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diabetes insipidus [keywords]
- Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcome of 22 Cases of Primary Hypophysitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2014 May 27.
Primary hypophysitis causes varying degrees of endocrine dysfunction and mass effect. The natural course and best treatment have not been well established.Medical records of 22 patients who had been diagnosed with primary hypophysitis between January 2001 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the anatomical location, we classified the cases as adenohypophysitis (AH), infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INH), and panhypophysitis (PH). Clinical presentation, endocrine function, pathologic findings, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and treatment courses were reviewed.Among 22 patients with primary hypophysitis, 81.8% (18/22) had involvement of the posterior pituitary lobe. Two patients of the AH (2/3, 66.6%) and three patients of the PH (3/10, 30%) groups initially underwent surgical mass reduction. Five patients, including three of the PH (3/10, 33.3%) group and one from each of the AH (1/3, 33.3%) and INH (1/9, 11.1%) groups, initially received high-dose glucocorticoid treatment. Nearly all of the patients treated with surgery or high-dose steroid treatment (9/11, 82%) required continuous hormone replacement during the follow-up period. Twelve patients received no treatment for mass reduction due to the absence of acute symptoms and signs related to a compressive mass effect. Most of them (11/12, 92%) did not show disease progression, and three patients recovered partially from hormone deficiency.Deficits of the posterior pituitary were the most common features in our cases of primary hypophysitis. Pituitary endocrine defects responded less favorably to glucocorticoid treatment and surgery. In the absence of symptoms related to mass effect and with the mild defect of endocrine function, it may not require treatment to reduce mass except hormone replacement.
- Clinical overview of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus based on a nationwide survey in Japan. [Journal Article]
- Yonago Acta Med 2014 Jun; 57(2):85-91.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare disease whose complications include polyuria, renal dysfunction, growth disorder and mental retardation. The details of NDI's clinical course have been unclear. To address this uncertainty, we performed a large investigation of the clinical course of NDI in Japan.Between December 2009 and March 2011, we provided a primary questionnaire to 26,282 members of the Japan Endocrine Society, the Japanese Urological Association, the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, the Japanese Society for Pediatric Nephrology, the Japanese Society of Nephrology, the Japanese Society of Neurology and the Japanese Society of Pediatric Urology. In addition, we provided a secondary questionnaire to 121 members who reported experience with cases of NDI. We asked about patient's age at onset, diagnosis, complications, effect of treatment and patient's genotype.We enrolled 173 patients with NDI in our study. Of these NDI patients, 143 were congenital and 30 were acquired. Of the 173, 73 patients (42%) experienced urologic complications. Among the 143 with congenital NDI, 20 patients (14%) had mental retardation. Patients with NDI mainly received thiazide diuretics, and some patients responded to treatment with desmopressin acetate (DDAVP). Gene analyses were performed in 87 patients (61%) with congenital NDI, revealing that 65 patients had an arginine vasopressin receptor type 2 (AVPR2) gene mutation and that 8 patients (9.2%) had an aquaporin 2 (AQP2) gene mutation. Patients with the AVPR2 mutation (D85N) generally showed a mild phenotype, and we found that DDAVP was generally an effective treatment for NDI among these patients.We suggest that adequate diagnosis and treatment are the most important factors for improving prognoses. We further suggest that gene analysis should be performed for optimal treatment selection and the early detection of NDI among siblings.
- A case of severe hyperaldosteronism caused by a de novo mutation affecting a critical 'salt bridge' Kir3.4 residue. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 Oct 16.:jc20143636.
Context: Familial hyperaldosteronism type III (FH-III) is a rare and clinically heterogeneous condition, that can display mild as well as severe phenotypes. Point mutations in the KCNJ5 gene, affecting the ion selectivity of the inward rectifier K(+) channel 4 (Kir3.4), underlie the molecular basis of FH-III. Objective: To investigate the effects of a de novo germline KCNJ5 mutation. Patients and Methods: We describe the case of a girl, who came to medical attention at the age of two years because of polydipsia, polyuria and failure to thrive. The patient, affected by hypertension and hypokalemia, was diagnosed with primary aldosteronism on the basis of extremely high aldosterone levels and suppressed plasma renin activity. Genomic DNA was isolated and KCNJ5 sequenced. Human adrenocortical cells were used as an in vitro model for the functional characterization of the mutant channel. Results: KCNJ5 sequencing in the index case and her parents revealed a de novo p.Glu145Gln germline mutation. The substitution resulted in Na(+)-dependent depolarization of adrenal cells and increased intracellular calcium concentration, which activated the transcription of NR4A2 and, in turn, CYP11B2. Pharmacological studies revealed that the mutant channel was insensitive to tertiapin-Q and calcium-channel blocker verapamil. Conclusions: Herein we report the identification of a novel KCNJ5 germline mutation responsible for severe hyperaldosteronism that presented in infancy with symptoms of diabetes insipidus. The findings of this study further elucidate the etiology of FH-III and expand our knowledge of this rare condition.
- Hypopituitarism after subarachnoid haemorrhage, do we know enough? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Neurol 2014 Oct 14; 14(1):205.
BackgroundFatigue, slowness, apathy and decrease in level of activity are common long-term complaints after a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). They resemble the symptoms frequently found in patients with endocrine dysfunction. Pituitary dysfunction may be the result of SAH or its complications. We therefore hypothesized that it may explain some of the long-term complaints after SAH.We reviewed the literature to clarify the occurrence, pattern and severity of endocrine abnormalities and we attempted to identify risk factors for hypopituitarism after SAH. We also assessed the effect of hypopituitarism on long-term functional recovery after SAH.MethodsIn a MEDLINE search for studies published between 1995 and 2014, we used the term subarachnoid haemorrhage in combination with pituitary, hypopituitarism, growth hormone, gonadotropin, testosterone, cortisol function, thyroid function and diabetes insipidus. We selected all case-series and cohort studies reporting endocrine function at least 3 months after SAH and studied their reported prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical course and outcome.ResultsWe identified 16 studies describing pituitary function in the long term after SAH. The reported prevalence of endocrine dysfunction varied from 0 to 55% and the affected pituitary axes differed between studies. Due to methodological issues no inferences on risk factors, course and outcome could be made.ConclusionsNeuroendocrine dysfunction may be an important and modifiable determinant of poor functional outcome after SAH. There is an urgent need for well-designed prospective studies to more precisely assess its incidence, clinical course and effect on mood, behaviour and quality of life.
- Adult multisystem langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with central diabetes insipidus successfully treated with chemotherapy. [Journal Article]
- Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2014 Sep; 29(3):394-9.
We report the rare case of an adult who was diagnosed with recurrent multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the pituitary stalk and lung who present with central diabetes insipidus and was successfully treated with systemic steroids and chemotherapy. A 49-year-old man visited our hospital due to symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria that started 1 month prior. Two years prior to presentation, he underwent excision of right 6th and 7th rib lesions for the osteolytic lesion and chest pain, which were later confirmed to be LCH on pathology. After admission, the water deprivation test was done and the result indicated that he had central diabetes insipidus. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass on the pituitary stalk with loss of normal bright spot at the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Multiple patchy infiltrations were detected in both lung fields by computed tomography (CT). He was diagnosed with recurrent LCH and was subsequently treated with inhaled desmopressin, systemic steroids, vinblastine, and mercaptopurine. The pituitary mass disappeared after two months and both lungs were clear on chest CT after 11 months. Although clinical remission in multisystem LCH in adults is reportedly rare, our case of adult-onset multisystem LCH was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy using prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine, which was well tolerated.
- False diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and its complications in Wolfram syndrome - is it the reason for the low number of reported cases of this abnormality? [Journal Article]
- Endokrynol Pol 2014; 65(5):398-400.
Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness), is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome (1/770,000 in the United Kingdom), characterised by juvenile onset of diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, sensorineural deafness, renal tract and neurological abnormalities, and primary gonadal atrophy. WS is caused mainly by biallelic mutations in the WFS1 gene, which encodes wolframin. Wide tissue distribution of wolframin and many mutations in the wolframin gene resulting in Wolfram syndrome may contribute to different phenotypes and the unusual combinations of clinical features. We describe a female patient with Wolfram syndrome diagnosed at the age of 25, with a previous false diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and misdiagnosed diabetic complications. The patient was found to be a compound heterozygote for two novel mutations in exon 8 of WFS1 gene: a 2-bp deletion AT at nt 1539 leading to a frameshift (Y513fs) and a single-base substitution 1174C > T resulting in a stop codon (Q392X). A detailed analysis of the patient's medical history and a review of the literature suggest that many cases of Wolfram syndrome may remain undiagnosed due to misdiagnosis as type 1 diabetes mellitus and incorrect interpretation of clinical symptoms of neurodegenerative abnormalities, especially in their early stages. (Endokrynol Pol 2014; 65 (5): 398-400).