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diethylstilbestrol diethylstilbestrol [keywords]
- Resveratrol and Endometrium: A Closer Look at an Active Ingredient of Red Wine Using In Vivo and In Vitro Models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Reprod Sci 2014 Mar 6.
Resveratrol is a natural phytoestrogen with antiproliferative properties present in red wine, grapes, and berries. Published reports on the effects of resveratrol in human endometrial function are limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of estrogen receptor α (ESR1), Ki-67 (a proliferative marker), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in an in vitro and vivo assay. Alkaline phosphatase assay of estrogenicity was used to compare estrogen activity of different concentrations of resveratrol to estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), using Ishikawa cell culture. Immunohistochemical expression of ESR1 and Ki67, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of AhR, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 were analyzed from xenograft implants of human endometrial tissue in ovariectomized immunodeficient RAG-2-γ(c) mice, after 30 days of treatment with subcutaneous pellets of E2, E2 plus progesterone (P4), or E2 plus resveratrol (6, 30, or 60 mg) for 30 days. Compared to E2, resveratrol acted as an agonist and antagonist of estrogen in low and high concentrations, respectively, when combined with E2. Xenografts of human endometrial tissues in RAG-2 mice exhibited reduced expression of ESR1 and proliferative activity (Ki67) with 60 mg of resveratrol. This study suggests that resveratrol, at high doses, has the potential benefit to reduce proliferation of human endometrium through ESR1.
- Diethylstilbestrol decreased adrenal cholesterol and corticosterone in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Endocrinol 2014 Feb 27.
The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol, which is known to bind the estrogen receptors (ERs), has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. In this study, we treated rats with DES and found high levels of this compound in the liver, adrenal glands and pituitary gland compared to other tissues. We also detected early adverse effects of diethylstilbestrol in the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands of rats treated with DES (340 μg/kg of body weight every 2 days) for 2 weeks showed an increased weight and size and a decreased fat droplet size. Following 1 week of treatment with diethylstilbestrol, the blood and adrenal corticosterone levels were substantially decreased, without any histological alterations. The levels of the precursors for corticosteroid biosynthesis in the adrenal glands were also decreased, as determined by mass spectrum analysis. Cholesterol, the principal material of corticosteroid biosynthesis, decreased substantially in the adrenal glands after only 1 week of treatment with diethylstilbestrol. In conclusion, cholesterol insufficiency results in a reduction in adrenal corticosterone biosynthesis, which may lead to endocrine dysfunction, such as reproductive toxicity.
- In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2014 Feb 25.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a critical process for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age.
- Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg in the Treatment of Acute Urinary Retention due to Prostatic Obstruction in the Elderly: A Preliminary Study. [Journal Article]
- Adv Urol 2014.:984382.
Patients who failed a catheter-free trial after acute urinary retention and one week of full dose alpha-blocker and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor were offered Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg plus Aspirin 100 mg over 4 weeks. Prostate volume, age, serum creatinine, and initial retention drained urine volume were recorded. After excluding cardiovascular morbidity (n = 7), upper urinary tract dilation (n = 3), compromised renal function (n = 2), urinary tract infection (n = 2), neurological diagnosis (n = 2), or preferred immediate channel transurethral resection of prostate (n = 5), 48 of 69 consecutive patients ≥70 years were included. Mean age was 76.6 years (70-84), mean prostate volume 90 cm(3) (42-128), and mean follow-up 204 days; 58% (28/48) were passing urine and 42% (20/48) were catheter dependent after 4 weeks Diethylstilbestrol trial. Mean age and drained urine volume of catheter dependent patients were 82.4 years and 850 mL compared with 74.6 years and 530 mL in catheter-free men, respectively. Age and drained urine volume were independent predictors of catheter-free trial (both P < 0.01). Seventy-five percent (6/8) of patients 80 years and older were catheter dependent. Transient nipple/breast tenderness and gynecomastia were the only adverse effects reported by 21% (10/48) and 4% (2/48), respectively. No patient presented severe complications.
- Estrogen receptor affinity chromatography: A new method for characterization of novel estrogenic disinfection by-products. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chemosphere 2014 Feb 15.
To identify the unknown estrogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the chlorination extract, an effective method based on affinity chromatography with immobilized human recombinant estrogen receptor α (ERα) was developed, which has an advantage in targeting different potential estrogenic compounds from mixed sample simultaneously by comparing their relative binding activities to ER. The new method worked well for six known environmental estrogens. To further test the validity of this method for unknown chemicals, six DBPs of diethylstilbestrol (DES) with relatively strong ER binding affinity after chlorination were isolated and identified. It was found that except for 2-chloro-DES which showed 1.36 times stronger binding affinity than DES, most of the by-products bound to ER much more weakly than DES. All these seven by-products induced a dose-dependent transcriptional activation in two-hybrid-yeast assays. Z,Z-dienestrol (DE) and 2-chloro-DES, which exhibiting the weakest and the strongest binding affinity, were further tested for their transcriptional potential as 0.00243 and 0.014 compared to DES, respectively. However, they were still potential harmful environmental estrogenic disruptors as their estrogenic activities were much stronger than that of bisphenol A (BPA). These results demonstrated that the new method can help to screen unknown estrogenic compounds from mixture more efficiently.
- DES daughters in France: experts' points of view on the various genital, uterine and obstetric pathologies, and in utero DES exposure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Sci Law 2014 Feb 17.
BackgroundCompensation of diethylstilbestrol exposure depends on the judicial system. In France, girls having been exposed to diethylstilbestrol are currently being compensated, and each exposure victim is being evaluated. Fifty-nine expert evaluations were studied to determine the causal relation between exposure to diethylstilbestrol and the pathologies attributable to diethylstilbestrol.MethodsThe following were taken into consideration: age at the first signs of the pathology; age of the sufferer at the time of evaluation; the pathologies grouped into five categories: fertility disorders - cancers - mishaps during pregnancy - psychosomatic complaints - pathologies of "3rd generation DES victims"; submission of proof of DES exposure; the degree of causality determined (direct, indirect, ruled out).Results61% of the cases related to fertility disorders, 28.8% to cancer pathologies (clear-cell adenocarcinoma), 18.6% to mishaps during pregnancy, 8.5% to disorders resulting from preterm delivery, and 3.4% to psychosomatic disorders. Some cases involved a combination of two types of complaints. Indirect causality was determined in 47.1% of the cases involving primary sterility, in 66.7% involving secondary sterility, and in 5 out of 6 cases of total sterility. There is direct causality between in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure and vaginal or cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma. Causality is indirect in the case of disorders linked to prematurity in third generation victims.ConclusionCausality was determined by the experts on the basis of scientific criteria which attribute the presenting pathologies to diethylstilbestrol exposure. When other risk factors come into play, or when exposure is indirect (third generation), this causality is diminished.
- Bisphenol-A and diethylstilbestrol exposure induces the expression of breast cancer associated long noncoding RNA HOTAIR in vitro and in vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2014 Feb 14.:160-170.
Antisense transcript, long non-coding RNA HOTAIR is a key player in gene silencing and breast cancer and is transcriptionally regulated by estradiol. Here, we have investigated if HOTAIR expression is misregulated by bisphenol-A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Our findings demonstrate BPA and DES induce HOTAIR expression in cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF7) as well as in vivo in the mammary glands of rat. Luciferase assay showed that HOTAIR promoter estrogen-response-elements (EREs) are induced by BPA and DES. Estrogen-receptors (ERs) and ER-coregulators such as MLL-histone methylases (MLL1 and MLL3) bind to the HOTAIR promoter EREs in the presence of BPA and DES, modify chromatin (histone methylation and acetylation) and lead to gene activation. Knockdown of ERs down-regulated the BPA and DES-induced expression of HOTAIR. In summary, our results demonstrate that BPA and DES exposure alters the epigenetic programming of the HOTAIR promoters leading to its endocrine disruption in vitro and in vivo.
- Effects of diethylstilbestrol on luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the mouse anterior pituitary. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2014 Feb 12.
Gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Neonatal diethylstilbestrol (neoDES) treatment affects reproductive function of male and female mice, but the effect of this treatment on the development as well as direct effects on pituitary gonadotrophs have not been ascertained. We investigated LH-secreting gonadotropes and the expression of genes involved in the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins in the anterior pituitary of neoDES mice using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The percentage of LH-secreting gonadotropes in 90-day-old female mice treated neonatally with an oil vehicle (neoOil) was significantly lower than in 30-day-old neoOil females but not in males, indicating a significant reduction after reproductive maturation in females. The percentage of LH-secreting gonadotropes in the medial area of 90-day-old neoDES females was significantly lower than that of 90-day-old neoOil females, ovariectomized neoOil females, and neoOil and neoDES males. The expression of the LH beta (Lhb) subunit in the anterior pituitary of 90-day-old neoDES females was similar to that in neoOil females, but it was significantly lower than that observed in 90-day-old males. Ovariectomy increased the expression of the alpha subunit of glycoprotein hormones, FSH beta (Fshb) subunit and Lhb subunit both in neoOil and neoDES females, suggesting that the anterior pituitary of neoDES female mice is regulated by ovarian hormones via negative feedback. In organ-cultured, anterior pituitaries exposed to DES exhibited no change in the number of LH-secreting gonadotropes but did reduced gene expression. These results suggest that LH-secreting gonadotropes in the female mice are not only directly affected by neoDES but also are influenced by the masculinization of the hypothalamus. That is, neonatal DES exposure can masculinize or defeminize the hypothalamus of female mice. However, the regulation of the pituitary gonadotropins by the hypothalamus could be different from that in intact male mice.
- Uterine Factors. [REVIEW]
- Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2014 Mar; 41(1):57-86.
Uterine anomalies are one of the most common parental causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, occurring in about 19% of patients. Congenital uterine anomalies are most likely caused by HOX gene mutations, although the mechanism is probably polygenic. There are no known environmental causes other than estrogenic endocrine disruptors such as diethylstilbestrol. Acquired uterine anomalies may result from uterine trauma (adhesions) or benign growths of the myometrium (fibroids) or endometrium (polyps). Although randomized controlled trials are lacking, surgical treatment is recommended for repair of uterine septa, and for removal of severe adhesions and submucosal fibroids, especially if no other causes are identified.
- An automated solid-phase microextraction method based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer as fiber coating for detection of trace estrogens in milk powder. [Journal Article]
- J Chromatogr A 2014 Feb 28.:10-8.
A new automated solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) sampling method was developed for quantitative enrichment of estrogens (ES) from milk powder, using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) as fiber coating. The method (MMIP-SPME) was built with several electromagnetic stainless steel fibers, placed in parallel for simultaneously extraction. The MMIP was synthesized using core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as magnetic support. Estradiol (E2) was employed as the template molecule, acrylamide (AA) as functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. MMIP can be easily absorbed or desorbed from fibers when the current is turned on or off, creating magnetism. Compared to traditional MIP-SPME, the prepared procedure of MMIP-SPME is time-saving and organic solvent-free. The proposed device significantly improved the efficiency of separation and enrichment of estrogens from complex matrices thereby and facilitating the pretreatment steps by electromagnetically controlled extraction fibers to achieve full automation. Several experimental parameters were studied, including extraction and desorption kinetics, solution pH, desorption solution, ratio, and shuttle rate. The newly developed MMIP-SPME showed good sensitivity and high binding capacity, fast adsorption kinetics and desorption kinetics for estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) under optimized conditions. The detection limits for the four estrogens were 1.5-5.5ngg(-1) with excellent reproducibility (RSD values less than 7.1%) when milk powder samples spiked with analytes at 20, 100 and 250ngg(-1) were studied.