diethylstilbestrol diethylstilbestrol [keywords]
- Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and uterine fibroids. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fertil Steril 2016 Aug 20.
Uterine fibroids are the most frequent gynecologic tumor, affecting 70% to 80% of women over their lifetime. Although these tumors are benign, they can cause significant morbidity and may require invasive treatments such as myomectomy and hysterectomy. Many risk factors for these tumors have been identified, including environmental exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as genistein and diethylstilbestrol. Uterine development may be a particularly sensitive window to environmental exposures, as some perinatal EDC exposures have been shown to increase tumorigenesis in both rodent models and human epidemiologic studies. The mechanisms by which EDC exposures may increase tumorigenesis are still being elucidated, but epigenetic reprogramming of the developing uterus is an emerging hypothesis. Given the remarkably high incidence of uterine fibroids and their significant impact on women's health, understanding more about how prenatal exposures to EDCs (and other environmental agents) may increase fibroid risk could be key to developing prevention and treatment strategies in the future.
- Uterus transplantation in France: for which patients? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Aug 12.:7-10.
Uterine infertility (UI), which can be caused by a variety of congenital or acquired factors, affects several thousand women in Europe. Uterus transplantation (UTx), at the current stage of research, offers hope for these women to be both the biological mother and the carrier of their child. However, the indications of UTx still need to be defined. The main aim of the study was to describe the different etiologies of UI and other data as marital and parental status from women requesting UTx who contacted us in the framework of a UTx clinical trial. Secondarily, we discussed the potential indications of UTx and their feasibility.This is an observational study.Of a total of 139 patients with UI, 105 patients (75.5%) had uterine agenesis, making it the leading cause of UI in this sample. Among the patients with uterine agenesis, 25% had a solitary kidney and 44.7% had undergone vaginal reconstruction. Peripartum hysterectomy, hysterectomy for cancer, and hysterectomy for benign pathologies accounted for 9.4%, 7.2% and 5% of cases, respectively. Less common causes of UI included complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (2.2% of patients) and prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure (0.7%). Approximately 14% of the women already had at least one child and 66% were in a couple living together for at least 2 years.UTx is still under evaluation and further research is under way. Nulliparous patients with no major medical or surgical history and with normal ovarian function, who meet the legal criteria for medically assisted reproduction, represent the best indications for UTx at this stage of its development.
- Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix in a ten-year-old girl without prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure. [Journal Article]
- Singapore Med J 2016 Aug; 57(8):470.
- Evaluation of estrogenic activity in the Pearl River by using effect-directed analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Aug 13.
This study investigated estrogenic activity of water, sediment, and fish bile of the Pearl River in southern China by effect-directed analysis based on in vitro yeast screen assay and chemical analysis. Results showed higher estradiol equivalents (EEQ) for surface water in dry season than in wet season. Simple risk assessment suggested that high estrogenic risk would be expected in Shima River and Danshui River receiving discharge of effluents from cities in the region. Fractionation and effect-directed analysis showed that estrogenic activity mainly occurred in relatively polar fractions of surface water. Seven target estrogenic compounds (bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 17α-ethynyl estradiol, estrone, diethylstilbestrol, and 17β-estradiol) only accounted for part of the measured estrogenic activity, with the rest contributions from other potential estrogenic chemicals such as phenols. Findings from this study suggest that fish in the river could be affected by those estrogenic chemicals. Proper measures should be taken to reduce the estrogenic activity in wastewaters before they are discharged into the riverine system in order to protect aquatic organisms.
- Reference gene validation for quantification of gene expression during final oocyte maturation induced by diethylstilbestrol and di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate in common carp. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci (China) 2016 Aug.:47-54.
Final oocyte maturation is the key step to successful spawning and fertilization. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the technique of election to quantify the abundance of functional genes in such study. Reference gene is essential for correct interpretation of qPCR data. However, an ideal universal reference gene that is stable under all experimental circumstances has not been described. Researchers should validate their reference genes while performing qPCR analysis. The expression of 6 candidate reference genes: 18s rRNA, 28s rRNA, Cathepsin Z, Elongation factor 1-α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and β-actin were investigated during final oocyte maturation induced by different compounds (DES and DEHP) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Four softwares (Bestkeeper, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder) were used to screen the most stable gene in order to evaluate their expression stability. The results revealed that EF1α was highly stable expressed when final oocyte maturation was induced by DES, while gapdh was the most stable gene when final oocyte maturation was induced by DEHP. Stable expressed reference gene selection is critical for all qPCR analysis to get accurate target gene mRNA expression information.
- Comparison of the Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Enhanced Product Ion Scan Modes for Confirmation of Stilbenes in Bovine Urine Samples Using LC-MS/MS QTRAP(®) System. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chromatographia 2016.:1003-1012.
In accordance with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, confirmatory methods for the detection of prohibited substances should comply with specific requirements, including the criteria for confirmation. Two strategies: multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and enhanced product ion (EPI) scanning functions were compared for confirming the anabolic compounds from synthetic stilbenes group in bovine urine samples. In the research, twenty samples fortified at the Recommended Concentration (RC) of 1 µg L(-1) with diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol and hexestrol were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on a QTRAP 5500 instrument. The analytical procedure, validated in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, used in the official control of hormones in Poland was applied. The validation parameters were in agreement with 2002/657/EC performance criteria. The effectiveness of MRM and EPI scanning modes for confirmation purposes was evaluated based on the percentage of the results confirmed. In all urine samples recorded in the MRM mode, the confirmation criteria (retention time, relative intensities between transitions) have been fulfilled. The presence of stilbenes in all urine samples using EPI scan mode was confirmed too as evidenced by a good matching of stilbenes spectra in the samples to the reference spectra with critical match factor above 0.7. The results of the research show that EPI scanning function provides the same effectiveness for confirmation of banned compounds as the mostly used MRM scan mode and can be an additional tool to confirm the doubtful case results in the analysis of hormones residues, even at such low concentration levels.
- Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals alters the epigenome: Identification of reprogrammed targets. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gynecol Obstet Res 2016 Jul; 3(1):1-6.
Endocrine disruptions induced by environmental toxicants have placed an immense burden on society to properly diagnose, treat and attempt to alleviate symptoms and disease. Environmental exposures during critical periods of development can permanently reprogram normal physiological responses, thereby increasing susceptibility to disease later in life - a process known as developmental reprogramming. During development, organogenesis and tissue differentiation occur through a continuous series of tightly-regulated and precisely-timed molecular, biochemical and cellular events. Humans may encounter endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) daily and during all stages of life, from conception and fetal development through adulthood and senescence. Though puberty and perimenopausal periods may be affected by endocrine disruption due to hormonal effects, prenatal and early postnatal windows are most critical for proper development due to rapid changes in system growth. Developmental reprogramming is shown to be caused by alterations in the epigenome. Development is the time when epigenetic programs are 'installed' on the genome by 'writers', such as histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), which add methyl groups to lysine and arginine residues on histone tails and to CpG sites in DNA, respectively. A number of environmental compounds, referred to as estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs), are able to bind to estrogen receptors (ERs) and interfere with the normal cellular development in target tissues including the prostate and uterus. These EEDs, including diethylstilbestrol (DES), bisphenol A (BPA), and genistein (a phytoestrogen derived from soybeans), have been implicated in the malformation of reproductive organs and later development of disease. Due to the lack of fully understanding the underlying mechanisms of how environmental toxicants and their level of exposure affect the human genome, it can be challenging to create clear clinical guidance to address the potential health effects of lower-level exposures commonly experienced within the general population. In addition, human studies concerning environmental exposures are limited in feasibility by ethical concerns for human safety. Therefore, studies in animal models provide great opportunities to reveal links between early-life exposure to EDCs and related diseases. It has been shown that developmental exposure to EDCs, such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and genistein, during reproductive tract development increases the incidence, multiplicity and overall size of uterine fibroids in the Eker rat model, concomitantly reprogramming estrogen-responsive gene expression. Importantly, EDC exposure represses enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and reduces levels of the histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repressive mark through Estrogen receptor / Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases / Protein kinase B non-genomic signaling in the developing uterus. More recent research identified a developmental reprogramming target, Scbg2a1 gene, whose epigenetic status can be altered by early exposure to BPA in the rat prostate. Molecular analyses revealed markedly increased expression (greater than 100 fold) of Scgb2a1, a secretaglobin gene in response to developmental exposure to BPA. This increase in Scgb2a1 expression is concomitantly associated with increased enrichment of acetylated H3K9 (H3K9Ac representing active chromatin status) and hypomethylation of DNA for a CpG island upstream of the transcription start site of Scgb2a1. These data suggest that expression of Scgb2a1 in the adult prostate could be epigenetically reprogrammed by BPA exposure during prostate development. Further studies are needed to create more targeted preventative interventions as well as specific, effective therapeutics to decrease the incidence of diseases.
- [Vaginal adenosis: A case report and literature review]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ann Pathol 2016 Aug; 36(4):282-5.
We report a case of vaginal adenosis in a woman of 42years. This is a rare congenital disorder since cessation of use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), usually of benign course, not to ignore in its tubo-endometrial histological form which may progress to atypical adenosis precursor of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma in patients exposed in utero to DES.
- Simultaneous determination of environmental estrogens: Diethylstilbestrol and estradiol using Cu-BTC frameworks-sensitized electrode. [Journal Article]
- Talanta 2016 Oct 1.:215-21.
It is quite important to monitor environmental estrogens in a rapid, sensitive, simple and cost-effective manner due to their wide existence and high toxicity. Using 1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) as the ligand and copper ions as the center, Cu-BTC frameworks with surface area of 654.6m(2)/g were prepared, and then used to construct a novel electrochemical sensing platform for diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2). On the surface of Cu-BTC frameworks, two oxidation waves at 0.26V and 0.45V are observed for DES and E2, and the oxidation signals are improved greatly. The prepared Cu-BTC frameworks not only enhance the accumulation efficiency of DES and E2, but also improve their electron transfer ability. The influences of pH value, modification amount of Cu-BTC and accumulation time were examined. As a result, a highly-sensitive, rapid and convenient electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of DES and E2, with detection limit of 2.7nM and 1.1nM. The practical applications manifest this new sensing system is accurate and feasible.
- Concurrent Androgen and Estrogen Ablation and Inhibition of Steroid Biosynthetic Enzyme Treatment for Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. [Journal Article]
- Anticancer Res 2016 Aug; 36(8):3847-54.
About 80 to 90% of prostate cancer (PCa) is androgen-dependent at diagnosis, but patients ultimately develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which is usually not amenable to androgen deprivation (ablation) therapy (ADT). Patients with CRPC usually succumb to death in less than 5 years and there is no cure. Here, we investigated reasons for ADT failure.Biopsy specimens from untreated and diethylstilbestrol (DES)-treated patients were assessed for localization of antibody IgGs against androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) receptors.In untreated and DES-treated sections, methylene blue stained basic proteins in dark basal (undifferentiated) PCa cells, whereas light basal cells were not stained. AR localized to light basal cells which showed widespread degeneration in sections from DES-treated patients, indicating their dependence on androgen. In contrast, dark basal cells did not show widespread degeneration in DES-treated patients; ER was usually localized in dark cells. The number of dark cells progressively increased in DES-treated patients indicating their androgen-independence. The localization of AR and ER in some light and dark basal cells indicated that the supply of androgen/estrogen was not inhibited during ADT. Dark basal cells had emerged prior to treatment and proliferated during DES treatment, that also indicated their androgen-independence.PCa has at least two populations of cells: androgen-dependent light basal and estrogen-dependent dark basal cells. ADT did not destroy estrogen-dependent cells which may have given rise to CRPC tumors. Therefore, ADT is an incomplete treatment. For a more complete treatment of PCa, we recommend concurrent androgen and estrogen ablation, together with the inhibition of selected steroid biosynthetic enzymes.