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chromaffin tissue [keywords]
- Succinate-to-Fumarate Ratio as a New Metabolic Marker to Detect the Presence of SDHB/D-related Paraganglioma: Initial Experimental and Ex Vivo Findings. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinology 2013 Nov 4.
Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs; extra-adrenal tumors) are rare neuroendocrine chromaffin cell tumors with a hereditary background in about 30-35%. Those caused by succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) germline mutations are associated with a high metastatic potential and ultimately higher patient mortality. Succinate dehydrogenase converts succinate to fumarate, uniquely linking the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. SDH mutations result in the accumulation of succinate associated with various metabolic disturbances and the shift to aerobic glycolysis in tumor tissue. In the present study, we measured succinate and fumarate levels in mouse pheochromocytoma cells and mouse tumor tissue (MTT) and in 10 apparently sporadic, 10 SDHB-, 5 SDHD-, and 2 neurofibromatosis 1-related PHEOs/PGLs and plasma samples using mass spectrometry. We found that the succinate-to-fumarate ratio was significantly higher in the SDHB- and SDHD-related PGLs than in apparently sporadic and neurofibromatosis 1-related PHEOs/PGLs (P = .0376). To further support our data, we silenced SDHB expression in mouse pheochromocytoma cells and MTT cells and evaluated the succinate and fumarate levels. Compared with control samples, SDHB-silenced MTT cells also showed an increase in the succinate-to-fumarate ratio (MTT cells: 2.45 vs 7.53), similar to the findings in SDHB-related PGLs. The present findings for the first time demonstrate a significantly increased succinate-to-fumarate ratio in SDHB/D-related PGLs and thus suggest this ratio may be used as a new metabolic marker for the detection of SDHB/D-related PHEOs/PGLs.
- Neurobiological consequences of acute footshock stress; effects on tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and activation in the rat brain and adrenal medulla. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurochem 2013 Oct 7.
Stress activates selected neuronal systems in the brain and this leads to activation of a range of effector systems. Our aim was to investigate some of the relationships between these systems under basal conditions and over a 40-min period in response to footshock stress. Specifically, we investigated catecholaminergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the brain, by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein, TH phosphorylation and TH activation. We also measured the effector responses by measuring plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone, glucose and body temperature as well as activation of adrenal medulla protein kinases, TH protein, TH phosphorylation and TH activation. The LC, VTA and adrenal medulla all had higher basal levels of Ser19 phosphorylation and lower basal levels of Ser31phosphorylation than the mPFC, presumably due to their cell body versus nerve terminal location, while the adrenal medulla had the highest basal levels of Ser40 phosphorylation. Ser31 phosphorylation was increased in the LC at 20 and 40 min and in the mPFC at 40 min; TH activity was increased at 40 min in both tissues. There were significant increases in body temperature between 10 and 40 min, as well as increases in plasma ACTH at 20 min and corticosterone and glucose at 20 and 40 min. The adrenal medulla extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 was increased between 10 and 40 min and Ser31 phosphorylation was increased at 20 min and 40 min. Protein kinase A and Ser40 phosphorylation were increased only at 40 min. TH activity was increased between 20 and 40 min.TH protein and Ser19 phosphorylation levels were not altered in any of the brain regions or adrenal medulla over the first 40 min. These findings indicate that acute footshock stress leads to activation of TH in the LC, presynaptic terminals in the mPFC and adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, as well as changes in activity of the HPA axis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Identification of unique release kinetics of serotonin from guinea-pig and human enterochromaffin cells. [Journal Article]
- J Physiol 2013 Dec 1; 591(Pt 23):5959-75.
Abstract The major source of serotonin (5-HT) in the body is the enterochromaffin (EC) cells lining the intestinal mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the fact that EC cells synthesise ∼95% of total body 5-HT, and that this 5-HT has important paracrine and endocrine roles, no studies have investigated the mechanisms of 5-HT release from single primary EC cells. We have developed a rapid primary culture of guinea-pig and human EC cells, allowing analysis of single EC cell function using electrophysiology, electrochemistry, Ca(2+) imaging, immunocytochemistry and 3D modelling. Ca(2+) enters EC cells upon stimulation and triggers quantal 5-HT release via L-type Ca(2+) channels. Real time amperometric techniques reveal that EC cells release 5-HT at rest and this release increases upon stimulation. Surprisingly for an endocrine cell storing 5-HT in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), EC cells release 70 times less 5-HT per fusion event than catecholamine released from similarly sized LDCVs in endocrine chromaffin cells, and the vesicle release kinetics instead resembles that observed in mammalian synapses. Furthermore, we measured EC cell density along the gastrointestinal tract to create three-dimensional (3D) simulations of 5-HT diffusion using the minimal number of variables required to understand the physiological relevance of single cell 5-HT release in the whole-tissue milieu. These models indicate that local 5-HT levels are likely to be maintained around the activation threshold for mucosal 5-HT receptors and that this is dependent upon stimulation and location within the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first study demonstrating single cell 5-HT release in primary EC cells. The mode of 5-HT release may represent a unique mode of exocytosis amongst endocrine cells and is functionally relevant to gastrointestinal sensory and motor function.
- Granins and catecholamines: functional interaction in chromaffin cells and adipose tissue. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Adv Pharmacol 2013.:93-113.
Catecholamines (CAs) and granin peptides are costored in dense-core vesicles within the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and in other endocrine organs and neurons. Granins play a major functional and structural role in chromaffin cells but are ubiquitous proteins, which are present also in secretory cells of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, where they regulate a number of cellular functions. Furthermore, recent studies also demonstrate that granin-derived peptides can functionally interact with CA to modulate key physiological functions such as lipolysis and blood pressure. In this chapter, we will provide a brief update on the interaction between CA and granins at the cellular and organ levels. We will first discuss recent data on the regulation of exocytosis of CA and peptides from the chromaffin cells by the sympathetic nervous system with a specific reference to the prominent role played by splanchnic nerve-derived pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). Secondly, we will discuss the role of granins in the storage and regulation of exocytosis in large dense-core vesicles. Finally, we will provide an up-to-date review of the roles played by two granin-derived peptides, the chromogranin A-derived peptide catestatin and the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21, on lipolysis and obesity. In conclusion, the knowledge gathered from recent findings on the role played by proteins/peptides in the sympathetic/target cell synapses, discussed in this chapter, would contribute to and provide novel mechanistic support for an increased appreciation of the physiological role of CA in human pathophysiology.
- Serotonin directly stimulates cortisol secretion from the interrenals in goldfish. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Gen Comp Endocrinol 2013 Oct 1.:246-55.
While serotonin (5-HT) can stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal stress axis in fish, the specific site(s) of 5-HT action are poorly understood. In this study, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were injected intraperitoneally with either saline or the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT at a dose of 100 or 400 μg/kg body weight and sampled 1.5 and 8 h post-injection. Relative to unhandled controls, the saline and 100 μg/kg 8-OH-DPAT treatments elicited similar transient 5- to 7-fold increases in plasma cortisol and the 400 μg/kg 8-OH-DPAT dosage resulted in a sustained 16-fold increase in cortisol levels. Although the 5-HT1A receptor is expressed in the brain preoptic area (POA), the pituitary and the head kidney, neither the saline nor the 8-OH-DPAT treatments affected the mRNA abundance of POA corticotropin-releasing factor and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin or plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. To assess the direct actions of 5-HT on cortisol secretion relative to those of ACTH, head kidney tissue were superfused with 10(-7)M 5-HT, ACTH or a combined 5-HT/ACTH treatment. Overall, the ACTH and 5-HT/ACTH treatments resulted in higher peak cortisol and total cortisol release than in the 5-HT treatment but the response time to peak cortisol release was shorter in the combined treatment than in either the 5-HT or ACTH alone treatments. Both 8-OH-DPAT and cisapride, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, also stimulated cortisol release in vitro and their actions were reversed by selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, respectively. Finally, double-labeling with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and anti-5-HT revealed that the chromaffin cells of the head kidney contain 5-HT. Thus, in goldfish, 5-HT can directly stimulate cortisol secretion from the interrenals via multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes and the chromaffin cells may be involved in the paracrine regulation of cortisol secretion via 5-HT.
- Implication of tumor stem-like cells in the tumorigenesis of sporadic paraganglioma. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Med Oncol 2013 Dec; 30(4):659.
It is commonly believed that paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from the neural crest-derived chromaffin cells. Although it has been speculated that paraganglioma is related to stem cell origin, there has been lack of direct evidence demonstrating the presence of (neural) stem cells in these tumor tissues. In this study, we found a subgroup of human paraganglioma from ten clinical samples displayed definitive markers of CD133 and/or nestin, the fundamental features of neural stem cell capable of self-renewal and differentiation. A panel of lineage-specific markers was also manifest in some of these tumors, consistent with the hierarchical and heterogeneous nature of these tumors. These observations strongly suggest that at least some forms of paraganglioma maintain tumor stem-like cells (TSCs) that potentially contribute to the histologic complexity of human paraganglioma. Finally, we found that the genomic DNA structure becomes highly unstable in tumor cells of paraganglioma, indicating the loss of tight control of genomic surveillance system be an important transitory event from normal multi-potent tissue stem cells to TSCs.
- Autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms in adrenocortical neoplasms responsible for primary adrenal hypercorticism. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Eur J Endocrinol 2013 Nov; 169(5):R115-38.
A wide variety of autocrine/paracrine bioactive signals are able to modulate corticosteroid secretion in the human adrenal gland. These regulatory factors, released in the vicinity of adrenocortical cells by diverse cell types comprising chromaffin cells, nerve terminals, cells of the immune system, endothelial cells, and adipocytes, include neuropeptides, biogenic amines, and cytokines. A growing body of evidence now suggests that paracrine mechanisms may also play an important role in the physiopathology of adrenocortical hyperplasias and tumors responsible for primary adrenal steroid excess. These intra-adrenal regulatory systems, although globally involving the same actors as those observed in the normal gland, display alterations at different levels, which reinforce the capacity of paracrine factors to stimulate the activity of adrenocortical cells. The main modifications in the adrenal local control systems reported by now include hyperplasia of cells producing the paracrine factors and abnormal expression of the latter and their receptors. Because steroid-secreting adrenal neoplasms are independent of the classical endocrine regulatory factors angiotensin II and ACTH, which are respectively suppressed by hyperaldosteronism and hypercortisolism, these lesions have long been considered as autonomous tissues. However, the presence of stimulatory substances within the neoplastic tissues suggests that steroid hypersecretion is driven by autocrine/paracrine loops that should be regarded as promising targets for pharmacological treatments of primary adrenal disorders. This new potential therapeutic approach may constitute an alternative to surgical removal of the lesions that is classically recommended in order to cure steroid excess.
- Hypoxia-inducible factor signaling in pheochromocytoma: turning the rudder in the right direction. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Natl Cancer Inst 2013 Sep 4; 105(17):1270-83.
Many solid tumors, including pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL), are characterized by a (pseudo)hypoxic signature. (Pseudo)hypoxia has been shown to promote both tumor progression and resistance to therapy. The major mediators of the transcriptional hypoxic response are hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). High levels of HIFs lead to transcription of hypoxia-responsive genes, which are involved in tumorigenesis. PHEOs and PGLs are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from sympathetic- or parasympathetic-derived chromaffin tissue. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the metabolic disturbances present in PHEO and PGL, especially because of the identification of some disease-susceptibility genes. To date, fifteen PHEO and PGL susceptibility genes have been identified. Based on the main transcription signatures of the mutated genes, PHEOs and PGLs have been divided into two clusters, pseudohypoxic cluster 1 and cluster 2, rich in kinase receptor signaling and protein translation pathways. Although these two clusters seem to show distinct signaling pathways, recent data suggest that both clusters are interconnected by HIF signaling as the important driver in their tumorigenesis, and mutations in most PHEO and PGL susceptibility genes seem to affect HIF-α regulation and its downstream signaling pathways. HIF signaling appears to play an important role in the development and growth of PHEOs and PGLs, which could suggest new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these tumors.
- Historical Review about Research on "Bonghan System" in China. [Journal Article]
- Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013.:636081.
The meridian-collateral theory is the theoretical basis of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy. Professor Bonghan Kim, a professor of the Pyongyang Medical University of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, claimed that he found the anatomical structure of meridian-collaterals, named Bonghan corpuscles (BHCs) and Bonghan ducts (BHDs) system or primo vascular system (PVS), in 1962. From 1963 to 1965, researchers from our institute conducted a series of comparative anatomical experiments, trying to reproduce the so-called BHC- and BHD-like structures in different strains of animals. In the present paper, the authors introduced their research findings about BHC- and BHD-like structures in the young rabbit's umbilicus including its external appearance, ectoplasm and endoplasm, and about strip-like and node-like objects in the blood vessels and lymph vessels near the larger abdominal and cervical blood vessels and chromaffin tissue in the back wall of the rabbit's abdominal cavity and between the bilateral kidneys. In spite of existence of the BHC- and BHD-like structures in the rabbit, there has been no proved evidence for their association with the meridian-collateral system described in acupuncture medicine. In the present historical review, the authors also make a discussion about the significance of those findings.
- Immunolocalization of Wilms' Tumor protein (WT1) in developing human peripheral sympathetic and gastroenteric nervous system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Histochem 2013 Jun 19.
Developmental expression of Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) and protein is crucial for cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and cytoskeletal architecture regulation. Recently, a potential role of WT1 has been suggested in the development of neural tissue and in neurodegenerative disorders. We have investigated immunohistochemically the developmentally regulated expression and distribution of WT1 in the human fetal peripheral sympathetic nervous system (PSNS) and the gastro-enteric nervous system (GENS) from weeks 8 to 28 gestational age. WT1 expression was restricted to the cytoplasm of sympathetic neuroblasts, while it progressively disappeared with advancing morphologic differentiation of these cells along both ganglionic and chromaffin cell lineages. In adult tissues, both ganglion and chromaffin cells lacked any WT1 expression. These findings show that WT1 is a reliable marker of human sympathetic neuroblasts, which can be used routinely in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. The progressive loss of WT1 in both ganglion and chromaffin cells, suggests its potential repressor role of differentiation in a precise temporal window during the development of the human PSNS and GENS.