxidative status markers in the uterine cervical incompetence patients by means of the systems biology-oriented approach. Chemiluminescent assay, circulating thioredoxin 1 protein, uric acid, and homocysteine level measurements were used to assess the character of the oxidative status regulation in the UCI patients. We found UCI to be associated with the atypical plasma oxidative status deregulation; UCI plasma samples demonstrated lowered proneness to the pro-oxidative processes, and this was not due to the excessive antioxidant activity. There were neither signs of oxidative stress nor destructive pro-oxidant feedforward circuit locking in the UCI group. We also report increased circulating levels of uric acid in the UCI patients.
- [Analysis of velopharyngeal morphology in operated cleft palate patients with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 31(5):472-5.
To study the relationship between velopharyngeal morphology and velopharyngeal function in operated cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal competence (VPC) with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad.Three groups were included in the study. The experimental group comprised 18 incomplete cleft patients (group T1) repaired with VPC repaired with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad and 14 incomplete cleft patients (group T2) with velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) repaired with Langenbeck's technique. The control group was composed of 13 normal adults. The outcome of the velopharyngeal function by nasopharyngoscopy and lateral cephalogram was assessed. Skeletal landmarks and measurements were derived from the tracing of lateral cephalograms. The measurements included velar length, pharyngeal depth, and adequate ratio of velar length to pharyngeal depth. The cranial base, cervical vertebrae, posterior nasal spine, and the position of the posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW) in the pharyngeal triangle were also analyzed. All data were subjected to student's t-test of statistical significance.All 18 subjects in group T1 obtained complete velopharyngeal closure. Velopharyngeal closure in seven, five, and two subjects in group T2 was 70%, 50% to 70%, and less than 50%, respectively, according to the results of nasopharyngoscopy. The lateral velar length (25.7 mm + 2.3 mm) in group T1 was similar to that of the control group (29.9 mm + 2.7 mm) (P > 0.05). The pharyngeal depth in group T1 was shorter than that in the other two groups, and the adequate ratio (1.43 + 0.26) was similar to that in the normal group (1.45 + 0.26). Group T2 had a significantly short velar length (22.9 mm + 2.3 mm) and normal pharyngeal depth, resulting in a small length/depth ratio (0.95 + 0.14) than that in group T1 and the control group. PPW in the pharyngeal triangle was positioned superiorly in group T2 compared with the control group.The velopharyngeal morphology of operated cleft palate patients with VPC with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad was found to be similar to that of the normal control group. VPI cleft palate patients are characterized by a shorter palate, smaller adequate ratio (< 1.0), slightly counterclockwise-rotated pharyngeal triangle, and superiorly positioned PPW.
- [Premature birth in patient with cervix incompetence and history of myasthenia gravis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ginecol Obstet Mex 2013 Sep; 81(9):545-9.
Cervical incompetence it's a dilatation of the cervix during the third trimester of pregnancy that ends with the interruption of it. The incidence in Chile is about 0.1-2% of the total pregnancies and it's one of the causes of preterm birth. A 34 years old pregnant patient. Timectomized at age 18 to treat her miastenia gravis, previously trated with medication, had 4 previous preterm labours all of them under 25 weeks and vaginal births. All fetuses died postpartum. A cerclage was made during the third, fourth and fifth pregnancies. She didn't present hypertension during the gestation and no cervical diameter under 15mm. Since the fourth gestation the following tests are taken: Antifosfolipidic antibodies, APTT,PT. All the results are either normal or negative. Microbial cultures were negative. No amniocentesis was made. A McDonald cervical cerclage was made during pregnancies number 3, 4 and 5 on the 16th week to delay the labor. Also oral micronized progesterone, on a 400mg/24 hours dosis, was administered to avoid preterm birth. On the 24th week the pharmacological treatment started including Intramuscular Betamethasone, 12 mg/24 hours (2 doses), to induce lung maturity on the fetus. It is thought that the administration of progesterone could have improved the situation of the patient, because it acts as a labour repressants. The use of cerclage could have helped, but the factors that may influence the effectiveness of this method are unknown. Perhaps there is some immunologic factor associated with the miastenia gravis that alters the normal course of pregnancy.
- Importance of uterine cervical cerclage to maintain a successful pregnancy for patients who undergo vaginal radical trachelectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Clin Oncol 2013 Oct 31.
We have performed 36 vaginal radical trachelectomies (RTs) for patients with early invasive uterine cervical cancer and experienced 10 deliveries. Pregnancy after RT has far higher risks of prematurity and complications such as preterm premature rupture of the membrane (pPROM) and chorioamnionitis. We report the significance of transabdominal cerclage in the follow-up of pregnancy after vaginal RT.Our operative procedure is based on that of Dargent et al. We amputated the cervix approximately 10 mm below the isthmus. For the removal of the parametrium, we cut at the level of type II hysterectomy. A nylon suture is also placed around the residual cervix. Pregnancy courses after vaginal RT were studied in 9 patients (10 pregnancies) with respect to cervical length and several infectious signs.Obstetric prognosis after RT was improved with our follow-up modality. Four patients who were followed up with this modality were able to continue their pregnancies until late in the third trimester. However, it was not effective for four patients who showed cervical incompetence due to slack cerclage. They suffered from pPROM without any infectious signs and uterine contraction. Though we performed transabdominal uterine cervical cerclage for one patient in her 19th week of pregnancy, it was unsuccessful.Cervical cerclage placed at the time of RT played an important role in preventing dilatation of the uterine cervix and the subsequent occurrence of pPROM. Transabdominal cervical cerclage should be performed earlier in pregnancy or before pregnancy in patients who have experienced problems with cervical cerclage.
- Double versus single cervical cerclage for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss: A randomized clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2013 Oct 22.
To compare the effectiveness of the double cervical cerclage method versus the single method in women with recurrent second-trimester delivery.In this randomized clinical trial, we included 33 singleton pregnancies suffering from recurrent second-trimester pregnancy loss (≥2 consecutive fetal loss during second-trimester or with a history of unsuccessful procedures utilizing the McDonald method), due to cervical incompetence. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo either the classic McDonald method (n = 14) or the double cerclage method (n = 19). The successful pregnancy rate and gestational age at delivery was also compared between the two groups.The two study groups were comparable regarding their baseline characteristics. The successful pregnancy rate did not differ significantly between those who underwent the double cerclage method or the classic McDonald cerclage method (100% vs 85.7%; P = 0.172). In the same way, the preterm delivery rate (<34 weeks of gestation) was comparable between the two study groups (10.5% vs 35.7%; P = 0.106). Those undergoing the double cerclage method had longer gestational duration (37.2 ± 2.6 vs 34.3 ± 3.8 weeks; P = 0.016).The double cervical cerclage method seems to provide better cervical support, as compared with the classic McDonald cerclage method, in those suffering from recurrent pregnancy loss, due to cervical incompetence.
- Use of cervical cerclage as a treatment option for cervical incompetence: patient characteristics, presentation and management over a 9 year period in a Kenyan centre. [Journal Article]
- Afr J Reprod Health 2013 Mar; 17(1):169-73.
Treatment of cervical incompetence by cerclage and other methods has yet to be standardized, as its diagnosis is not uniformly accepted. Its diagnosis, particularly in the African setting, is mostly based on past obstetric history of pregnancy losses, while in developed centres; ultrasound diagnosis is increasingly being used. The mainstay of treatment in developing countries is cervical cerclage, although the indications and contraindications of this mode of treatment are not documented. Our aim was to appraise this practice in terms of patient characteristics, the diagnostic process and management at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. This was a descriptive retrospective study over 9 years. Predesigned questionnaires were employed to collect data on patient's socio-demographic profile, presentation, risk factors, diagnosis and management of cervical incompetence. Chi-squared test and student's t-test were used to correlate variables. A total of 199 patients were treated for cervical incompetence, with the patient mean age being 27.97. 87.4% of the patients (p = 0.02) were in the 20 to 35 years category. Most of the patients (60.1%) were of low socio-economic status. Cervical cerclage was employed in all the patients, although ultrasound investigation was not employed in 65.8% of them. Diagnosis of cervical incompetence still relies on history of previous pregnancy losses, with the standard transvaginal ultrasound relatively unemployed. There is need to intensify investigations for this condition, standardize the indications for cerclage, and diversify management to other newer modalities.
- Cervical spondylosis: a rare and curable cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Spine J 2013 Sep 3.
Spondylotic vertebral artery (VA) compression is a rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and stroke.A 53-year-old man experienced multiple brief vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) and strokes, not apparently triggered by neck movements. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) documented consecutive infarcts, first in the left then right medial posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territories. Angiography showed two extracranial right vertebral artery (VA) stenoses, left VA hypoplasia, absence of left PICA and a dominant right PICA. Computed tomography angiography revealed right VA compression by osteophytes at C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels. No further vertebrobasilar insufficiency symptoms occurred in the 65 months following VA surgical decompression. Our literature review found 49 published surgical cases with vertebrobasilar symptoms caused by cervical spondylosis. Forty cases had one or more brief TIAs frequently triggered by neck movements. Three cases presented with stroke without prior TIA, with symptoms suggesting a top of the basilar artery embolic infarcts (one combined with a PICA infarct). Six cases had both TIAs and minor stroke. VA compression by uncovertebral osteophytes at the C5-C6 level was common. Dynamic angiography done in 38 cases systematically revealed worsening of VA stenosis or complete occlusion with either neck extension or rotation (ipsilateral when specified). Contralateral VA incompetence was found in 14 patients.Spondylotic VA stenosis can cause hemodynamic TIAs and watershed strokes, especially when contralateral VA insufficiency is combined to specific neck movements. Low-amplitude neck movement may suffice in severe cases. Embolic vertebrobasilar events are less frequent. VA decompression from spondylosis may prevent recurrent ischemic episodes.
- Normal live births after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a man with the rare condition of Eagle-Barrett syndrome (prune-belly syndrome). [Journal Article]
- Fertil Steril 2013 Dec; 100(6):1532-5.
To report the first live births of male infants resulting from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using spermatozoa from a man with Eagle-Barrett syndrome (EBS).Case report.Assisted conception unit within a private hospital.An infertile couple.An infertile couple received repeated treatment with ICSI.Clinical pregnancy and a normal live birth.In 2008, after microinjection of ten oocytes, the transfer of a single expanded blastocyst led to the premature birth of a morphologically normal male infant at 18 weeks' gestation. This outcome followed preterm rupture of membranes and possible cervical incompetence. In 2009, after microinjection of six oocytes, transfer of a single 5-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy, with emergency cervical cerclage being performed at 21 weeks. A healthy male infant was born at 30 weeks, with no evidence of EBS, by lower-segment cesarean section for breech presentation and premature labor. In 2012, after elective laparoscopic placement of cervical suture, microinjection of ten oocytes and transfer of a single 4-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy with a healthy male infant, with no evidence of EBS, being born by cesarean section at 38 weeks.This report suggests that EBS is not transmitted to male offspring via ICSI.
- Partial lipodystrophy with severe insulin resistance and adult progeria Werner syndrome. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Orphanet J Rare Dis 2013.:106.
Laminopathies, due to mutations in LMNA, encoding A type-lamins, can lead to premature ageing and/or lipodystrophic syndromes, showing that these diseases could have close physiopathological relationships. We show here that lipodystrophy and extreme insulin resistance can also reveal the adult progeria Werner syndrome linked to mutations in WRN, encoding a RecQ DNA helicase.We analysed the clinical and biological features of two women, aged 32 and 36, referred for partial lipodystrophic syndrome which led to the molecular diagnosis of Werner syndrome. Cultured skin fibroblasts from one patient were studied.Two normal-weighted women presented with a partial lipodystrophic syndrome with hypertriglyceridemia and liver steatosis. One of them had also diabetes. Both patients showed a peculiar, striking lipodystrophic phenotype with subcutaneous lipoatrophy of the four limbs contrasting with truncal and abdominal fat accumulation. Their oral glucose tolerance tests showed extremely high levels of insulinemia, revealing major insulin resistance. Low serum levels of sex-hormone binding globulin and adiponectin suggested a post-receptor insulin signalling defect. Other clinical features included bilateral cataracts, greying hair and distal skin atrophy. We observed biallelic WRN null mutations in both women (p.Q748X homozygous, and compound heterozygous p.Q1257X/p.M1329fs). Their fertility was decreased, with preserved menstrual cycles and normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels ruling out premature ovarian failure. However undetectable anti-müllerian hormone and inhibin B indicated diminished follicular ovarian reserve. Insulin-resistance linked ovarian hyperandrogenism could also contribute to decreased fertility, and the two patients became pregnant after initiation of insulin-sensitizers (metformin). Both pregnancies were complicated by severe cervical incompetence, leading to the preterm birth of a healthy newborn in one case, but to a second trimester-abortion in the other. WRN-mutated fibroblasts showed oxidative stress, increased lamin B1 expression, nuclear dysmorphies and premature senescence.We show here for the first time that partial lipodystrophy with severe insulin resistance can reveal WRN-linked premature aging syndrome. Increased expression of lamin B1 with altered lamina architecture observed in WRN-mutated fibroblasts could contribute to premature cellular senescence. Primary alterations in DNA replication and/or repair should be considered as possible causes of lipodystrophic syndromes.
- The influence of pregnancy termination on the outcome of subsequent pregnancies: a retrospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Open 2013; 3(5)
To compare the incidences of preterm delivery, cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, placental implantation or retention problems (ie, placenta praevia, placental abruption and retained placenta) and postpartum haemorrhage between women with and without a history of pregnancy termination. A retrospective cohort study using aggregated data from a national perinatal registry.All midwifery practices and hospitals in the Netherlands.All pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy without congenital malformations and a gestational age of ≥20 weeks who delivered between January 2000 and December 2007.Preterm delivery, cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, placenta praevia, placental abruption, retained placenta and postpartum haemorrhage.A previous pregnancy termination was reported in 16 000 (1.2%) deliveries. The vast majority of these (90-95%) were performed by surgical methods. The incidence of all outcome measures was significantly higher in women with a history of pregnancy termination. Adjusted ORs (95% CI) for cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, preterm delivery, placental implantation or retention problems and postpartum haemorrhage were 4.6 (2.9 to 7.2), 1.11 (1.02 to 1.20), 1.42 (1.29 to 1.55) and 1.16 (1.08 to 1.25), respectively. Associated numbers needed to harm were 1000, 167, 111 and 111, respectively. For any listed adverse outcome, the number needed to harm was 63.In this large nationwide cohort study, we found a positive association between surgical termination of pregnancy and subsequent preterm delivery, cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, placental implantation or retention problems and postpartum haemorrhage in a subsequent pregnancy. Absolute risks for these outcomes, however, remain small. Medicinal termination might be considered first whenever there is a choice between both methods.