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cervical incompetence [keywords]
- ACOG Practice Bulletin No.142: Cerclage for the management of cervical insufficiency. [Journal Article, Practice Guideline]
- Obstet Gynecol 2014 Feb; 123(2 Pt 1):372-9.
The inability of the uterine cervix to retain a pregnancy in the second trimester is referred to as cervical insufficiency. Controversy exists in the medical literature pertaining to issues of pathophysiology, screening, diagnosis, and management of cervical insufficiency. The purpose of this document is to provide a review of current evidence of cervical insufficiency, including screening of asymptomatic at-risk women, and to offer guidelines on the use of cerclage for management. The diagnosis and management of other cervical issues during pregnancy, such as short cervical length, are discussed more in-depth in other publications of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
- Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2013 Dec; 35(12):1115-27.
The purpose of this guideline is to provide a framework that clinicians can use to determine which women are at greatest risk of having cervical insufficiency and in which set of circumstances a cerclage is of potential value.Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., uterine cervical incompetence) and key words (e.g., cervical insufficiency, cerclage, Shirodkar, cerclage, MacDonald, cerclage, abdominal, cervical length, mid-trimester pregnancy loss). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to January 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. Women who are pregnant or planning pregnancy should be evaluated for risk factors for cervical insufficiency. A thorough medical history at initial evaluation may alert clinicians to risk factors in a first or index pregnancy. (III-B) 2. Detailed evaluation of risk factors should be undertaken in women following a mid-trimester pregnancy loss or early premature delivery, or in cases where such complications have occurred in a preceding pregnancy. (III-B) 3. In women with a history of cervical insufficiency, urinalysis for culture and sensitivity and vaginal cultures for bacterial vaginosis should be taken at the first obstetric visit and any infections so found should be treated. (I-A) 4. Women with a history of three or more second-trimester pregnancy losses or extreme premature deliveries, in whom no specific cause other than potential cervical insufficiency is identified, should be offered elective cerclage at 12 to 14 weeks of gestation. (I-A) 5. In women with a classic history of cervical insufficiency in whom prior vaginal cervical cerclage has been unsuccessful, abdominal cerclage can be considered in the absence of additional mitigating factors. (II-3C) 6. Women who have undergone trachelectomy should have abdominal cerclage placement. (II-3C) 7. Emergency cerclage may be considered in women in whom the cervix has dilated to < 4 cm without contractions before 24 weeks of gestation. (II-3C) 8. Women in whom cerclage is not considered or justified, but whose history suggests a risk for cervical insufficiency (1 or 2 prior mid-trimester losses or extreme premature deliveries), should be offered serial cervical length assessment by ultrasound. (II-2B) 9. Cerclage should be considered in singleton pregnancies in women with a history of spontaneous preterm birth or possible cervical insufficiency if the cervical length is ≤ 25 mm before 24 weeks of gestation. (I-A) 10. There is no benefit to cerclage in a woman with an incidental finding of a short cervix by ultrasound examination but no prior risk factors for preterm birth. (II-1D) 11. Present data do not support the use of elective cerclage in multiple gestations even when there is a history of preterm birth; therefore, this should be avoided. (I-D) 12. The literature does not support the insertion of cerclage in multiple gestations on the basis of cervical length. (II-1D).
- Laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage: A 6-year experience. [Journal Article]
- Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2014 Apr; 54(2):117-20.
Cervical cerclage has been used as a treatment for cervical insufficiency for over 60 years. Transabdominal cerclage is indicated for cervical insufficiency not amenable to a transvaginal procedure, or following previous failed vaginal cerclage. A laparoscopic approach to abdominal cerclage offers the potential to reduce the morbidity associated with laparotomy.To evaluate the obstetric outcome and surgical morbidity of laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage.An observational study of consecutive women undergoing laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage from 2007 to 2013 by a single surgeon (AA). Eligible women had a diagnosis of cervical insufficiency based on previous obstetric history and/or a short or absent cervix. The primary outcome was neonatal survival. Secondary outcomes were delivery of an infant at ≥34 weeks gestation. Surgical morbidity and complications were also evaluated.Sixty-four women underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage during the study period. Three women underwent cerclage insertion during pregnancy; the remaining 61 were not pregnant at the time of surgery. Thirty-five pregnancies have been documented to date. Of those, 24 were evaluated for the study. The remaining cases were either early miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies or are still pregnant. The perinatal survival rate was 95.8% with a mean gestational age at delivery of 35.8 weeks. Eighty-three per cent of women delivered at ≥34 weeks gestation. There was one adverse intra-operative event (1.6%), with no postoperative sequelae.Laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage is a safe and effective procedure resulting in favourable obstetric outcomes in women with a poor obstetric history. Success rates compare favourably to the laparotomy approach.
- Embryo reduction in dichorionic triplets to dichorionic twins by intrafetal laser. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Fetal Diagn Ther 2014; 35(2):83-6.
To describe a new technique for embryo reduction (ER) in dichorionic triplet (DCT) pregnancies.In 22 DCT pregnancies, ER to dichorionic twins was carried out at 11.3-13.9 weeks' gestation by ultrasound-guided laser ablation of the pelvic vessels of one of the monochorionic twins.Intrafetal laser was successfully carried out in all cases, but ultrasound examination within 2 weeks of the procedure demonstrated that the co-twin had died in 11 cases and was alive in the other 11. In the dichorionic group there was one miscarriage at 23 weeks due to cervical incompetence and in the other 10 cases there were two live births at a median gestational age of 35.0 (range 32.2-37.1) weeks. In the 11 cases where both monochorionic fetuses died the separate triplet was live born at a median gestation of 38.0 (range 32.2-40.5) weeks.In the management of DCT pregnancies, ER to dichorionic twins by intrafetal laser is an additional option to the traditional ones of expectant management, ER by intrafetal injection of potassium chloride (KCl) to monochorionic twins or ER by KCl to singleton.
- Oxidative status shifts in uterine cervical incompetence patients. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Syst Biol Reprod Med 2014 Apr; 60(2):98-104.
Uterine cervical incompetence (UCI) is a pregnancy complication affecting about 10% of the pregnancies in the western world. Studying the etiology of the UCI requires a specific approach adequate for this highly heterogenous syndrome. Oxidative status disorders are associated with various pathologies, including pregnancy complications. As such, general oxidative status profiling is a promising methodology to treat UCI. We aimed at assaying the closely interrelated oxidative status markers in the uterine cervical incompetence patients by means of the systems biology-oriented approach. Chemiluminescent assay, circulating thioredoxin 1 protein, uric acid, and homocysteine level measurements were used to assess the character of the oxidative status regulation in the UCI patients. We found UCI to be associated with the atypical plasma oxidative status deregulation; UCI plasma samples demonstrated lowered proneness to the pro-oxidative processes, and this was not due to the excessive antioxidant activity. There were neither signs of oxidative stress nor destructive pro-oxidant feedforward circuit locking in the UCI group. We also report increased circulating levels of uric acid in the UCI patients.
- [Analysis of velopharyngeal morphology in operated cleft palate patients with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 31(5):472-5.
To study the relationship between velopharyngeal morphology and velopharyngeal function in operated cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal competence (VPC) with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad.Three groups were included in the study. The experimental group comprised 18 incomplete cleft patients (group T1) repaired with VPC repaired with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad and 14 incomplete cleft patients (group T2) with velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) repaired with Langenbeck's technique. The control group was composed of 13 normal adults. The outcome of the velopharyngeal function by nasopharyngoscopy and lateral cephalogram was assessed. Skeletal landmarks and measurements were derived from the tracing of lateral cephalograms. The measurements included velar length, pharyngeal depth, and adequate ratio of velar length to pharyngeal depth. The cranial base, cervical vertebrae, posterior nasal spine, and the position of the posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW) in the pharyngeal triangle were also analyzed. All data were subjected to student's t-test of statistical significance.All 18 subjects in group T1 obtained complete velopharyngeal closure. Velopharyngeal closure in seven, five, and two subjects in group T2 was 70%, 50% to 70%, and less than 50%, respectively, according to the results of nasopharyngoscopy. The lateral velar length (25.7 mm + 2.3 mm) in group T1 was similar to that of the control group (29.9 mm + 2.7 mm) (P > 0.05). The pharyngeal depth in group T1 was shorter than that in the other two groups, and the adequate ratio (1.43 + 0.26) was similar to that in the normal group (1.45 + 0.26). Group T2 had a significantly short velar length (22.9 mm + 2.3 mm) and normal pharyngeal depth, resulting in a small length/depth ratio (0.95 + 0.14) than that in group T1 and the control group. PPW in the pharyngeal triangle was positioned superiorly in group T2 compared with the control group.The velopharyngeal morphology of operated cleft palate patients with VPC with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad was found to be similar to that of the normal control group. VPI cleft palate patients are characterized by a shorter palate, smaller adequate ratio (< 1.0), slightly counterclockwise-rotated pharyngeal triangle, and superiorly positioned PPW.
- [Premature birth in patient with cervix incompetence and history of myasthenia gravis]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ginecol Obstet Mex 2013 Sep; 81(9):545-9.
Cervical incompetence it's a dilatation of the cervix during the third trimester of pregnancy that ends with the interruption of it. The incidence in Chile is about 0.1-2% of the total pregnancies and it's one of the causes of preterm birth. A 34 years old pregnant patient. Timectomized at age 18 to treat her miastenia gravis, previously trated with medication, had 4 previous preterm labours all of them under 25 weeks and vaginal births. All fetuses died postpartum. A cerclage was made during the third, fourth and fifth pregnancies. She didn't present hypertension during the gestation and no cervical diameter under 15mm. Since the fourth gestation the following tests are taken: Antifosfolipidic antibodies, APTT,PT. All the results are either normal or negative. Microbial cultures were negative. No amniocentesis was made. A McDonald cervical cerclage was made during pregnancies number 3, 4 and 5 on the 16th week to delay the labor. Also oral micronized progesterone, on a 400mg/24 hours dosis, was administered to avoid preterm birth. On the 24th week the pharmacological treatment started including Intramuscular Betamethasone, 12 mg/24 hours (2 doses), to induce lung maturity on the fetus. It is thought that the administration of progesterone could have improved the situation of the patient, because it acts as a labour repressants. The use of cerclage could have helped, but the factors that may influence the effectiveness of this method are unknown. Perhaps there is some immunologic factor associated with the miastenia gravis that alters the normal course of pregnancy.
- Importance of uterine cervical cerclage to maintain a successful pregnancy for patients who undergo vaginal radical trachelectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Clin Oncol 2013 Oct 31.
We have performed 36 vaginal radical trachelectomies (RTs) for patients with early invasive uterine cervical cancer and experienced 10 deliveries. Pregnancy after RT has far higher risks of prematurity and complications such as preterm premature rupture of the membrane (pPROM) and chorioamnionitis. We report the significance of transabdominal cerclage in the follow-up of pregnancy after vaginal RT.Our operative procedure is based on that of Dargent et al. We amputated the cervix approximately 10 mm below the isthmus. For the removal of the parametrium, we cut at the level of type II hysterectomy. A nylon suture is also placed around the residual cervix. Pregnancy courses after vaginal RT were studied in 9 patients (10 pregnancies) with respect to cervical length and several infectious signs.Obstetric prognosis after RT was improved with our follow-up modality. Four patients who were followed up with this modality were able to continue their pregnancies until late in the third trimester. However, it was not effective for four patients who showed cervical incompetence due to slack cerclage. They suffered from pPROM without any infectious signs and uterine contraction. Though we performed transabdominal uterine cervical cerclage for one patient in her 19th week of pregnancy, it was unsuccessful.Cervical cerclage placed at the time of RT played an important role in preventing dilatation of the uterine cervix and the subsequent occurrence of pPROM. Transabdominal cervical cerclage should be performed earlier in pregnancy or before pregnancy in patients who have experienced problems with cervical cerclage.
- Double versus single cervical cerclage for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss: a randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2014 Feb; 40(2):375-80.
To compare the effectiveness of the double cervical cerclage method versus the single method in women with recurrent second-trimester delivery.In this randomized clinical trial, we included 33 singleton pregnancies suffering from recurrent second-trimester pregnancy loss (≥2 consecutive fetal loss during second-trimester or with a history of unsuccessful procedures utilizing the McDonald method), due to cervical incompetence. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo either the classic McDonald method (n = 14) or the double cerclage method (n = 19). The successful pregnancy rate and gestational age at delivery was also compared between the two groups.The two study groups were comparable regarding their baseline characteristics. The successful pregnancy rate did not differ significantly between those who underwent the double cerclage method or the classic McDonald cerclage method (100% vs 85.7%; P = 0.172). In the same way, the preterm delivery rate (<34 weeks of gestation) was comparable between the two study groups (10.5% vs 35.7%; P = 0.106). Those undergoing the double cerclage method had longer gestational duration (37.2 ± 2.6 vs 34.3 ± 3.8 weeks; P = 0.016).The double cervical cerclage method seems to provide better cervical support, as compared with the classic McDonald cerclage method, in those suffering from recurrent pregnancy loss, due to cervical incompetence.
- Use of cervical cerclage as a treatment option for cervical incompetence: patient characteristics, presentation and management over a 9 year period in a Kenyan centre. [Journal Article]
- Afr J Reprod Health 2013 Mar; 17(1):169-73.
Treatment of cervical incompetence by cerclage and other methods has yet to be standardized, as its diagnosis is not uniformly accepted. Its diagnosis, particularly in the African setting, is mostly based on past obstetric history of pregnancy losses, while in developed centres; ultrasound diagnosis is increasingly being used. The mainstay of treatment in developing countries is cervical cerclage, although the indications and contraindications of this mode of treatment are not documented. Our aim was to appraise this practice in terms of patient characteristics, the diagnostic process and management at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. This was a descriptive retrospective study over 9 years. Predesigned questionnaires were employed to collect data on patient's socio-demographic profile, presentation, risk factors, diagnosis and management of cervical incompetence. Chi-squared test and student's t-test were used to correlate variables. A total of 199 patients were treated for cervical incompetence, with the patient mean age being 27.97. 87.4% of the patients (p = 0.02) were in the 20 to 35 years category. Most of the patients (60.1%) were of low socio-economic status. Cervical cerclage was employed in all the patients, although ultrasound investigation was not employed in 65.8% of them. Diagnosis of cervical incompetence still relies on history of previous pregnancy losses, with the standard transvaginal ultrasound relatively unemployed. There is need to intensify investigations for this condition, standardize the indications for cerclage, and diversify management to other newer modalities.