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diethylstilbestrol diethylstilbestrol [keywords]
- Liquid-phase exfoliated graphene as highly-sensitive sensor for simultaneous determination of endocrine disruptors: Diethylstilbestrol and estradiol. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2014 Sep 18.:157-163.
It is quite important to develop convenient and rapid analytical methods for trace levels of endocrine disruptors because they heavily affect health and reproduction of humans and animals. Herein, graphene was easily prepared via one-step exfoliation using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent, and then used to construct an electrochemical sensor for highly-sensitive detection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2). On the surface of prepared graphene film, two independent and greatly-increased oxidation waves were observed at 0.28V and 0.49V for DES and E2. The remarkable signal enlargements indicated that the detection sensitivity was improved significantly. The influences of pH value, amount of graphene and accumulation time on the oxidation signals of DES and E2 were discussed. As a result, a highly-sensitive and rapid electrochemical method was newly developed for simultaneous detection of DES and E2. The values of detection limit were evaluated to be 10.87nM and 4.9nM for DES and E2. Additionally, this new method was successfully used in lake water samples and the accuracy was satisfactory.
- Hepatotoxicity induced by neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol is maintained throughout adulthood via the nuclear receptor SHP. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Opin Ther Targets 2014 Sep 29.:1-10.
Background: Liver physiology is sensitive to estrogens, which suggests that the liver might be a target of estrogenic endocrine disrupters (EED). However, the long-term consequences of neonatal exposure to EED on liver physiology have rarely been studied. The nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP) mediates the deleterious effects of neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on male fertility. Objectives: As SHP is involved in liver homeostasis, we aimed to determine whether neonatal estrogenic exposure also affected adult liver physiology through SHP. Male mouse pups were exposed to DES in the first 5 days of life. Results: DES exposure leads to alterations in the postnatal bile acid (BA) synthesis pathway. Neonatal DES-exposure affected adult liver BA metabolism and subsequently triglyceride (TG) homeostasis. The wild-type males neonatally exposed to DES exhibited increased liver weight and altered liver histology in the adult age. The use of deficient male mice revealed that SHP mediates the deleterious effects of DES treatment. These long-term effects of DES were associated with differently timed alterations in the expression of epigenetic factors. Conclusions: However, the molecular mechanisms by which neonatal exposure persist to affect the adult liver physiology remain to be defined. In conclusion, we demonstrate that neonatal DES exposure alters adult hepatic physiology in an SHP-dependent manner.
- Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Neonatal Mice Induces Changes in the Adulthood in the Immune Response to Taenia crassiceps without Modifications of Parasite Loads. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biomed Res Int 2014.:498681.
Industrial growth has increased the exposition to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC's), which are exogenous agents with agonist or antagonist action of endogenous steroid hormones that may affect the course of parasite infections. We wanted to determine if the exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen agonist, to both male and female mice affected the immune response and their susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. In all infected groups, females showed higher parasite loads than males, and neonatal DES administration did not modify this pattern. In the spleen, noninfected mice showed sex-related differences in the percentage of the CD8+ subpopulation, but DES decreased the percentage of CD3+, CD19+, and CD8+ subpopulations in infected mice. In the mesenteric lymphatic node (MNL), DES showed a dimorphic effect in the percentage of CD19+ cells. Regarding estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) expression, DES treatment induced a reduction in the expression of this receptor in both noninfected female and male mice in the spleen, which was decreased only in males in CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in MNL cell subpopulations. Our study is the first one to demonstrate that DES neonatal treatment in male and female mice affects the immune cell percentage, without effect on the susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis.
- Altered Gene Expression Patterns During the Initiation and Promotion Stages of Neonatally Diethylstilbestrol-Induced Hyperplasia/Dysplasia/Neoplasia in the Hamster Uterus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Reprod Toxicol 2014 Sep 18.
Neonatal treatment of hamsters with diethylstilbestrol (DES) induces uterine hyperplasia/dysplasia/neoplasia (endometrial adenocarcinoma) in adult animals. We subsequently determined that the neonatal DES exposure event directly and permanently disrupts the developing hamster uterus (initiation stage) so that it responds abnormally when it is stimulated with estrogen in adulthood (promotion stage). To identify candidate molecular elements involved in progression of the disruption/neoplastic process, we performed: 1) immunoblot analyses and 2) microarray profiling (Affymetrix Gene Chip System) on sets of uterine protein and RNA extracts, respectively, and 3) immunohistochemical analysis on uterine sections; all from both initiation stage and promotion stage groups of animals. Here we report that: 1) progression of the neonatal DES-induced hyperplasia/dysplasia/neoplasia phenomenon in the hamster uterus involves a wide spectrum of specific gene expression alterations and 2) the gene products involved and their manner of altered expression differ dramatically during the initiation vs. promotion stages of the phenomenon. Particularly interesting changes included members in the functional categories of nuclear receptors (progesterone receptor), cell-cell interactions (E-cadherin, connexins), cytokine action (IRF-1, Stat5A), growth factor action (IRS-1), extracellular matrix component (tenascin-C), transcription factors (Nrf2, Sp1), and multi-functional nuclear protein (SAFB1).
- Direct estradiol and diethylstilbestrol actions on early- versus late-stage prostate cancer cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prostate 2014 Sep 11.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other pharmaceutical estrogens have been used at ≥ µM concentrations to treat advanced prostate tumors, with successes primarily attributed to indirect hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis control mechanisms. However, estrogens also directly affect tumor cells, though the mechanisms involved are not well understood.LAPC-4 (androgen-dependent) and PC-3 (androgen-independent) cell viability was measured after estradiol (E2 ) or DES treatment across wide concentration ranges. We then examined multiple rapid signaling mechanisms at 0.1 nM E2 and 1 µM DES optima including levels of: activation (phosphorylation) for mitogen-activated protein kinases, cell-cycle proteins, and caspase 3, necroptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS).LAPC-4 cells were more responsive than PC-3 cells. Robust and sustained extracellular-regulated kinase activation with E2 , but not DES, correlated with ROS generation and cell death. c-Jun N-terminal kinase was only activated in E2 -treated PC-3 cells and was not correlated with caspase 3-mediated apoptosis; necroptosis was not involved. The cell-cycle inhibitor protein p16(INK4A) was phosphorylated in both cell lines by both E2 and DES, but to differing extents. In both cell types, both estrogens activated p38 kinase, which subsequently phosphorylated cyclin D1, tagging it for degradation, except in DES-treated PC-3 cells.Cyclin D1 status correlated most closely with disrupted cell cycling as a cause of reduced cell numbers, though other mechanisms also contributed. As low as 0.1 nM E2 effectively elicited these mechanisms, and its use could dramatically improve outcomes for both early- and late-stage prostate cancer patients, while avoiding the side effects of high-dose DES treatment. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat as effective sorbent for the removal of estrogens: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. [Journal Article]
- Nanoscale Res Lett 2014; 9(1):353.
Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat was prepared via electrospinning for the removal of three estrogens, namely, diethylstilbestrol (DES), dienestrol (DS), and hexestrol (HEX) from aqueous solution. Static adsorption as well as the dynamic adsorption was evaluated by means of batch and dynamic disk flow mode, respectively. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of the target compounds could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting the intra-particle/membrane diffusion process as the rate-limiting step of the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data were all fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm models, with a maximum adsorption capacity values in the range of 97.71 to 208.95 mg/g, which can be compared to or moderately higher than other sorbents published in the literatures. The dynamic disk mode studies indicated that the mean removal yields of three model estrogens were over 95% with a notable smaller amount of adsorbent (4 mg). Thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption results showed that the adsorption capacity can remain up to 80% after seven times usage. It was suggested that Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat has great potential as a novel effective sorbent material for estrogens removal.
- Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Pharmacol 2014 Jul; 46(4):416-9.
To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol.Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay.At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group.Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women.
- A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the ultrasensitive determination of diethylstilbestrol based on the double-codified gold nanoparticles. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Steroids 2014 Aug 1.
An ultrasensitive and selective method is presented for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES) using time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) based on double-codified gold nanoparticles (DC-AuNPs). In this system, the DC-AuNPs, that are gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with anti-DES antibody and SH-dsDNA-biotin, was regarded as signal amplifier. A competitive immunoreaction was performed on polystyrene microtitration plates, where the DES compete with the immobilized DES-ovalbumin on polystyrene microtitration plates to bind to anti-DES antibodies on DC-AuNPs, and the europium(III)-labeled streptavidin was added to link to the SH-dsDNA-biotin as a tracer. Fluorescence signal was amplified via the AuNPs and the biotin-streptavidin double amplification systems. Under the optimized condition, DES can be quantified by TRFIA. The linear range and the limit of detection of DES were 1.0×10(-6)-10ngmL(-1) and 0.4fgmL(-1), respectively. This method was applied to determine DES in beef sample, with the recoveries ranging from 88% to 105%.
- Histone methyl-transferase EZH2 is transcriptionally induced by estradiol as well as estrogenic endocrine disruptors bisphenol-A and diethylstilbesterol. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2014 Jul 31.
Enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) specific methyltransferase, is a critical player in gene silencing and is overexpressed in breast cancer. Our studies demonstrate that EZH2 is transcriptionally induced by estradiol in cultured breast cancer cells as well as in the mammary glands of ovariectomized rats. EZH2 promoter contains multiple functional estrogen-response elements (EREs). Estrogen-receptors (ERs) and ER-coregulators such as MLL-histone methylases (MLL2 and MLL3) and histone acetyl-transferase CBP/P300 bind to the EZH2 promoter in presence of estradiol and regulate estradiol-induced EZH2 expression. EZH2 expression is also increased upon exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol-A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Similar to estradiol, BPA and DES-induced EZH2 expression is coordinated by ERs, MLLs and CBP/P300. In summary, we demonstrate that EZH2 is transcriptionally regulated by estradiol in vitro and in vivo, and its expression is potentially dysregulated upon exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals.
- Timing and recovery of postweaning exposure to diethylstilbestrol on early pregnancy in CD-1 mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Reprod Toxicol 2014 Jul 22.:48-54.
Exposure timing could play an important role in the effects of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) on early pregnancy. This study examined the sensitivity of different exposure periods from weaning to gestation day 4.5 (D4.5) to 50ppb diethylstilbestrol (DES, a test EEDC) diet on embryo implantation and potential recovery upon temporary cessation of DES exposure in CD-1 mice. Peripubertal (3-5 weeks old) DES exposure reduced the numbers of corpora lutea and implantation sites. Postpubertal (5-7 weeks old) DES exposure did not have significant effects on early pregnancy. Postmating (D0.5-D4.5) DES exposure affected postovulation events leading to impaired embryo implantation. A 5-day premating rest from 5-week DES exposure (3-8 weeks old) resulted in recovery of early pregnancy rate. These data demonstrate that peripubertal and postmating periods are sensitive windows to endocrine disruption of early pregnancy and temporary cessation of exposure could partially alleviate adverse effects of DES on early pregnancy.