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diabetes insipidus [keywords]
- Initial symptoms of pineal region tumors - comparison to historical control of pre-ct era -. [Journal Article]
- Neuro Oncol 2014 Jul.:iii3.
The initial symptoms of pineal region tumors might vary according to histology and era.The initial symptoms of 39 pineal region tumors who were treated at the International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University and whose initial clinical symptoms were well documented on charts were analyzed. Those symptoms were compared with those of historical control (HC) of 26 "pienalomas" (1), who were treated at the University of Tokyo in pre-CTera (mostly germ cell tumors, but some without histological confirmation).There were 32 germ cell tumors (germinoma 20, non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT) 12) and 6 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT). Increased intracranial pressure (IICP) was observed in 20 cases (51%) which was slightly less than the HC (66.7%) (P = 0.17), The IICP was observed 40% of cases in germinoma, 83.3% in NGCGCT and 33.3% in PPT. Eye movement disorder was observed in 18 of 39 patients (47%) wheres that was only in 12 (33.3%) in the HC (P= 0.26). Abnormality in pupils was observed in 33.3% in the study cohort and in 25% in HC (P = 0.43). Diabetes insipidus, which suggests the presence of multifocal lesion involving hypothalamus was observed in 25% of GCTs of study cohort and in 19.4% in the HC.With the advancement of modern imaging modalities and accessibility to neurosurgical practice, the clinical pictures of pineal region tumors have been slightly changed but not significantly. Current pineal region tumors tend to be found a little earlier than the pre-CT era. (1) Fujimaki T. Ryoikibetsu-shoukougun series, 2000 SECONDARY CATEGORY: Epidemiology & Cancer Control.
- Is environmental temperature related to renal symptoms, serum lithium levels, and other laboratory test results in current lithium users? [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Hum Psychopharmacol 2014 Jul; 29(4):392-6.
Lithium continues to be an important mood disorder treatment. Although patients exposed to higher environmental temperatures may have serum lithium level elevations due to dehydration, there is conflicting data in the literature. In addition, no study has assessed the association between temperature and other renal laboratory tests and symptoms in lithium users.This is a cross-sectional analysis of 63 current lithium users who participated in the McGill Geriatric Lithium-induced Diabetes Insipidus Clinical Study. The relationship between mean daily temperature with diabetes insipidus symptoms, glomerular filtration rate, urine osmolality, serum sodium, lithium level, and lithium dose-level ratio was assessed.Although a higher temperature on the day of laboratory testing trended toward being independently associated with a lower lithium dose-level ratio (Beta = -0.17, p = 0.08), this was not found when using a dichotomous measure of temperature (T > 20°C). No association was observed between temperature and other renal parameters.The association of temperature with lithium levels, renal symptoms, and laboratory tests appears to be of relatively little clinical importance in lithium users in temperate climates. However, future research should re-examine patients living in climates with extreme temperatures (e.g., >40°C), who may theoretically be at higher risk.
- Paediatric endocrine disorders at the university college hospital, ibadan: 2002 - 2009. [Journal Article]
- Ann Ib Postgrad Med 2013 Dec; 11(2):96-101.
Until recently, most published research focus more on infectious diseases and malnutrition giving the impression that endocrine disorders are uncommon. Reports on endocrine disorders in children in developing countries are few compared to developed countries reflecting the different level of prevalence in the different geographical locations and or level of awareness and availability of facilities for proper diagnosis.This study aims at defining the burden of paediatric endocrine disorders in Ibadan.A review of records of children who presented at University College Hospital, Ibadan with paediatric endocrine disorders from 2002 to 2009 was carried out.During the eight-year period, a total of 110 children presented with various endocrine disorders but only 94 had complete data for this study. There were 47(50%) males and 37(39.4%) females, and in 10(10.6%) of them, had genital ambiguity at presentation. Patients' ages ranged from 2 weeks to 15 years with a median of 3 years. Many (35%) patients were malnourished with weight less than 80% of the expected weight for age and only 9% were overweight. Yearly distribution of cases showed a steady increase in number of cases from 2005. Rickets and metabolic disorders constituted 56.4% of patients; Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 12.8%, adrenal disoders in 10.6%, pubertal disorders in 5.3% and growth disorders in 4.3% of the patients. Thyroid disorders were present in 6.4%, obesity in 3.2% while the least common disorder was Diabetes insipidus (1%). About 58% of the children had parents in the low socioeconomic status and the management of the cases were severely hampered by lack of funds. About 60.6% of these patients were lost to follow up, during the period.Paediatric endocrine disorders are associated with a high incidence of malnutrition. Most patients presented with rickets which is a preventable condition.
- Visceral disseminated varicella zoster virus infection after rituximab treatment for granulomatosis with polyangiitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mod Rheumatol 2014 Aug 27.:1-7.
We report on a 30-year-old Japanese woman with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) complicated by pituitary diabetes insipidus and multiple lung granulomas. The granulomas disappeared with prednisolone (50 mg/day) and rituximab, although continuous nasal desmopressin was needed to control diabetes insipidus after immunosuppressive therapies. At the time of presentation, the patient had abdominal pain and disseminated intravascular coagulation but no rash. She died of continuous hemorrhage from her skin of neck, mucosa of her pharynx, and small intestine. At autopsy, varicella zoster virus (VZV)-DNA detected in serum and VZV antigens detected in tissues of her pharynx, esophagus, and liver led to a diagnosis of visceral disseminated VZV infection (VD-VZV). She also complicated cytomegalovirus infection in her stomach and ovaries. Her posterior pituitary gland had been replaced by foamy macrophages. In 38 reported cases of VD-VZV, rash appeared following the onset of abdominal pain (mean interval, 6.5 days) but was lacking in 11% of cases. The mortality rate associated with VD-VZV was as high as 29% and survived cases were treated with antivirals earlier than mortal cases. A quick diagnosis with detection of VZV-DNA or VZV antigens in sera or tissues using PCR or immunohistochemistry examination and early empirical treatment with antivirals are important.
- IgG4-related disease that presented cranial, cervical, lumbar and sacral hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with infundibulo-hypophysitis. [Journal Article]
- Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2014; 54(8):664-7.
We report a patient of 32-year-old female with central IgG4-related disease. She developed headache and visual disturbance. On examination, she revealed diabetes insipidus, retrobulbar neuritis, hyperreflexia and limb weakness. Her laboratory findings showed serum IgG4 elevation, pleocytosis and protein elevation in cerebrospinal fluid. Chest CT showed a nodular lesion in the S8 of the left lung. Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance images with gadolinium contrast material showed cranial, cervical and lumbosacral hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with infundibulo-hypophysitis. Pathological findings of the left frontal dura mater revealed lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory cell infiltrate with dense fibrosis. IgG4 immunohistochemistry showed no IgG4 + plasma cells within the inflammatory infiltrate. During treatment with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisolone, she revealed recovery of visual acuity with improvement of hypertrophic pachymeningitis and normalization of serum IgG4. This is a first report of IgG4-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis which involved cranial, cervical and lumbosacral regions as well as infundibulo-hypophysitis in a young female.
- A novel method for managing water and electrolyte balance after transsphenoidal surgery: preliminary study of moderate water intake restriction. [Journal Article]
- Nagoya J Med Sci 2014 Feb; 76(1-2):73-82.
Hyponatremia is a common and potentially serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Since September 2009, we have implemented moderate water intake restriction (< 2500 mL/day) after TSS in an attempt to prevent this complication. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a combination of moderate restriction of water intake plus antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin [AVP]) replacement therapy in patients with diabetes insipidus (DI) for reducing the incidence of delayed hyponatremia after TSS. Patients treated from September 2005 to August 2009 were allowed to drink water freely after surgery (the control group), while patients treated from September 2009 to June 2012 were restricted to less than 2500 mL water per day (the water restriction group). To reduce the occurrence of hypernatremia, AVP replacement therapy was provided immediately after the development of DI. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of hyponatremia, DI, and hypernatremia in patients following TSS. Hyponatremia incidence was significantly lower in the water restriction group (P = 0.017); however, there were no significant differences in DI incidence and hypernatremia incidence between the 2 groups. Under DI control with AVP replacement therapy, the water restriction group showed no significant difference in the daily self-rated thirst level for the patients with and without DI. Moderate water intake restriction in addition to AVP replacement therapy significantly decreases the incidence of hyponatremia without patient discomfort (extreme thirst) and other complications. However, further studies are required to determine the most effective amount of water and the optimal duration of postoperative water restriction.
- Intraoperative high-field MRI for transsphenoidal reoperations of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosurg 2014 Aug 15.:1-10.
Object The loss of anatomical landmarks, frequently invasive tumor growth, and tissue changes make transsphenoidal reoperation of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) challenging. The use of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) may lead to improved results. The goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of iMRI on transsphenoidal reoperations for NFA. Methods Between September 2002 and July 2012, 109 patients underwent reoperations in which 111 transsphenoidal procedures were performed and are represented in this study. A 1.5-T Magnetom Sonata Maestro Class scanner (Siemens) was used for iMRI. Follow-up iMRI scans were acquired if gross-total resection (GTR) was suspected or if no further removal seemed possible. Results Surgery was performed for tumor persistence and regrowth in 26 (23%) and 85 (77%) patients, respectively. On the initial iMRI scans, GTR was confirmed in 19 (17%) patients. Remnants were located as follows: 65 in the cavernous sinus (71%), 35 in the suprasellar space (38%), 9 in the retrosellar space (10%). Additional resection was possible in 62 (67%) patients, resulting in a significant volume reduction and increased GTR rate (49%). The GTR rates of invasive tumors on initial iMRI and postoperative MRI (poMRI) were 7% and 25%, respectively. Additional remnant resection was possible in 64% of the patients. Noninvasive tumors were shown to be totally resected on the initial iMRI in 31% of cases. After additional resection for 69% of the procedures, the GTR rate on poMRI was 75%. Transcranial surgery to resect tumor remnants was indicated in 5 (5%), and radiotherapy was performed in 29 (27%) patients. After GTR, no recurrence was detected during a mean follow-up of 2.2 ± 2.1 years. Conclusions The use of iMRI in transsphenoidal reoperations for NFA leads to significantly higher GTR rates. It thus prevents additional operations and reduces the number of tumor remnants. The complication rates do not exceed the incidences reported in the literature for primary transsphenoidal surgery. If complete tumor resection is not possible, iMRI guidance can facilitate tumor volume reduction.
- An uncommon presentation of Sjögren's syndrome and brucellosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transfus Apher Sci 2014 Jul 23.
We describe herein a case of hypokalemia due to proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) and Fanconi's syndrome (FS) and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with DIC - a rare complication of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and brucellosis. The interesting feature of this case was the presentation with severe hypokalemia, causing acute flaccid quadriparesis with cardiac arrest which is extremely rare. The patient was a 48-year-old woman who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest an hour after hospitalization. Analysis of a blood sample obtained before her cardiopulmonary arrest yielded surprising results: laboratory investigations showed profound hypokalemia (1.1 mEq/L) with renal K wasting, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap, hypophosphatemia with hypouricemia, glucosuria, and proteinuria. A diagnosis of RTA and FS were made. On the seventh day, she looked acutely ill, temperature 38.8 °C and pale, and her physical examination revealed purpuric skin lesions on both legs. The serum antibrucella titration agglutination test was found to be 1 of 160 positive with a nosocomial infection. The clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). She was unable to concentrate her urine and so a diagnosis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) was reached. A thorough survey for the cause of FS, RTA and NDI revealed that she had xerophthalmia and xerostomia accompanied by high anti-Ro antibody, positive Schirmer test, confirming the diagnosis of SS.
- Desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) associated hyponatremia and brain damage: a case series. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Aug 8.
Desmopressin (DDAVP) is typically prescribed for central diabetes insipidus, von Willebrands disease and for enuresis. DDAVP-associated hyponatremia is a known complication of DDAVP therapy. The currently recommended treatment for this condition calls for discontinuing DDAVP as part of the initial therapy. This recommendation could lead to a water diuresis and potentially over-correction of the serum sodium.The 15 patients in this case series developed symptomatic DDAVP-associated hyponatremia and were admitted to acute care hospitals. Thirty-eight percent presented with symptomatic hyponatremia and 62% developed symptomatic hyponatremia due to concomitant DDAVP and hypotonic intravenous fluid administration during a hospital stay. Group 1 patients (n = 13) were treated by withholding DDAVP and providing intravenous saline. Group 2 patients (n = 2) were treated by continuing DDAVP and providing DDAVP and intravenous hypertonic saline.Among Group 1 patients, in whom DDAVP was withheld as initial management of DDAVP-associated hyponatremia (n = 13), the mean change in serum sodium in the first 2 days of treatment was 37.1 ± 8.1 mEq/L. The ultimate outcome in this group was death in 23%, severe brain damage in 69% and moderate brain damage in 8%. In Group 2 patients, in whom DDAVP was continued (n = 2) as part of the initial management strategy, the mean change in serum sodium was 11.0 ± 0 mEq/L in the first 2 days. The ultimate outcome was survival without neurological sequelae in both cases.Discontinuing DDAVP in a patient with symptomatic DDAVP-associated hyponatremia can lead to rapid correction of the serum sodium and resultant severe neurological injury. In contrast, continuing the medication while correcting DDAVP-associated hyponatremia may lead to better outcomes by avoiding over-correction of the serum sodium. Thus, an alternative approach that we propose is to continue DDAVP as part of the initial management of this disorder.