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- Fluorescein Hydrzones as Novel Non-intercalative Topoisomerase Catalytic Inhibitors with Low DNA Toxicity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Chem 2014 Oct 21.
Fluorescein hydrzones (3a-3l) were synthesized in three steps with 86-91% overall yields. Topo-I and IIα-mediated relaxation and cell viability assay were evaluated. 3d inhibited 47% topo-I (camptothecin, 34%) and 20% topo-II (etoposide 24%) at 20 μM. 3l inhibited 61% topo-II (etoposide 24%) at 20 μM. 3d and 3l were further evaluated to determine their mode of action with diverse methods of kDNA decatenation, DNA-topo cleavage complex, comet, DNA intercalating/unwinding and topo IIα-mediated ATP hydrolysis assays. 3d functioned as a non-intercalative dual inhibitor against the catalytic activities of topo I and topo IIα. 3l acted as a topo IIα specific non-intercalative catalytic inhibitor. 3d activated apoptotic proteins as it increased the level of cleaved capase-3 and cleaved PARP in dose-and time-dependent manner. The dose- and time-dependent increase of G1 phase population was observed by treatment of 3d along with the increase of p27kip1 and the decrease of cyclin D1 expression.
- Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent infant: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge! [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep; 30(Suppl 1):299-302.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal syndrome that results from inappropriate activation of the immune system. Many viral agents are known to trigger HLH but cytomegalovirus (CMV) associated HLH is rarely described. We report a case of CMV related HLH in a 3½ month old immunocompetent male infant who presented with fever, respiratory distress and hepatosplenomegaly. He had fulminant sepsis like course in the hospital as he continued to have hectic fever spikes, progressive pneumonia, increasing hepatosplenomegaly and multiple episodes of generalized convulsions. Investigations revealed bicytopenia, biochemical hepatitis, hyperferritinemia and hypofibrinogenemia. CMV IgM serology was reactive in both infant and mother. Diagnosis of CMV-HLH was made as per HLH 2004 diagnostic protocol. Infant was successfully treated with intravenous ganciclovir along with dexamethasone and etoposide.
- A Case of Advanced Primary Thyroid Double-Hit B Cell Lymphoma in Which Complete Remission has been Maintained After High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Performed During the Second Remission, with a Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep; 30(Suppl 1):166-73.
A 50-year-old woman who presented with a mass in the thyroid gland was diagnosed as having diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by biopsy in August 2011. The tumor had a complex chromosomal karyotype, including 8q24 (C-MYC) and 18q21(BCL-2), and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed split signals of C-MYC and BCL-2. BCL-2/IgH and C-MYC/IgH fusion signals were also observed. Three courses of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone (R-CHOP) therapy were given, followed by thyroid gland irradiation. She was achieved complete remission (CR). In January 2012, a mass appeared in the right breast, which was diagnosed as relapse by biopsy. CR was achieved again after the 4th course of R-CHOP therapy, and one course of rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, cytarabine, cisplatin (R-ESHAP) therapy was given. Thereafter, CR has been maintained after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. There have been only 3 reported cases of primary thyroid C-MYC and BCL-2 double-hit lymphoma, including the present case; 2 of the cases were cases of DLBCL. R-CHOP therapy, irradiation and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation are expected to be effective for such patients.
- A Phase II/III study comparing carboplatin and irinotecan with carboplatin and etoposide for the treatment of elderly patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (JCOG1201). [EDITORIAL]
- Jpn J Clin Oncol 2014 Oct 20.
A randomized Phase II/III trial commenced in Japan in December 2013. Carboplatin plus etoposide is the current standard treatment for elderly extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to confirm the superiority of carboplatin plus irinotecan in terms of overall survival over carboplatin plus etoposide for elderly extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer patients in a Phase II/III design. A total of 370 patients will be accrued from 38 Japanese institutions within 5 years. In the Phase II part, the primary endpoint is the response rate of the carboplatin plus irinotecan arm and the secondary endpoint is adverse events. In the Phase III part, the primary endpoint is overall survival and the secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, response rate, adverse events, serious adverse events and symptom score. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000012605 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm).
- Concomitant small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of gallbladder and breast cancer. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Surg 2014.:945921.
The neuroendocrine carcinoma is defined as a high-grade malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm arising from enterochromaffin cells, usually disposed in the mucosa of gastric and respiratory tracts. The localization in the gallbladder is rare. Knowledge of these gallbladder tumors is limited and based on isolated case reports. We describe a case of an incidental finding of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder, observed after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, in a 55-year-old female, who already underwent quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer. The patient underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer and six cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. Eighteen months after surgery, the patient was free from disease. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder has poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of the reported cases, specific prognostic factors have not been identified. The coexistence of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder with another malignancy has been reported only once. The contemporary presence of the two neoplasms could reflect that bioactive agents secreted by carcinoid can promote phenotypic changes in susceptible cells and induce neoplastic transformation.
- Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I resolves both naturally and chemically induced DNA adducts and its potential as a therapeutic target. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Metab Rev 2014 Oct 20.:1-14.
Abstract DNA is subject to a wide range of insults, resulting from endogenous and exogenous sources that need to be metabolized/resolved to maintain genome integrity. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I (Tdp1) is a eukaryotic DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes the removal of covalent 3'-DNA adducts. As a phospholipase D superfamily member Tdp1 utilizes two catalytic histidines each within a His-Lys-Asn motif. Tdp1 was discovered for its ability to hydrolyze the 3'-phospho-tyrosyl that in the cell covalently links DNA Topoisomerase I (Topo1) and DNA. Tdp1's list of substrates has since grown and can be divided into two groups: protein-DNA adducts, such as camptothecin stabilized Topo1-DNA adducts, and modified nucleotides, including oxidized nucleotides and chain terminating nucleoside analogs. Since many of Tdp1's substrates are generated by clinically relevant chemotherapeutics, Tdp1 became a therapeutic target for molecularly targeted small molecules. Tdp1's unique catalytic cycle allows for two different targeting strategies: (1) the intuitive inhibition of Tdp1 catalysis to prevent Tdp1-mediated repair of chemotherapeutically induced DNA adducts, thereby enhancing their toxicity and (2) stabilization of the Tdp1-DNA covalent reaction intermediate, prevents resolution of Tdp1-DNA adduct and increases the half-life of this potentially toxic DNA adduct. This concept is best illustrated by a catalytic Tdp1 mutant that forms the molecular basis of the autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy, and results in an increased stability of its Tdp1-DNA reaction intermediate. Here, we will discuss Tdp1 catalysis from a structure-function perspective, Tdp1 substrates and Tdp1 potential as a therapeutic target.
- Phase I/II trial of vorinostat with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and prednisone as palliative treatment for elderly patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Haematol 2014 Oct 15.
The standard treatment of relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in frail elderly patients has not been established. A variation was made on rituximab (R), cyclophosphamide (C), etoposide (E), procarbazine and prednisone (P), substituting vorinostat (V) for procarbazine. Patients ≥aged 60 years with relapsed/refractory DLBCL, not candidates for autologous stem cell transplantation, were treated R-CVEP [R 375 mg/m(2) intravenously (IV), day 1; C 600 mg/m(2) IV days 1, 8: E 70 mg/m(2) IV day 1, 140 mg/m(2) days 2, 3 orally (PO); V (300 vs. 400 mg) PO and P 60 mg/m(2) PO days 1-10] every 28 d for six cycles. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed in addition to response. Thirty patients (median age 76 years, 69-88) were enrolled (one died before treatment). Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for V was 300 mg. For 23 patients at MTD (six phase I + 17 phase II), two were discontinued for toxicity, one withdrew consent, eight achieved complete response (35%), five achieved partial response (22%) and seven progressed (25%). Median overall survival was 17·5 months. Median progression-free survival was 9·2 months. Nine patients are alive. QoL declined during treatment but improved above baseline for patients who completed treatment. In conclusion, R-CVEP was tolerated at MTD and produced durable responses with improved QoL.
- Attempted conservative management of a placental site trophoblastic tumor: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Conn Med 2014 Sep; 78(8):475-7.
Placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs) are rare malignant forms of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Controversy exists regarding the most important pathologic or radiologic predictors of extent of disease. Consequently, there is limited information as to the best candidates for conservative surgery.A 28-year-old female presented 18 months after a term delivery with a biopsy confirmed PSTT. She declined hysterectomy. Imaging revealed a locally limited lesion without myometrial invasion, and no evidence of metastatic disease. She was given two cycles of neoadjuvant etoposide, methrotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine (EMA/CO) chemotherapy followed by an attempt at laparoscopically guided hysteroscopic resection. Pathology showed extensive myometrial invasion with positive surgical margin, and our recommendation for hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection was accepted. Postoperatively, she was given two cycles ofpaclitaxel, cisplatin alternating with paclitaxel, etoposide (TP/TE) chemotherapy.Fertility sparing options are desirable and should be considered. However, as our case and much of the literature demonstrates, hysterectomy remains the most successful treatment.
- Treatment of severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected adults. [Journal Article]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014.:CD003256.
Background Kaposi's sarcoma remains the most common cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa and the second most common cancer in HIV-infected patients worldwide. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there has been a decline in its incidence.However, Kaposi's sarcoma continues to be diagnosed in HIV-infected patients.Objectives To assess the added advantage of chemotherapy plus HAART compared to HAART alone; and the advantages of different chemotherapy regimens in HAART and HAART naive HIV infected adults with severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma.Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and , GATEWAY, the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the US National Institutes of Health's ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials and the Aegis archive of HIV/AIDS for conference abstracts. An updated search was conducted in July 2014.Selection criteria Randomised trials and observational studies evaluating the effects of any chemotherapeutic regimen in combination with HAART compared to HAART alone, chemotherapy versus HAART, and comparisons between different chemotherapy regimens.Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed the studies independently and extracted outcome data.We used the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) as the measure of effect.We did not conduct meta-analysis as none of the included trials assessed identical chemotherapy regimens.Main results We included six randomised trials and three observational studies involving 792 HIV-infected adults with severe Kaposi's sarcoma.Seven studies included patients with a mix of mild to moderate (T0) and severe (T1) Kaposi's sarcoma. However, this review was restricted to the subset of participants with severe Kaposi's sarcoma disease.Studies comparing HAART plus chemotherapy to HAART alone showed the following: one trial comparing HAART plus doxorubicin,bleomycin and vincristine (ABV) to HAART alone showed a significant reduction in disease progression in the HAART plus ABV group (RR 0.10; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.75, 100 participants); there was no statistically significant reduction in mortality and no difference in adverse events. A cohort study comparing liposomal anthracyclines plus HAART to HAART alone showed a non-statistically significant reduction in Kaposi's sarcoma immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in patients that received HAART plus liposomal anthracyclines (RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.16 to 1.55, 129 participants).Studies comparing HAART plus chemotherapy to HAART plus a different chemotherapy regimen showed the following: one trial involving 49 participants and comparing paclitaxel versus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients on HAART showed no difference in disease progression. Another trial involving 46 patients and comparing pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus liposomal daunorubicin showed no participants with progressive Kaposi's sarcoma disease in either group.Studies comparing different chemotherapy regimens in patients from the pre-HAART era showed the following: in the single RCT comparing liposomal daunorubicin to ABV, there was no significant difference with the use of liposomal daunorubicin compared to ABV in disease progression (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.82, 227 participants) and overall response rate. Another trial involving 178 participants and comparing oral etoposide versus ABV demonstrated no difference in mortality in either group. A non-randomised trial comparing bleomycin alone to ABV demonstrated a higher median survival time in the ABV group; there was also a non-statistically significant reduction in adverse events and disease progression in the ABV group (RR 11; 95% CI 0.67 to 179.29, 24 participants).An additional non-randomised study showed a non-statistically significant overall mortality benefit from liposomal doxorubicin as compared to conservative management consisting of either bleomycin plus vinblastine, vincristine or single-agent antiretroviral therapy alone (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.15, 29 participants). The overall quality of evidence can be described as moderate quality. The quality of evidence was downgraded due to the small size of many of the included studies and small number of events.Authors' conclusions The findings from this review suggest that HAART plus chemotherapy may be beneficial in reducing disease progression compared to HAART alone in patients with severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma. For patients on HAART, when choosing from different chemotherapy regimens, there was no observed difference between liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal daunorubicin and paclitaxel.
- Dose-Intensive Response-Based Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy for Children and Adolescents With Newly Diagnosed Intermediate-Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group Study AHOD0031. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Oncol 2014 Oct 13.
The Children's Oncology Group study AHOD0031, a randomized phase III study, was designed to evaluate the role of early chemotherapy response in tailoring subsequent therapy in pediatric intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma. To avoid treatment-associated risks that compromise long-term health and to maintain high cure rates, dose-intensive chemotherapy with limited cumulative doses was used.Patients received two cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone (ABVE-PC) followed by response evaluation. Rapid early responders (RERs) received two additional ABVE-PC cycles, followed by complete response (CR) evaluation. RERs with CR were randomly assigned to involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) or no additional therapy; RERs with less than CR were nonrandomly assigned to IFRT. Slow early responders (SERs) were randomlyassigned to receive two additional ABVE-PC cycles with or without two cycles of dexamethasone, etoposide, cisplatin, and cytarabine (DECA). All SERs were assigned to receive IFRT.Among 1,712 eligible patients, 4-year event-free survival (EFS) was 85.0%: 86.9% for RERs and 77.4% for SERs (P < .001). Four-year overall survival was 97.8%: 98.5% for RERs and 95.3% for SERs (P < .001). Four-year EFS was 87.9% versus 84.3% (P = .11) for RERs with CR who were randomly assigned to IFRT versus no IFRT, and 86.7% versus 87.3% (P = .87) for RERs with positron emission tomography (PET) -negative results at response assessment. Four-year EFS was 79.3% versus 75.2% (P = .11) for SERs who were randomly assigned to DECA versus no DECA, and 70.7% versus 54.6% (P = .05) for SERs with PET-positive results at response assessment.This trial demonstrated that early response assessment supported therapeutic titration (omitting radiotherapy in RERs with CR; augmenting chemotherapy in SERs with PET-positive disease). Strategies directed toward improved response assessment and risk stratification may enhance tailoring of treatment to patient characteristics and response.