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ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [keywords]
- Monitoring the effects of chelating agents and electrical fields on active forms of Pb and Zn in contaminated soil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Monit Assess 2013 May 19.
The application of electrical fields and chelating agents is an innovative hybrid technology used for the decontamination of soil polluted by heavy metals. The effects of four center-oriented electrical fields and chelating agents on active fractions of lead and zinc were investigated in this pot experiment. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a synthetic chelator and cow manure extract (CME) and poultry manure extract (PME) as natural chelators were applied to the pots (2 g kg(-1)) 30 days after the first irrigation. Two weeks later, four center-oriented electrical fields were applied in each pot (in three levels of 0, 10, and 30 V) for 1 h each day for 14 days. The soil near the cathode and anodes was collected and analyzed as cathodic and anodic soil, respectively. Results indicated that the soluble-exchangeable fraction of lead and zinc were decreased in the cathodic soil, while the carbonate-bound fractions were increased. In the anodic soil, however, the opposite result was observed. EDTA enhanced the soluble-exchangeable form of the metals in both anodic and cathodic soils. Furthermore, the amounts of carbonate-bound heavy metals were increased by the application of CME in both soils. The organic-bound fraction of the metals was increased by the application of natural chelators, while electrical fields had no significant impacts on this fraction.
- Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Pharm 2013 May 13.
The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3% wt α-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of α-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing.
- Immediate and Short-Term Effects of In-Office Desensitizing Treatments for Dentinal Tubule Occlusion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Photomed Laser Surg 2013 May 15.
Objective:The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the immediate and short-term effects of laser neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) irradiation and in-office desensitizing treatment on dentin tubule occlusion. Background data: Literature shows a lack of long-lasting treatments for dentin hypersensitivity.
Methods:Forty-eight dentin slabs (4×4×2 mm) were ground flat, polished, and treated with 27% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to open the dentinal tubules. Specimens were randomly divided into the following experimental groups (n=12): Group 1: Control (no treatment); Group 2: Nd:YAG laser irradiation (100 mJ, 85 J/cm(2) per pulse with a quartz fiber of 400 μm, in scanning movements); Group 3: In-office prophylaxis with pumice; Group 4: In-office Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief™ Desensitizing Paste. Treatments were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. After treatment, the specimens were submitted to a sequence of erosive and abrasive challenges, twice a day for 5 days. The specimens were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by scanning electron microscopy immediately after treatment and after 4 and 5 days. The response variable was the amount of occluded dentin tubules per area, determined by three different examiners with the use of visual criteria, with a standardized grade created in the PowerPoint program. Data were compared with ANOVA and Tukey's test, considering a 5% significance level.
Results:Immediately after treatment, a reduction in the number of opened dentin tubules was observed for the laser group when compared with the control group (p<0.05). After the experimental procedures, there were no quantitative differences between the amount of opened dentin tubules for all groups; however, micrographs showed some qualitative tubule occlusion for the laser group after the erosive/abrasive challenge.
Conclusions:only laser irradiation was capable of immediately sealing the dentinal tubules; however, none of the treatments showed efficacy in maintaining tubule occlusion after the chemical and mechanical challenges.
- Evaluation of the double-disk synergy test for New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 and other metallo-β-lactamase producing gram-negative bacteria by using metal-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complexes. [Journal Article]
- Microbiol Immunol 2013 May; 57(5):346-52.
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), one of the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), has been identified from clinical isolates worldwide. Rapid detection of NDM-1 producers is necessary to prevent their dissemination. Seven types of EDTA complexes were evaluated as MBL inhibitors in double-disk synergy tests (DDSTs), resulting in detection of the first isolate of NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli (NDM-1 Dok01) in Japan. NDM-1 Dok01 was detected when EDTA magnesium disodium salt tetrahydrate (Mg-EDTA), EDTA calcium disodium salt dihydrate, EDTA cobalt disodium salt tetrahydrate and EDTA copper disodium salt tetrahydrate were used as MBL inhibitors. The sensitivity and specificity of DDSTs using Mg-EDTA for 75 MBL producers and 25 non-MBL producers were 96.0% and 100%, respectively. These findings indicate that the DDST method using Mg-EDTA can detect MBL-producing strains, including NDM-1 producers.
- Improved Method for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of 6-Thioguanine Nucleotides and 6-Methylmercaptopurine in Whole-Blood by LC/MSMS Using Isotope-Labeled Internal Standards. [Journal Article]
- Ther Drug Monit 2013 Jun; 35(3):313-21.
: Thiopurine drugs (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine) show wide interindividual variability and a narrow therapeutic range thus making therapeutic monitoring of their active metabolite 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) desirable. We improved the currently available laborious and complex methodology of therapeutic drug monitoring of 6-TGN and the metabolite 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) in washed erythrocytes (ery) based on a whole-blood method.: The analytes were hydrolyzed and extracted from 25-µL ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-anticoagulated whole-blood spiked with isotope labeled 6-TG-C2N and 6-MMP-d3 internal standards. Chromatography was performed in 5.1 minutes on a C18 reverse phase column followed by detection via electrospray interface-coupled API 4000 mass spectrometer set up in the positive multiple reaction monitoring mode. The hemoglobin concentration was measured in 20 µL of the original sample (AHD575 method), and the results were standardized to 120 g/L of hemoglobin.: Calibration curves were linear with r > 0.999 (6-TGN and 6-MMP up to 10,000 pmol/0.2 mL). The limit of quantification was 30 pmol/0.2 mL for 6-TGN and 6-MMP. Intraassay and interassay imprecision was <7.5% at 3 tested levels for 6-TGN and 6-MMP, respectively. Method comparisons were as follows: Ery 6-TGN: y = 1.3x - 11 and ery 6-MMP y = 1.1x - 124.: The new method compares favorably with established ones, allowing for rapid single run determination of 6-TGN and 6-MMP from <50 µL of fresh or frozen whole blood. Linearity and limits of quantification cover the clinically relevant range. Variability during sample preparation and matrix effects are compensated by the use of isotope-labeled internal standards. The whole-blood method is hemoglobin standardized to avoid falsely low results in the case of anemia. The method correlates well with 6-TGN measured in washed erythrocytes, but it requires significantly less hands-on time. Preliminary therapeutic ranges for the most common indications of azathioprine and 6-MP are provided.
- Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- Int J Womens Health 2013.:227-32.
Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy.This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL) was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed.Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]): hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 10(9); platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 10(9); cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume at first trimester was 32.07% ± 6.80%; of second trimester, 29.76% ± 5.21%; and of third, 33.04% ± 3.88%. The mean ± SD hemoglobin concentration values were 11.59 ± 2.35 g/dL, 10.81 ± 1.72 g/dL, and 10.38 ± 1.27 g/dL for women in their first, second, and third trimester, respectively. Mean ± SD white blood cell concentration for first, second, and third trimesters were 7.31 ± 2.38 × 10(9), 7.88 ± 2.33 × 10(9), and 8.37 ± 2.15 × 10(9), respectively, while the mean ± SD platelet values for first, second, and third trimesters were 231.50 ± 79.10 × 10(9), 227.57 ± 63 × 10(9), and 200.82 ± 94.42 × 10(9), respectively. A statistically significant relationship was found to exist between packed cell volume and white blood cell count with increase in gestational age (P = 0.010 and 0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant association between platelet count and increase in gestational age (P = 0.296).These findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Nigeria.
- Cord blood haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in newborns of anaemic and non-anaemic mothers in Lagos, Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- Niger Med J 2013 Jan; 54(1):22-6.
Pre-delivery haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations of anaemic and non-anaemic mothers were determined, and cord blood haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations of their newborns were compared. This is to establish the mean values for pre-delivery haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations of anaemic and non-anaemic mothers and the cord blood haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations of their newborns at term.A case-control study was done involving 142 pregnant women and their newborns. They were divided into two groups - the anaemic group (n = 65) and the non-anaemic (n = 77) group. Five millilitres of blood was collected from each woman and 2 ml was collected from the cord of their newborns into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) bottle and plain bottle for full blood count analysis and ferritin assay, respectively.The mean pre-delivery haemoglobin concentrations of the women in anaemic group and non-anaemic group were 9.5 ± 1.01 g/dl and 12.15 ± 1.07 g/dl, respectively, and their mean serum ferritin concentrations were 64.45 ± 138.76 μg/l and 32.83 ± 35.36 μg/l, respectively. The mean cord blood haemoglobin concentrations for anaemic and for non-anaemic groups were 12.54 ± 2.54 g/dl and 13.44 ± 2.23 g/dl (P = 0.02), respectively, and the mean cord blood serum ferritin concentrations (non-anaemic, 69.38 ± 78.88 μg/l; anaemic, 7.26 ± 115.60 μg/l) (P = 0.00) were higher in the newborns of non-anaemic than of anaemic mothers. Significant association was found between maternal anaemia and cord blood ferritin concentrations (P = 0.025).Maternal anaemia has significant effects on cord blood haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations.
- Biological and Biomechanical Responses to Traditional Epithelium-Off and Transepithelial Riboflavin-UVA CXL Techniques in Rabbits. [Journal Article]
- J Refract Surg 2013 May; 29(5):332-41.
To compare the biological effects of riboflavin-ultraviolet A (UVA) corneal cross-linking (CXL) performed with a traditional epithelium-off method to several transepithelial methods in a rabbit model. Preliminary experiments on biomechanical rigidity were also performed.Four treatment groups were included: (1) standard epithelium-off, (2) tetracaine transepithelial, (3) benzal-konium chloride-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (BKC-EDTA) transepithelial, and (4) femtosecond laser-assisted transepithelial riboflavin-UVA CXL. Six eyes from each treatment group and the untreated control group were analyzed at 24 hours and 2 months after treatment in wound healing studies. The TUNEL assay was performed to detect the extent of stromal cell death. Optical density was measured with a Scheimpflug analyzer. The corneal stiffening effect was quantitated in three eyes from each group using optical coherence elastography performed 2 months after treatments.Twenty-four hours after CXL, stromal cell death extended full corneal thickness with both standard epithelium-off CXL and femtosecond laser-assisted CXL, but only approximately one-third stromal depth after BKC-EDTA transepithelial CXL. Negligible stromal cell death was detected with tetracaine transepithelial CXL. Cell death results were statistically different between the BKC-EDTA transepithelial CXL and standard epithelium-off CXL groups (P < .0001). Significant corneal opacity differences were noted. Standard epithelium-off CXL had the greatest density and tetracaine transepithelial CXL had the least density compared to the control group after treatment. As measured with optical coherence elastography, a trend toward greater mean stiffening was observed with BKC-EDTA transepithelial CXL than with epithelium-off CXL, femtosecond laser-assisted CXL, or tetracaine transepithelial CXL, but the result did not reach statistical significance. All of the CXL treatment groups exhibited significantly smaller variance of stiffness compared to the control group.In the rabbit model, BKC-EDTA transepithelial CXL produced less stromal cell death and less risk of endothelial cell damage than standard epithelium-off CXL or femtosecond laser-assisted CXL. Additional study is needed to determine whether biomechanical stiffness is significantly different between the epithelium-off CXL and transepithelial CXL groups.[J Refract Surg. 2013;29(5):332-341.].
- Cloning, expression, and purification of a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Jatropha curcas. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Z Naturforsch C 2013 Jan-Feb; 68(1-2):60-9.
We report cDNA cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of a novel Cu/ Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) from Jatropha curcas leaves. The full-length cDNA of this SOD contained a 496-bp open-reading frame (ORF) encoding 162 amino acid residues. The recombinant plasmid containing the SOD coding sequence was introduced into Escherichia coli, and the SOD was expressed as a fusion protein. The recombinant SOD was purified from a high-density fed-batch culture using a combination of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and Sephadex G25 desalting chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis indicated that the recombinant SOD was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of approximately 16.4 kDa. Isoelectric focusing showed that this SOD was a basic protein with pI values of 7.04, 7.33, 8.62, and 8.77. The activity of the SOD was stable at 70 degrees C for 10 min, and in a broad pH range from 4 to 9. The presence of urea (up to 8 M), guanidinium chloride (up to 6 M), and 2-mercaptoethanol (up to 8 mM) had little effect on the activity. The activity decreased gradually with increasing concentrations of imidazole, hydrogen peroxide, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Atomic absorption spectrometry showed the presence of 0.239 copper and 0.258 zinc atoms, respectively, in the SOD polypeptide.
- Cloning, Expression and Characterization of 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e62666.
The gene encoding an NAD(+)-dependent, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (3HIBDH-IV) from Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL 21 (DE3) and characterized to understand its physiological relevance in the degradation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to other 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase isozymes (3HIBDHs) of P. denitrificans ATCC 13867. A comparison of 3HIBDH-IV with its relevant enzymes along with molecular docking studies suggested that Lys171, Asn175 and Gly123 are important for its catalytic function on 3-hydroxyacids. The recombinant 3HIBDH-IV was purified to homogeneity utilizing a Ni-NTA-HP resin column in high yield. 3HIBDH-IV was very specific to (S)-3-hydroxyisobutyrate, but also catalyzed the oxidation of 3-HP to malonate semialdehyde. The specific activity and half-saturation constant (K m) for 3-HP at 30°C and pH 9.0 were determined to be 17 U/mg protein and 1.0 mM, respectively. Heavy metals, such as Ag(+) and Hg(2+), completely inhibited the 3HIBDH-IV activity, whereas dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid increased its activity 1.5-1.8-fold. This paper reports the characteristics of 3HIBDH-IV as well as its probable role in 3-HP degradation.