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- Cisplatin vs. carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy in patients >65years of age with stage III non-small cell lung cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Radiother Oncol 2014 Aug 20.
Combined chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is considered the standard care for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There have been limited data comparing outcomes of carboplatin vs. cisplatin-based CRT, particularly in elderly.From the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare registry, we identified 1878 patients >65years of age with unresected stage III NSCLC that received concurrent CRT between 2002 and 2009. We fitted a propensity score model predicting use of cisplatin-based therapy and compared adjusted overall and lung-cancer specific survival of carboplatin- vs. cisplatin-treated patients. Rates of severe toxicity requiring hospital admission were compared in propensity score adjusted analyses.Overall 1552 (83%) received carboplatin (77% in combination with paclitaxel) and 17% cisplatin (67% in combination with etoposide). Adjusted cox models showed similar overall (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86-1.12) and lung cancer-specific (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.84-1.17) survival among patients treated with carboplatin vs. cisplatin. Adjusted rates of neutropenia (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21-0.61), anemia (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.51-0.89), and thrombocytopenia (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.85) were lower among carboplatin-treated patients; other toxicities were not different between groups.Carboplatin-based CRT is associated with similar long-term survival but lower rates of toxicity. These findings suggest carboplatin may be the most appropriate chemotherapeutic agent for elderly stage III patients.
- Prostate Cancer stem-like cells proliferate slowly and resist etoposide-induced cytotoxicity via enhancing DNA damage response. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Cell Res 2014 Aug 19.
Despite the development of chemoresistance as a major concern in prostate cancer therapy, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this report, we demonstrate that DU145-derived prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) progress slowly with more cells accumulating in the G1 phase in comparison to DU145 non-PCSCs. Consistent with the important role of the AKT pathway in promoting G1 progression, DU145 PCSCs were less sensitive to growth factor-induced activation of AKT in comparison to non-PCSCs. In response to etoposide (one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs), DU145 PCSCs survived significantly better than non-PCSCs. In addition to etoposide, PCSCs demonstrated increased resistance to docetaxel, a taxane drug that is commonly used to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer. Etoposide produced elevated levels of γH2AX and triggered a robust G2/M arrest along with a coordinated reduction of the G1 population in PCSCs compared to non-PCSCs, suggesting that elevated γH2AX plays a role in the resistance of PCSCs to etoposide-induced cytotoxicity. We have generated xenograft tumors from DU145 PCSCs and non-PCSCs. Consistent with the knowledge that PCSCs produce xenograft tumors with more advanced features, we were able to demonstrate that PCSC-derived xenograft tumors displayed higher levels of γH2AX and p-CHK1 compared to non-PCSC-produced xenograft tumors. Collectively, our research suggests that the elevation of DNA damage response contributes to PCSC-associated resistance to genotoxic reagents.
- Targeting Glutathione S-transferase M4 in Ewing sarcoma. [Journal Article]
- Front Pediatr 2014.:83.
Ewing sarcoma is a malignant pediatric bone and soft tissue tumor. Although the 5-year survival rate of localized disease approaches 75%, the prognosis of metastatic and/or therapy-resistant disease remains dismal despite the wide use of aggressive therapeutic strategies. We previously reported that high expression of glutathione S-transferase M4 (GSTM4) in primary tumors correlates with poor patient outcomes. GSTM4 is required for oncogenic transformation and mediates resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in Ewing sarcoma cells. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing analyses of Ewing sarcoma cells and combined our results with publicly available datasets to demonstrate that GSTM4 is a major GST specifically expressed in Ewing sarcoma. Pharmacological inhibition of GSTM4 activity using a pan GST inhibitor, 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio) hexanol (NBDHEX), significantly limited cellular proliferation and oncogenic transformation of Ewing sarcoma cells. Moreover, combined use of NBDHEX and etoposide synergistically increased cytotoxicity, suggesting a role for GSTM4 as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that GSTM4 limits apoptosis owing to its ability to interact with Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) and inhibit signaling via the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase axis. To exploit our observation that GSTM4 expression is specifically up-regulated in Ewing sarcoma, we tested the effect of a GSTM4-activated anti-cancer agent, O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate or JS-K, on tumor growth and survival. We found that JS-K robustly decreased Ewing sarcoma cell viability and xenograft tumor growth and improved overall survival of xenograft mice. Our data suggest that GSTM4 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of high GSTM4-expressing Ewing sarcoma. Strategies that combine standard chemotherapy with agents that inhibit GSTM4, that are activated by GSTM4, or that block GSTM4/ASK1 interactions, can potentially be more specific and/or efficacious than standard therapeutic approaches.
- Highly potent anti-proliferative effects of a gallium(III) complex with 7-chloroquinoline thiosemicarbazone as a ligand: Synthesis, cytotoxic and antimalarial evaluation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Chem 2014 Aug 16.:81-86.
A gallium(III) complex with 7-chloroquinoline thiosemicarbazone was synthesized and characterized. The complex proved to be thirty-one times more potent on colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, with considerably less cytotoxicity on non-cancerous colon fibroblast, CCD-18Co, when compared to etoposide. Its anti-malarial potential on 3D7 isolate of Plasmodium falciparum was better than lumefantrine.
- Chemo-predictive assay for targeting cancer stem-like cells in patients affected by brain tumors. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(8):e105710.
Administration of ineffective anticancer therapy is associated with unnecessary toxicity and development of resistant clones. Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) resist chemotherapy, thereby causing relapse of the disease. Thus, development of a test that identifies the most effective chemotherapy management offers great promise for individualized anticancer treatments. We have developed an ex vivo chemotherapy sensitivity assay (ChemoID), which measures the sensitivity of CSLCs as well as the bulk of tumor cells to a variety of chemotherapy agents. Two patients, a 21-year old male (patient 1) and a 5-month female (patient 2), affected by anaplastic WHO grade-III ependymoma were screened using the ChemoID assay. Patient 1 was found sensitive to the combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab, which resulted in a prolonged disease progression free period of 18 months. Following recurrence, the combination of various chemotherapy drugs was tested again with the ChemoID assay. We found that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) greatly increased the chemosensitivity of the ependymoma cells to the combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab. After patient 1 was treated for two months with irinotecan, bevacizumab and supplements of cruciferous vegetable extracts containing BITC, we observed over 50% tumoral regression in comparison with pre-ChemoID scan as evidenced by MRI. Patient 2 was found resistant to all treatments tested and following 6 cycles of vincristine, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin in various combinations, the tumor of this patient rapidly progressed and proton beam therapy was recommended. As expected animal studies conducted with patient derived xenografts treated with ChemoID screened drugs recapitulated the clinical observation. This assay demonstrates that patients with the same histological stage and grade of cancer may vary considerably in their clinical response, suggesting that ChemoID testing which measures the sensitivity of CSLCs as well as the bulk of tumor cells to a variety of chemotherapy agents could lead to more effective and personalized anticancer treatments in the future.
- A randomized trial of prophylactic palifermin on gastrointestinal toxicity after intensive induction therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Haematol 2014 Aug 21.
Gastrointestinal toxicity, including oral mucositis, is a frequent complication of intensive combination chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and contributes substantially to treatment-related mortality. We conducted a placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of palifermin (keratinocyte growth factor), given at 60 μg/kg per daily IV for 3 d before and after chemotherapy, for mucosal protection in adult patients with previously untreated AML receiving induction therapy with idarubicin, high-dose cytarabine and etoposide. Among 155 randomized patients, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of grade 3 and 4 oral mucositis (primary study endpoint) between the two treatment arms (three in palifermin arm (4%), 8 in placebo arm (10%; P = 0·21); however, when considering the severity of oral mucositis (World Health Organization grade 0-4), there was evidence of reduced rates of higher grades of oral mucositis in the palifermin arm (P = 0·0007, test for trend). There was a statistically significantly lower rate of grades 3 and 4 gastrointestinal adverse events in the palifermin arm (21% vs. 44% in placebo arm; P = 0·003), mainly due to a reduction in severe diarrhoea (8% palifermin, 26% placebo; P = 0·01). Palifermin has activity as a mucosal protectant in AML patients receiving intensive chemotherapy. This trial is registered at ACTRN012605000095662.
- Risk of Premature Menopause After Treatment for Hodgkin's Lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- J Natl Cancer Inst 2014 Aug; 106(9)
Modern treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) has transformed its prognosis but causes late effects, including premature menopause. Cohort studies of premature menopause risks after treatment have been relatively small, and knowledge about these risks is limited.Nonsurgical menopause risk was analyzed in 2127 women treated for HL in England and Wales at ages younger than 36 years from 1960 through 2004 and followed to 2003 through 2012. Risks were estimated using Cox regression, modified Poisson regression, and competing risks. All statistical tests were two-sided.During follow-up, 605 patients underwent nonsurgical menopause before age 40 years. Risk of premature menopause increased more than 20-fold after ovarian radiotherapy, alkylating chemotherapy other than dacarbazine, or BEAM (bis-chloroethylnitrosourea [BCNU], etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation, but was not statistically significantly raised after adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD). Menopause generally occurred sooner after ovarian radiotherapy (62.5% within five years of ≥5 Gy treatment) and BEAM (50.9% within five years) than after alkylating chemotherapy (24.2% within five years of ≥6 cycles), and after treatment at older than at younger ages. Cumulative risk of menopause by age 40 years was 81.3% after greater than or equal to 5Gy ovarian radiotherapy, 75.3% after BEAM, 49.1% after greater than or equal to 6 cycles alkylating chemotherapy, 1.4% after ABVD, and 3.0% after solely supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy. Tables of individualized risk information for patients by future period, treatment type, dose and age are provided.Patients treated with HL need to plan intended pregnancies using personalized information on their risk of menopause by different future time points.
- HPLC-UV method for quantifying etoposide in plasma and tumor interstitial fluid by microdialysis: application to pharmacokinetic studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biomed Chromatogr 2014 Aug 19.
A simple and sensitive bioanalytical method was developed and validated for determination of etoposide in plasma and microdialysis samples of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the center of a subcutaneous tumor and Ringer's solution was used as perfusion medium. Chromatographic separation was conducted on a Shimadzu CLC-C8 column using a mobile phase consisting of water-acetonitrile (70:30; v/v) adjusted to pH 4.0 ± 0.1 with formic acid at a gradient flow rate of 1.0-0.6 mL/min, an injection volume of 30 μL and UV detection at 210 nm. Microdialysate samples were analyzed without processing and plasma samples (100 μL) were spiked with phenytoin as internal standard (IS) (1 µg/mL) followed by extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether. The organic layer was evaporated and reconstituted with 100 μL of mobile phase before injection. The methods for plasma and microdialysate were linear in the ranges of 25-10,000 ng/mL and of 10-1500 ng/mL, respectively. All the validation parameters such as intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy and stability were within the limits established by international guidelines. The present method was successfully applied in the investigation of etoposide pharmacokinetics in rat plasma and microdialysate tumor samples following a single 15 mg/kg intravenous dose. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Modulation of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in neuroblastoma SK-N-AS cells by the neural apoptosis inhibitory protein and miR-520f. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cancer 2014 Aug 18.
The acquisition of multidrug resistance is a major impediment to the successful treatment of neuroblastoma, a clinically heterogeneous cancer accounting for ˜15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. The MYCN transcription factor, whose gene is amplified in ˜30% of high-risk neuroblastoma cases, influences drug resistance by regulating a cadre of genes, including those involved with drug efflux, however, other high-risk subtypes of neuroblastoma lacking MYCN amplification, such as those with chromosome 11q deletions, also acquire multidrug resistance. In order to elucidate additional mechanisms involved with drug resistance in non-MYCN amplified tumour cells, an SK-N-AS subline (SK-N-AsCis24) that is significantly resistant to cisplatin and cross resistant to etoposide was developed through a pulse-selection process. High resolution aCGH analysis of SK-N-AsCis24 revealed a focal gain on chromosome 5 containing the coding sequence for the neural apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP). Significant over-expression of NAIP mRNA and protein was documented, while experimental modulation of NAIP levels in both SK-N-AsCis24 and in parental SK-N-AS cells confirmed that NAIP was responsible for the drug resistant phenotype by apoptosis inhibition. Furthermore, a decrease in the NAIP targeting microRNA, miR-520f, was also demonstrated to be partially responsible for increased NAIP levels in SK-N-AsCis24. Interestingly, miR-520f levels were determined to be significantly lower in post-chemotherapy treatment tumours relative to matched pre-chemotherapy samples, consistent with a role for this miRNA in the acquisition of drug resistance in vivo, potentially through decreased NAIP targeting. Our findings provide biological novel insight into neuroblastoma drug-resistance and have implications for future therapeutic research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Multidisciplinary management of small cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Nagoya J Med Sci 2014 Feb; 76(1-2):173-80.
We report a case of primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast in a 59-year-old female. To the best of our knowledge, there are only 44 cases of this disease reported in the English literature. The patient also had regional nodal metastases, but no distant metastases. She underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to a regimen of pulmonary SCC, and combination of cisplatin and etoposide (CDDP+VP16). The tumor partially responded to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The treatment was followed by modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy, i.e., EC therapy (epirubicin and cyclophosphamide). She was also administered in total 50 Gy of radiation treatment to the chest wall. At this writing, the patient has evidenced no recurrence 36 months after her diagnosis.