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diabetes insipidus [keywords]
- Microscopic versus endoscopic pituitary surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurocirugia (Astur) 2014 Apr 16.
The endoscopic techniques used in pituitary surgery have evolved greatly in recent years. Our objective in this study was to conduct a review of the systematic reviews published in the English language literature, to examine their consistency and conclusions reached following studies comparing microsurgery and endoscopic surgery in hypophyseal surgery.We carried out a bibliographic search on MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases, selecting those systematic reviews and meta-analyses published from the year 2000 until January 2013, focusing on comparisons between microsurgical and endoscopic techniques.We concluded with type A consistency that hospital stay was shorter and diabetes insipidus and rhinological complications were less frequent in the endoscopy group. We concluded with type B consistency that lower rates of patient blood loss, shorter operative times, higher rate of gross total resection, lesser association to visual impairment and lower rate of hypopituitarism were observed in the endoscopy group. Vascular complications and cerebrospinal fluid fistulas were reduced with microsurgery. It is crucial to perform a combined analysis of all the systematic reviews treating a specific topic, observing and analysing the trends and how these are affected by new contributions.Randomized multicenter studies are necessary to resolve the controversy over endoscopic and microsurgical approaches in hypophyseal pathology.
- Anterior panhypopituitarism in diffuse large B-cell stage IV lymphoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Neurosci 2014 Apr 15.
The most common presentation of metastases to the pituitary gland in systemic lymphoma is diabetes insipidus resulting from infiltration of the infundibulum/posterior lobe. We describe a 69-year-old man with diffuse large B-cell stage IV lymphoma who presented with anterior pituitary hypofunction, without features of posterior pituitary involvement. He presented with a few months of postural dizziness and hypotension, weight loss, fever, strabismus of right eye and a superficial abdominal wall mass. At this time he had no history of malignancy. Biochemically he had hypovolemic hyponatremia, secondary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. Further hormonal work-up revealed panhypopituitarism but no diabetes insipidus. Imaging of the brain, thorax and abdomen demonstrated diffuse intracranial pachymeningeal thickening and enhancement, multiple lymphadenopathies, a bulky right adrenal gland and a large left suprarenal mass, which were indicative of an infiltrative disease. Imaging of the pituitary showed heterogeneous enhancement of the anterior lobe with an unremarkable pituitary stalk and posterior lobe. Biopsy of the superficial abdominal wall mass revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma confirmed by bone marrow aspiration biopsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) scan confirmed diffuse systemic disease involving the right orbital apex, bilateral adrenal glands, bone and bone marrow, retroperitoneum and subcutaneous tissues; however, the pituitary gland, infundibulum and hypothalamus did not show any lesions on the PET scan. The patient was commenced on two cycles of chemotherapy but unfortunately died, thus recovery of pituitary function was not tested. Pure anterior pituitary hypofunction can uncommonly present in individuals with metastases to the pituitary gland, in contrast to the more common posterior pituitary/infundibulum involvement.
- Lithium induces microcysts and polyuria in adolescent rat kidney independent of cyclooxygenase-2. [Journal Article]
- Physiol Rep 2014 Jan 1; 2(1):e00202.
In patients, chronic treatment with lithium leads to renal microcysts and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). It was hypothesized that renal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes microcyst formation and NDI. Kidney microcysts were induced in male adolescent rats by feeding dams with lithium (50 mmol/kg chow) from postnatal days 7-34. Lithium treatment induced somatic growth retardation, renal microcysts and dilatations in cortical collecting duct; it increased cortical cell proliferation and inactive pGSK-3β abundance; it lowered aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein abundance and induced polyuria with decreased ability to concentrate the urine; and it increased COX-2 protein level in thick ascending limb. Concomitant treatment with lithium and a specific COX-2 inhibitor, parecoxib (5 mg/kg per day, P10-P34), did not prevent lithium-induced microcysts and polyuria, but improved urine concentrating ability transiently after a 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin challenge. COX-2 inhibition did not reduce cortical lithium-induced cell proliferation and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). COX-1 protein abundance increased in rat kidney cortex in response to lithium. COX-1 immunoreactivity was found in microcyst epithelium in rat kidney. A human nephrectomy specimen from a patient treated for 28 years with lithium displayed multiple, COX-1-immunopositive, microcysts. In chronic lithium-treated adolescent rats, COX-2 is not colocalized with microcystic epithelium, mitotic activity, and inactive pGSK-3β in collecting duct; a blocker of COX-2 does not prevent cell proliferation, cyst formation, or GSK-3β inactivation. It is concluded that COX-2 activity is not the primary cause for microcysts and polyuria in a NaCl-substituted rat model of lithium nephropathy. COX-1 is a relevant candidate to affect the injured epithelium.
- Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a dog with leptospirosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ir Vet J 2014 Apr 17; 67(1):7.
A 5 year old male neutered Cairn Terrier was evaluated for signs of polyuria and polydipsia. Initial hematology and chemistry panels were unremarkable and urinalysis showed a persistent hyposthenuria. Eleven days later, the dog became lethargic, inappetent and had developed acute renal failure. The dog was ultimately euthanized due to a poor response to treatment. Microscopic agglutination titres were consistent with a diagnosis of leptospirosis. The initial hyposthenuria in this case was consistent with acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This is an uncommon presentation of leptospirosis that has not previously been described to progress to acute renal failure. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in any dog presenting with polyuria and polydipsia and these patients should be treated as a zoonotic risk.
- Intractable Polyuria Mimicking Diabetes Insipidus-Source Traced to Vecuronium Infusion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ther 2014 Apr 14.
Continuous infusion of vecuronium is a commonly used technique for patients requiring prolonged neuromuscular blockade for mechanical ventilation. As compared with older neuromuscular blocking agents, it confers the advantages of rapid excretion and intermediate duration of action. Prolongation of neuromuscular blockade and muscle weakness are the known complications of continuous vecuronium infusion. This report attempts to describe polyuria, as a hitherto unknown complication of vecuronium infusion, which can occur due to the mannitol present in commercially available preparation of vecuronium bromide.
- X-ray structure of human aquaporin 2 and its implications for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and trafficking. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Apr 14.
Human aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a water channel found in the kidney collecting duct, where it plays a key role in concentrating urine. Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This process is tightly controlled by the pituitary hormone arginine vasopressin and defective trafficking results in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Here we present the X-ray structure of human AQP2 at 2.75 Å resolution. The C terminus of AQP2 displays multiple conformations with the C-terminal α-helix of one protomer interacting with the cytoplasmic surface of a symmetry-related AQP2 molecule, suggesting potential protein-protein interactions involved in cellular sorting of AQP2. Two Cd(2+)-ion binding sites are observed within the AQP2 tetramer, inducing a rearrangement of loop D, which facilitates this interaction. The locations of several NDI-causing mutations can be observed in the AQP2 structure, primarily situated within transmembrane domains and the majority of which cause misfolding and ER retention. These observations provide a framework for understanding why mutations in AQP2 cause NDI as well as structural insights into AQP2 interactions that may govern its trafficking.
- Renal physiology of nocturia. [Journal Article]
- Neurourol Urodyn 2014 Apr.:S6-9.
Renal function, diurnal fluctuations in arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, sex, and advanced age affect urine formation and may contribute to nocturia. Renal effects of AVP are mediated by AVP V2 receptors in the kidney collecting duct. Changes in AVP concentration have the greatest relative effects on urine volume when AVP levels are low; therefore small changes can have a large effect on renal water excretion. AVP is the major regulator of water excretion by the kidneys, and AVP levels have been shown to affect nocturnal voiding. Results of several studies show that patients with nocturia had no significant variation in plasma AVP, whereas patients without nocturia had significant diurnal variation in plasma AVP. The V2 receptor gene is located on the X chromosome, which has important sex-specific consequences. For example, mutations in the V2 gene can cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, predominantly in men. Age-related changes in water metabolism are associated with overall body composition, kidney, and brain. Older people generally experience decreased extracellular fluid and plasma volume, which leads to increased adverse consequences from net body water gain or loss. Renal function declines with age, and the ability to concentrate urine and conserve sodium is reduced in the elderly. Thirst perception is also decreased in the elderly, who, compared with younger people, tend to hypersecrete AVP in response to higher plasma osmolality, possibly resulting in hyponatremia. These aspects of renal physiology should be considered when antidiuretic drugs are prescribed for the treatment of nocturia. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:S6-S9, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Pituitary metastasis from breast cancer presenting as diabetes insipidus. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
An 83-year-old woman developed pituitary metastasis while being treated for metastatic breast cancer. She presented with visual disturbance and headache followed by thirst, nocturia and polyuria. A visual field defect was present. MRI revealed a sellar mass consistent with metastasis to the pituitary gland. She was successfully treated with radiotherapy to the sella and had improvement of her visual symptoms and visual field defect. She then required ongoing treatment for diabetes insipidus. Her symptoms had not shown any sign of recurring up to 9 months after treatment. Pituitary metastases are rare but should be suspected in patients with metastatic cancer who present with features similar to those seen here. With improvements in survival in metastatic breast cancer, pituitary metastases may be seen more commonly and active local treatment is warranted given the possibility of resolution of symptoms related to the pituitary metastases.
- Spontaneous remission of acromegaly: apoplexy mimicking meningitis or meningitis as a cause of apoplexy? [Journal Article]
- Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2014 Feb; 58(1):76-80.
Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by ischemic infarction or hemorrhage into a pituitary tumor. The diagnosis of pituitary tumor apoplexy is frequently complicated because of the nonspecific nature of its signs and symptoms, which can mimic different neurological processes, including meningitis. Several factors have been associated with apoplexy, such as dopamine agonists, radiotherapy, or head trauma, but meningitis is a rarely reported cause. We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with acromegaly due to a pituitary macroadenoma. Before surgical treatment, she arrived at Emergency with fever, nausea, vomiting and meningismus. Symptoms and laboratory tests suggested bacterial meningitis, and antibiotic therapy was initiated, with quick improvement. A computerized tomography (CT) scan at admission did not reveal any change in pituitary adenoma, but a few weeks later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed data of pituitary apoplexy with complete disappearance of the adenoma. Currently, her acromegaly is cured, but she developed hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus following apoplexy. We question whether she really experienced meningitis leading to apoplexy or whether apoplexy was misinterpreted as meningitis. In conclusion, the relationship between meningitis and pituitary apoplexy may be bidirectional. Apoplexy can mimic viral or bacterial meningitis, but meningitis might cause apoplexy, as well. This fact highlights the importance of differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with pituitary adenomas and acute neurological symptoms.
- Endoscopic versus microscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery: a meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- World J Surg Oncol 2014; 12(1):94.
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has gradually come to be regarded as a preferred option in the treatment of pituitary adenomas because of its advantages of improved visualization and its minimal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the outcomes and complications of endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.We performed a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science between January 1992 and May 2013. Studies with consecutive patients that explicitly and fully compared endoscopic and microscopic approaches in the treatment of pituitary adenomas were included.A total of 15 studies (n = 1,014 patients) met the inclusion criteria among 487 studies that involved endoscopic surgery and 527 studies that dealt with microscopic surgery. The rate of gross tumor removal was higher in the endoscopic group than in the microscopic group. The post-operative rates of septal perforation were less frequent in patients who underwent endoscopic surgery. There was no significant difference between the two techniques in the incidence rates of meningitis, diabetes insipidus, cerebrospinal fluid leak, epistaxis or hypopituitarism. The post-operative hospital stay was significantly shorter for the endoscopic surgery group compared with the microscopic surgery group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the length of the operation (P > 0.05).The present study indicates that the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach is safer and more effective than microscopic surgery in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.