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chromaffin tissue [keywords]
- Urinary bladder malignant paraganglioma with vertebral metastasis: a case report with review of the literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chin J Cancer 2013 May 14.
Paraganglioma (also known as extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma) is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm observed in patients of all ages, with an estimated incidence of 1 per 300,000 population. It has long been recognized that some cases are familial. The majority of these tumors are benign, and the only absolute criterion for malignancy is the presence of metastases at sites where chromaffin tissue is not usually found. Some tumors show gross local invasion and recurrence, which may indeed kill the patient, but this does not necessarily correlate with metastatic potential. Here, we report a case of vertebral metastatic paraganglioma that occurred 19 months after the patient had undergone partial cystectomy for urinary bladder paraganglioma. We believe this to be a rarely reported bone metastasis of paraganglioma arising originally within the urinary bladder. In this report, we also provide a summary of the general characteristics of this disease, together with progress in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
- Seasonal Changes in the Activity of the Adrenal Medulla of Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2013 Apr 30.
Animals living in nontropical climates modify their physiology and behavior to adapt to seasonal environmental changes. Part of this adaptation involves the release of catecholamine from sympathetic nerve endings and the adrenal medulla, which play a major role in regulating energy balance. The aim of this work was to investigate whether adult male viscachas in their natural habitat exhibits structural changes in the adrenal medulla during the annual seasonal cycle. In August-September, chromaffin granules revealed ultrastructural changes suggestive of piecemeal degranulation. Quantitative morphometric analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed a significantly lower percentage of resting chromaffin granules and a higher percentage of altered granules and empty containers in August-September (late winter) compared to February-March (late summer), suggesting an increased secretory process of catecholamines in August-September. The mechanism of piecemeal degranulation might amplify this process, encouraging the adaptive response to winter environmental conditions. Tissue levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine (analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography) changed throughout the year, reaching maximum values in February-March and minimum values in August-September. These results demonstrate morphological and biochemical seasonal variations of the adrenal medulla, suggesting that epinephrine might promote energy mobilization, which allow the Lagostomus to cope with adverse environmental conditions and thus to survive during winter season. Anat Rec, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(3):e58620.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are associated with accumulations of disease specific PrP (PrP(d)) in the central nervous system (CNS) and often the lymphoreticular system (LRS). Accumulations have additionally been recorded in other tissues including the peripheral nervous system and adrenal gland. Here we investigate the effect of sheep scrapie on the morphology and the accumulation of PrP(d) in the adrenal medulla of scrapie affected sheep using light and electron microscopy. Using immunogold electron microscopy, non-fibrillar forms of PrP(d) were shown to accumulate mainly in association with chromaffin cells, occasional nerve endings and macrophages. PrP(d) accumulation was associated with distinctive membrane changes of chromaffin cells including increased electron density, abnormal linearity and invaginations. Internalisation of PrP(d) from the chromaffin cell plasma membrane occurred in association with granule recycling following hormone exocytosis. PrP(d) accumulation and internalisation from membranes is similarly associated with perturbations of membrane structure and trafficking in CNS neurons and tingible body macrophages of the LRS. These data suggest that a major toxic effect of PrP(d) is at the level of plasma membranes. However, the precise nature of PrP(d)-membrane toxicity is tissue and cell specific suggesting that the normal protein may act as a multi-functional scaffolding molecule. We further suggest that the co-localisation of PrP(d) with exocytic granules of the hormone trafficking system may provide an additional source of infectivity in blood.
- Mutation screening in a Norwegian cohort with pheochromocytoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fam Cancer 2013 Feb 14.
Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) are neuroendocrine tumours, originating from chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. They are either sporadic or hereditary. It is important to identify the hereditary cases, so that patients and relatives with germline mutations can be offered regular surveillance. The objective of this study was the detection of pathogenic germline mutations in a cohort of Norwegian PHEO patients. Blood samples and/or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, were collected from 60 patients who were operated upon between 1986 and 2004 at two university hospitals in Norway. DNA mutation analyses were performed successfully in the 42 blood samples and in one of the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen in VHL, RET, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and NF1. In all, 32 different DNA variants were observed, of which 8 were classified as pathogenic (19 %), or possibly pathogenic; three in NF1, two in RET and VHL and one in SDHB. Two variants were observed in one patient, one in SDHB and one in NF1. Three of these variants are, to the best of our knowledge, new ones; two in NF1 [c.950_51insGCTGA, (p.Glu318LeufsX59) and c.1588G > A, (p.Val530Ile)] and one in VHL (c.308C > T, p.Pro103Leu). In conclusion the overall incidence of germline mutations in genes associated with familial PHEO was found to be of the same order of magnitude in the present Norwegian series as in those from other countries. Two new NF1 variants and one new VHL gene variant were detected.
- Responses of proenkephalin Peptide F to aerobic exercise stress in the plasma and white blood cell biocompartments. [Journal Article]
- Peptides 2013 Apr.:118-24.
Proenkephalin Peptide F [107-140] is an enkephalin-containing peptide found predominantly within the adrenal medulla, co-packaged with epinephrine within the chromaffin granules. In vivo studies indicate that Peptide F has classic opioid analgesia effects; in vitro studies suggest potential immune cell interactions. In this investigation we examined patterns of Peptide F concentrations in different bio-compartments of the blood at rest and following sub-maximal cycle exercise to determine if Peptide F interacts with the white blood cell (WBC) bio-compartment during aerobic exercise. Eight physically active men (n=8) performed sub-maximal (80-85% V˙O2peak) cycle ergometer exercise for 30min. Plasma Peptide F and WBC Peptide F immunoreactivity were examined pre-exercise, mid-exercise and immediately post-, 5-min post-, 15-min post-, 30-min post- and 60-min post-exercise and at similar time-points during a control condition (30min rest). Peptide F concentrations significantly (p<0.05) increased at 5 and 60min post-exercise, compared to pre-exercise concentrations. No significant increases in Peptide F concentrations in the WBC fraction were observed during or after exercise. However, a significant decrease was observed at 30min post-exercise. An ultradian pattern of Peptide F distribution was apparent during rest. Furthermore, concentrations of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and total WBCs demonstrated significant changes in response to aerobic exercise. Data indicated that Peptide F was bound in significant molar concentrations in the WBC fraction and that this biocompartment may be one of the tissue targets for binding interactions. These data indicate that Peptide F is involved with immune cell modulation in the white blood circulatory biocompartment of blood.
- Targeted cell reprogramming produces analgesic chromaffin-like cells from human mesenchymal stem cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Transplant 2013 Feb 4.
Transplantation of allogeneic adrenal chromaffin cells demonstrated the promise of favorable outcomes for pain relief in patients. However, there is a very limited availability of suitable human adrenal gland tissues, genetically well-match donors in particular, to serve as grafts. Xenogeneic materials, such as porcine and bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, present problems, for instance, immune rejection and possible pathogenic contamination. To overcome these challenges, we have tested the novel approach of cell reprogramming to reprogram human bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) using cellular extracts of porcine chromaffin cells and we produced a new type of cells, chromaffin-like cells. These chromaffin-like cells generated from the reprogrammed hMSCs displayed a significant increase in expression of human preproenkephalin (hPPE), a precursor for enkephalin opioid peptides, compared to the inherent expression of hPPE in naïve hMSCs. The resultant chromaffin-like cells not only expressed the key molecular markers of adrenal chromaffin cells, such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and methionine enkephalin (Met-enkephalin), but also secreted opioid peptide Met-enkephalin in culture. In addition, intrathecal injection of chromaffin-like cells in rats produced significant analgesic effects without using immunosuppressants. These results suggest that analgesic chromaffin-like cells can be produced from an individual's own tissue-derived stem cells by targeted cell reprogramming and also that these chromaffin-like cells may serve as potential autografts for chronic pain management.
- Fibronectin mediates correct positioning of the interrenal organ in zebrafish. [Journal Article]
- Dev Dyn 2013 May; 242(5):432-43.
Background:Fibronectin (Fn) forms a centripetal gradient during the fetal adrenal gland organogenesis, and modulates hormone responsiveness of adrenocortical cells in the primary culture. However, how Fn is involved in organ formation of the adrenal gland remains unclear.
Results:In this study, we found that Fn accumulates around migrating ff1b-expressing interrenal cells, which were marked by the ff1b promoter-driven transgenic fluorescence, during the course of interrenal organ assembly. The interrenal cells displaying the migratory phenotype were absent in the fn1 mutant, while specification and kidney association of the interrenal tissue remained normal. The Fn deposition in the interrenal microenvironment was severely reduced in the vessel-deficient ets1b morphant, implying its origin of synthesis from the peri-interrenal vasculature. In the fn1 mutant, early-migrating chromaffin cells were capable of interacting with steroidogenic interrenal cells, yet continuous migration and midline convergence of chromaffin cells were disrupted. Migration defects of both interrenal and chromaffin lineages, in the absence of Fn, thus led to incomplete interrenal organ assembly in aberrant positions.
Conclusions:Our results indicate that Fn is essential for patterning interrenal organ formation, by modulating the migratory behavior of both steroidogenic interrenal and chromaffin cells. Developmental Dynamics 242:432-443, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- [About the signs of malignant pheochromocytoma]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Klin Med (Mosk) 2012; 90(10):64-8.
Morphological criteria for malignant pheochromocytoma remain to be developed According to the WHO recommendations, the sole absolute criteria is the presence of metastases in the organs normally containing no chromaffin tissue. Such signs as cellular and nuclear polymorphism, mytotic activity, vascular invasion, capsular ingrowth are not sufficient to describe a pheochromocytoma as malignant. It is equally dfficult to differentiate between malignant and benign tumours based on histological data since histologically mature neoplasms can produce metastases. Based on the results of original studies, the authors believe that such histological features as vascular and capsular invasion do not necessarily suggest unfavourable prognosis. Therefore, the conclusion of malignancy based on such features can not be regarded as absolute. Probably such neoplasms should be called "pheochromocytomas with morphological signs of malignant growths". They should be referred to the tumours with uncertain malignancy potential based on the known discrepancy between morphological structure and biological activity of neoplasms. Comparative studies of clinical and morphological features of pheochromocytomas showed that their histological type (alveolar; solid, dyscomplexed, trabecular) and morphological signs of malignant growth influence both the clinical picture and arterial hypertension. There are no significant relationship between the above morphological signs, timour mass and clinical manifestations of pheochromocytomas.
- Protein expression pattern of human MIER1 alpha, a novel estrogen receptor binding protein. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 Jan 1.
MIER1 is a transcriptional regulator that exists as several isoforms. Of particular interest is the MIER1α isoform, which contains in its unique C-terminus an LXXLL motif for interaction with nuclear hormone receptors. Indeed, MIER1α has been shown to interact with ERα and inhibit estrogen-stimulated growth of breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, the subcellular localization of MIER1α changes dramatically, from nuclear to cytoplasmic, during progression to invasive breast carcinoma. While human MIER1 RNA and protein expression pattern data have been posted on several websites, none of these studies use probes or antibodies that distinguish between the α and β isoforms. We report here the first immunohistochemical study of the MIER1α protein expression pattern in human tissues. Our analysis revealed intense staining of specific cell types within virtually every endocrine and reproductive tissue except for the thyroid gland. In particular, we detected intense staining of ovarian follicles and germinal epithelium, ductal epithelial cells of the breast, pancreatic islet cells, all areas of the anterior pituitary and all zones of the adrenal cortex; moderate staining of germ cells and Leydig cells within the testis, patches of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla and weak staining of the fibromuscular stroma within the prostate. Immunoreactivity was limited to the cytoplasm in all positive cells except for oocytes and germinal epithelial cells in which the nucleus was also stained and in ductal epithelial cells of the breast in which staining was exclusively nuclear. In general, non-endocrine tissues were negative, however a few exceptions were noted. These included hepatocytes, myocardial fibers and neurons in all regions of the brain examined, with the exception of the thalamus. Neuronal staining was restricted to the cell bodies and dendrites, as most axons were negative. These data suggest that human MIER1α functions specifically in endocrine tissues and in a limited number of non-endocrine organs.
- Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 May 22; 371(1-2):189-94.
Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment. Peptide hormone receptors are frequently overexpressed on endocrine tumor cells and can be specifically targeted by various anti-tumor peptide analogs. The present study carried out on mouse pheochromocytoma cells (MPCs) and a more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cell line revealed that these cells are characterized by pronounced expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. We further demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects mediated by cytotoxic somatostatin analogs, AN-162 and AN-238, by LHRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, by the cytotoxic LHRH analog, AN-152, and by recently developed GHRH antagonist, MIA-602, on MPC and for AN-152 and MIA-602 on MTT cells. Studies of novel anti-tumor compounds on these mouse cell lines serve as an important basis for mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma, which we are currently establishing.