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dialysis shunt [keywords]
- Successful treatment of chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation using recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin in a dialysis patient with dissecting aortic aneurysm. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rinsho Ketsueki 2014; 55(11):2300-2305.
A 62-year-old man had a history of acute aortic dissection (Stanford type A) and had been diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease three years earlier, and then developed end-stage renal failure. He was referred with chief complaints of difficult hemostasis and consecutive hemorrhagic episodes at the puncture site of the shunt soon after dialysis introduction. We suspected chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) due to mild thrombocytopenia and a fibrinolytic system abnormality. Plasma factor XIII activity was decreased, but no inhibitor was detected. In addition, contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed exacerbation of a dissecting aortic aneurysm. We finally diagnosed chronic DIC and secondary factor XIII deficiency associated with the aortic aneurysm. We selected treatment involving recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) because he was on maintenance dialysis and required long-term follow-up bofore the operation. Hemostatic function improved with regular administration of rTM, and was well-controlled preoperatively.
- The aneurysmal arteriovenous fistula - morphological study and assessment of clinical implications. A pilot study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vascular 2014 Oct 29.
Aneurysmal dilation of arteriovenous fistulae used for haemodialysis is a recognised complication but its clinical significance is a contentious issue. Our aims were to describe aneurysmal fistulae morphologically and clinically. Sixty patients underwent duplex scanning to measure the maximum diameter and skin thickness of their fistula. Haemodialysis function and bleeding risk were assessed clinically. The 75th percentile of maximum diameter was 2.05 cm. In addition to conventional diameter measurement, we describe a novel volume measurement technique which may be of value. No relationship was found between maximum diameter or volume and function, skin thickness or bleeding. Some studies define aneurysm at 2 cm (75th percentile); however, this definition and other arbitrary definitions lack clinical significance. This work suggests that fistula dilation should be considered together with clinical issues when determining the clinical significance of an aneurysm. Our finding that haemodialysis function, skin thickness and bleeding were not associated with diameter needs further study.
- Treatment strategy for distal radius fractures with ipsilateral arteriovenous shunts. [Journal Article]
- J Hand Surg Am 2014 Nov; 39(11):2265-8.
To describe our management of 3 patients with chronic renal failure who sustained distal radius fractures in limbs containing dialysis shunts.The 3 patients were 48-61 years old, and 2 of them were men. Because the injured limbs contained arteriovenous shunts, tourniquets were not used. Volar locking plate fixation was applied via the Henry approach. The patients' grip strength; visual analog scale scores; Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) scores; modified Mayo scores; and their range of wrist joint motion were assessed during the final follow-up examination. In addition, complications and the presence/absence of dysfunction of the forearm shunt were also investigated.The mean duration of the postoperative follow-up period was 9 months (range, 7-10 mo), and the subjects' mean wrist motion values were 75°, 79°, 78°, and 87° during flexion, extension, pronation, and supination, respectively. Grip strength on the affected side as a percentage of that seen on the healthy side ranged from 71% to 90%. The patients' visual analog scale; QuickDASH; and modified Mayo scores were all excellent, and bone union was achieved in all 3 cases. No shunt dysfunction or skin soft tissue complications were noted.Volar locking plate fixation via the Henry approach might be useful for treating distal radius fractures in cases in which an arteriovenous shunt is present in the same limb. Shunt dysfunction and hemorrhaging are of concern during open surgery, but these were not issues in our patients.Therapeutic IV.
- Aneurysmal degeneration of the inflow artery after arteriovenous access for hemodialysis. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Nov; 48(5):592-6.
After arteriovenous fistula creation, the arterial flow increase can lead to aneurysmal degeneration, even increased after fistula ligation or renal transplant immunosuppression. The aim of this study is to describe the therapeutic options and outcomes of true aneurysms of the inflow artery after arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis.Prospectively collected data of patients with true aneurysmal degeneration of the inflow artery after fistula creation (excluding pseudoaneuryms, anastomotic or infected aneurysms, or surgical complications), surgically repaired between January 2010 and February 2014 (cohort study) have been included. Patient demographics and access characteristics, symptoms, treatment, and follow-up have been reviewed.12 patients (75% men, median age 63 years) were treated for aneurysmal degeneration of the axillary (1), brachial (6), or radial (5) artery. They had had a previous distal arteriovenous fistula (7 radiocephalic, 3 brachiocephalic, 2 brachiobasilic) created 15.6 years before (range 9.9-28.5) and the majority of them were currently ligated or thrombosed. Most patients were symptomatic (pain , distal embolization ). They were treated by means of a bypass (using the cephalic , basilic , or saphenous vein ), direct ligature (2), or excision with end-to-end reconstruction (1). No major complications or ischemic symptoms occurred before discharge. After a median follow-up of 8.6 months (3.1-36.5), one patient needed re-operation for new proximal brachial aneurysmal degeneration, and another presented with an asymptomatic post-traumatic thrombosis of the proximal axillary artery and brachial bypass. No other complications, bypass dilatation or ischemic symptoms occurred during follow-up.Inflow artery aneurysmal degeneration can occur after long-term arteriovenous access. Surgical treatment by autogenous bypass exclusion in most cases (or ligation or end-to-end reconstructions in selected cases) is a safe and effective option.
- A modified approach of proximalization of arterial inflow technique for hand ischemia in patients with matured basilic and cephalic veins. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Oct; 48(4):472-6.
Proximalization of arteriovenous inflow (PAI) is an established technique for treating patients with access-induced hand ischemia. However, a prosthetic graft, used as arterial inflow, could minimize the benefits of a purely native fistula. In this study, a new PAI technique is reported, which avoids the use of prosthetic grafts in patients with matured basilic and cephalic veins.Eight patients (seven men, one woman; mean age 62 (45-82) years old) with grade III/IV critical dialysis access-related ischemia (DARI) and with a pre-existing Gracz fistula underwent an operation using modified PAI. The basilic and cephalic veins were preoperatively matured. During the operation, the former arteriovenous anastomosis was closed and the basilic vein was used as arterial inflow.All procedures were technically successful. All patients but one could be discharged with a warm, neurologically improved extremity with a significant reduction in pain. After a mean follow-up of 43.5 (0-52) months, there were no recurrent steal symptoms and all necrotic hand lesions healed. Two patients died during the follow-up, but with well-functioning fistulae. One fistula failed during follow-up and one further fistula was ligated because of chronic neurological damage, which was not improved after the PAI procedure. Four AVFs are still available for hemodialysis.The modification of the PAI technique with a basilic vein as presented here showed similar results to the original PAI procedure. This new procedure does not require prosthetic grafts as in the original PAI technique or a central venous catheter and leads to the enlargement of the puncture site as a result of the superficialization of the basilic vein. Therefore, it is believed that this new technique could be a good option for those patients with matured cephalic and basilic veins who suffer from severe access-related ischemia.
- Examining Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow catheter performance and cost in hemodialysis access. [Journal Article]
- J Surg Res 2014 Nov; 192(1):1-5.
The Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) vascular access device is a hybrid polytetrafluoroethylene graft-stent construct designed to address central venous occlusive disease. Although initial experience has demonstrated excellent mid-term patency rates, subsequent studies have led to external validity questions. The purpose of this study was to examine a single center experience with this vascular access device in challenging access cases with associated costs.A retrospective study representing the authors' cumulative HeRO vascular access device experience was undertaken. The primary endpoint was graft failure or death, with secondary endpoints including secondary intervention rates and cost.Forty-one patients with 15,579 HeRO days and a mean of 12.7 ± 1.5 mo with the vascular access device were available for analysis. Secondary patency was 81.6% at 6 mo and 53.7% at 12 mo. The reintervention rate was 2.84 procedures per HeRO vascular access device year. Associated HeRO costs related to subsequent procedures were estimated at $34,713.63 per patient/y.These data on the patency and primary outcome data diverge significantly from initial multicenter studies and represent a real-world application of this technology. It is costly to maintain patency. Use of HeRO vascular access devices should be judicious with outcome expectations reduced.
- Fistula first offers new tools to improve outcomes. [Journal Article]
- Nephrol News Issues 2014 Jul; 26(8):23.
- Renal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis: Where do we stand? [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 2014 Aug 6; 5(3):156-68.
Patients with cirrhosis and renal failure are high-risk patients who can hardly be grouped to form precise instructions for diagnosis and treatment. When it comes to evaluate renal function in patients with cirrhosis, determination of acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) or AKI on CKD should be made. First it should be excluded the prerenal causes of AKI. All cirrhotic patients should undergo renal ultrasound for measurement of renal resistive index in every stage of liver dysfunction and urine microscopy for differentiation of all causes of AKI. If there is history of dehydration on the ground of normal renal ultrasound and urine microscopy the diuretics should be withdrawn and plasma volume expansion should be tried with albumin. If the patient does not respond, the correct diagnosis is HRS. In case there is recent use of nephrotoxic agents or contrast media and examination shows shock, granular cast in urinary sediment and proteinuria above 0.5 g daily, acute tubular necrosis is the prominent diagnosis. Renal biopsy should be performed when glomerular filtration rate is between 30-60 mL/min and there are signs of parenchymal renal disease. The acute renal function is preferable to be assessed with modified AKIN. Patients with AKIN stage 1 and serum creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dL should be at close surveillance. Management options include hemodynamic monitoring and management of fluid balance and infections, potentially driving to HRS. Terlipressin is the treatment of choice in case of established HRS, administered until there are signs of improvement, but not more than two weeks. Midodrine is the alternative for therapy continuation or when terlipressin is unavailable. Norepinephrine has shown similar effect with terlipressin in patients being in Intensive Care Unit, but with much lower cost than that of terlipressin. If the patient meets the requirements for transplantation, dialysis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt are the bridging therapies to keep the transplant candidate in the best clinical status. The present review clarifies the latest therapeutic modalities and the proposed recommendations and algorithms in order to be applied in clinical practice.
- Radiological diagnosis of dialysis-associated complications. [Journal Article]
- Insights Imaging 2014 Oct; 5(5):603-17.
In daily clinical practice, the radiologist in the context of diagnosis often faces dialysis-associated complications. The complications are numerous and range from infections, catheter dysfunctions, haematomas, cardiovascular diseases, digital ischaemia, and pseudoaneurysms to shunt stenosis. In this pictorial essay, we take a close look at the imaging diagnostics of the most common complications in dialysis patients. Teaching Points • The occurrence of venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients is up to 41 %. • Catheters usually have a fibrin sheath that can be rinsed but not aspirated. • The steal phenomenon occurs in 75-90 % of patients with a shunt system. • Arterial pseudoaneurysms can cause a number of complications.