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- Specific expression of OATPs in primary small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells as novel biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Lett 2014 Oct 6.
The expression of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) was elucidated in cell lines from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and lung carcinoids and in paraffin-embedded samples from primary and metastatic SCLCs. We found a strong relationship between OATP expression and the origin of the cells, as cells from primary or metastatic SCLC and carcinoid tumors differ with respect to OATP levels. OATP4A1 is most prominent in non-malignant lung tissue and in all SCLC and carcinoid cell lines and tissues, OATP5A1 is most prominent in metastatic cells, and OATP6A1 is most prominent in SCLC cell lines and tumors. Treatment with topotecan, etoposide and cisplatin caused significant changes in the expression patterns of OATP4A1, OATP5A1, OATP6A1, chromogranin and synaptophysin. This effect was also evident in GLC-14 cells from an untreated SCLC patient before chemotherapy compared to GLC-16/-19 chemoresistant tumor cells from this patient after therapy. mRNA expression of OATP4A1, 5A1 and 6A1 correlates with protein expression as confirmed by quantitative microscopic image analysis and Western blots. OATPs might be novel biomarkers for tumor progression and the development of metastasis in SCLC patients.
- Inflammation-driven carcinogenesis is mediated through STING. [Journal Article]
- Nat Commun 2014.:5166.
Chronic stimulation of innate immune pathways by microbial agents or damaged tissue is known to promote inflammation-driven tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that mutagenic 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), cisplatin and etoposide induce nuclear DNA leakage into the cytosol that intrinsically activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent cytokine production. Inflammatory cytokine levels are subsequently augmented in a STING-dependent extrinsic manner by infiltrating phagocytes purging dying cells. Consequently, STING(-/-) mice, or wild-type mice adoptively transferred with STING(-/-) bone marrow, are almost completely resistant to DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis compared with their wild-type counterparts. Our data establish a role for STING in the control of cancer, shed significant insight into the causes of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis and may provide a basis for therapeutic strategies to help prevent malignant disease.
- Ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) plus L-asparaginase as a first-line therapy improves outcomes in stage III/IV NK/T cell-lymphoma, nasal type (NTCL). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Hematol 2014 Oct 11.
The prognosis of patients with stage III/IV NK/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL) is extremely poor. Although L-asparaginase (L-asp) is effective for NTCL, its significance has not been clearly demonstrated. In addition, there are few studies comparing treatment outcomes in stage III/IV NTCL. This study evaluated the efficacy of L-asp-based chemotherapy and prognostic factors in stage III/IV NTCL. Seventy patients with newly diagnosed stage III/IV NTCL were enrolled between January 2000 and February 2013. Patients received ifosfamide, etoposide, methotrexate, and prednisolone (IMEP) plus L-asp (N = 22) or combination chemotherapy without L-asp (N = 48) as a first-line treatment. Clinical prognostic factors, treatment outcomes, and prognostic scores were compared between the groups. After a median follow-up period of 12.8 months (range, 1.1-186.6 months), median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 11.3 and 5.6 months, respectively. Treatment outcomes were superior in patients treated with IMEP plus L-asp compared to those treated with chemotherapy without L-asp (overall response rate, 90.0 vs. 34.8 %, P < 0.001; complete remission rate, 65.0 vs. 21.7 %, P = 0.001). The OS and PFS were significantly higher for the IMEP plus L-asp group compared with the chemotherapy without L-asp group. In a multivariate analysis, the use of chemotherapy without L-asp was an independent predictor of reduced OS (hazards ratio (HR) = 2.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-4.40; P = 0.030) and PFS (HR = 2.29, 95 % CI 1.22-4.29; P = 0.010). IMEP plus L-asp is active against stage III/IV NTCL, and it is an independent predictor of improved survival.
- Effect of three fatty acids from the leaf extract of Tiliacora triandra on P-glycoprotein function in multidrug-resistant A549RT-eto cell line. [Journal Article]
- Pharmacogn Mag 2014 Aug; 10(Suppl 3):S549-56.
Cancer cells have the ability to develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs, which then leads to a reduced effectiveness and success of the treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the resistance in the same cell/tissue to a diverse range of drugs of different structures. One of the characteristics of MDR is an overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which causes the efflux of the accumulated drug out of the cell. The MDR human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line with a high P-gp expression level (A549RT-eto) was used to investigate the bioactive compounds capable of reversing the etoposide resistance in this cell line.The leaves of Tiliacora triandra were sequentially extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. Only the hexane extract reduced the etoposide resistance of the A549RT-eto cell line, and was further fractionated by column chromatography using the TLC-pattern and the restoration of etoposide sensitivity as the selection criteria.The obtained active fraction (F22) was found by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses to be comprised of a 49.5:19.6:30.9 (w/w/w) mixture of hexadecanoic: octadecanoic acid: (Z)-6-octadecenoic acids. This stoichiometric mixture was recreated using pure fatty acids (MSFA) and gave a similar sensitization to etoposide and enhanced the relative rate of rhodamine-123 accumulation to a similar extent as F22, supporting the action via reducing P-gp activity. In contrast, the fatty acids alone did not show this effect.This is the first report of the biological activity from the leaves of T. triandra as a potential source of a novel chemosensitizer.
- Salvage therapy with mitoxantrone, etoposide, bleomycin and dexamethasone for refractory or relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients with a poor performance status or comorbidity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Lett 2014 Nov; 8(5):2012-2016.
The treatment of refractory or relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in patients in a state of poor health is difficult due to their ineligibility to receive intensive salvage chemotherapy. In the present study, 16 refractory or relapsed aggressive NHL patients with a poor performance status or comorbidities were treated with mitoxantrone, etoposide, bleomycin and dexamethasone (MEBD) therapy. The treatment consisted of 10 mg/m(2) intravenous (IV) mitoxantrone on day 1, 75 mg/m(2) IV etoposide on days 1-3, 20 mg IV dexamethasone on days 1-4 and 15 mg intramuscular bleomycin on days 1, 4, 8 and 12, every 21 days. The efficacy and toxicity of the regimen were evaluated. The overall response rate was 68.8%, with a complete response rate of 18.8% and a partial response rate of 50.0%. The efficacy of the treatment for B-cell lymphoma was greater than that for T-cell lymphoma. The median progression-free survival time for the patients was 16.7 months and the median overall survival time was 22.4 months. The one-year overall survival rate was 62.5% and the two-year overall survival rate was 43.8%. The most common toxicity symptom was myelosuppression. In conclusion, refractory or relapsed aggressive NHL patients with a poor performance status or comorbidity are eligible for chemotherapy. MEBD therapy is an effective and feasible salvage regimen for NHL patients in a state of poor health.
- [A Case of Advanced Prostate Fibrosarcoma that Reacted Well to Chemotherapy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hinyokika Kiyo 2014 Sep; 60(9):451-4.
Prostate fibrosarcoma is an extremely rare tumor for which complete excision has been the mainstay of treatment. Although chemotherapy has been attempted in cases with positive surgical margins and/or advanced stage disease, the effectiveness of this therapy has not been established. Herein, we report a case of advanced prostate fibrosarcoma that reacted well to chemotherapy. A 40-year-old man was referred for treatment of a large prostatic tumor with multiple lung, liver, and bone metastases. Needle biopsy of the prostate revealed that the tumor was a high-grade undifferentiated sarcoma. Chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide was administered. After five courses of chemotherapy, the primary prostate tumor decreased markedly, and the lung and liver metastases almost disappeared. Radical cystoprostatectomy and ileal conduit formation were performed. Pathological diagnosis was fibrosarcoma. Another three courses of doxorubicin and ifosfamide therapy were performed, and doxorubicin was replaced by etoposide because the maximum dose of doxorubicin was reached. However, the effectiveness of the second-line therapy was poor, and the tumor progressed again. The patient died of lung metastasis 15 months later.
- Late relapse of non-seminomatous testicular cancer during treatment of multiple sclerosis with interferon β-1a: A case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Lett 2014 Nov; 8(5):2179-2182.
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) comprise 95% of malignant tumors arising in the testes. The present study reports a patient diagnosed with non-seminomatous testicular cancer, stage IB, with a good risk prediction according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. The patient received chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin, and achieved complete remission. Eleven years later, while receiving treatment with interferon β-1a for multiple sclerosis, the patient developed a relapse of the original cancer in the lungs and lymph nodes. The majority of GCTs relapse within the first two years of treatment, while 2-4% of patients can present with late relapses. There is no clear established association between multiple sclerosis and testicular cancer; we present the hypothesis that the inmunosupressor treatment that was administered for the multiple sclerosis promoted the cancer relapse.
- Paraneoplastic secondary hypertension due to a renin-secreting desmoplastic small round cell tumor: A case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Lett 2014 Nov; 8(5):1986-1992.
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with a poor outcome that occurs in adolescents and young adults; <200 cases of DSRCT have been reported. Renin-producing tumors are also rare and cases of extrarenal renin-producing tumors are even rarer. The present study describes the case of a 20-year-old male that was diagnosed with DSRCT and presented with severe hypertension and hypokalemia, as well as metabolic alkalosis. The plasma renin activity (PRA) level was identified to be markedly elevated (normal range in standing and supine positions, 1.3-4.0 ng/ml/h and 0.15-2.33 ng/ml/h, respectively) and the plasma aldosterone level was also increased (normal range in standing and supine positions, 4.0-31.0 ng/dl and 1.0-1.6 ng/dl, respectively). The symptoms of the patient were consistent with the renin-secreting tumor triad, which comprises hypertension, hypokalemia and elevated PRA. Paraneoplastic syndromes must always be considered in cancer patients exhibiting unusual clinical findings, despite their rarity. The current patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic secondary hypertension due to the presence of disseminated renin-secreting DSRCT. The patient was treated with the VAC/IE regimen (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and etoposide) for six cycles. Following this treatment, the serum renin and aldosterone levels fell to within the normal range and the patient's blood pressure was normalized without antihypertensive medication. Although an immunohistochemical evaluation of renin was not conducted as the sample size was inadequate, the present study demonstrated that the tumor had produced renin. The biosynthesis of renin was identified by the presence of mRNA that coded for the renin precursor, which was observed in the ascites of the patient. The current study describes, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of paraneoplastic secondary hypertension in a patient presenting with a renin-producing DSRCT.
- Priapism as the initial symptom of primary penile lymphoma: A case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Lett 2014 Nov; 8(5):1929-1932.
Primary penile lymphoma presenting with priapism as the initial symptom is extremely rare. In total, <10 cases have been previously reported. The diagnosis can be difficult and patients often develop metastasis. The current study reports the case of a 48-year-old male, who presented with a one-month history of painless priapism. On admission to Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University (Yantai, China), examination revealed an erect penis, enlarged lymph nodes in the bilateral inguinal and swelling in the thighs. A biopsy was taken from the right inguinal lymph node and the pathological diagnosis confirmed a diffuse large B-cell type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while an enhanced computed tomography scan of the chest revealed evidence of the invasion of malignant lymphoma cells. Priapism disappeared two days following the completion of the first cycle of chemotherapy with the E-CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, epirubicin and etoposide); however, evidence of brain metastases was observed one month later, which was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient received cranial radiotheraphy and systemic treatment for cerebral edema. The patient did not respond well to treatment and succumbed to the disease three months following the initial diagnosis of lymphoma. Lymphoma may be difficult to diagnose, depending on the initial symptoms; therefore, the patient history must be carefully assessed so as to determine an early diagnosis and prevent metastasis, thus improving the prognostic outcome.
- Term delivery of a complete hydatidiform mole with a coexisting living fetus followed by successful treatment of maternal metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease. [Journal Article]
- Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2014 Sep; 53(3):397-400.
A twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole with a coexisting normal fetus is extremely rare with an incidence of 1/22,000 to 1/100,000. The incidence of preterm delivery is high and few pregnancies reach near term with a viable fetus.A 34-year-old woman presented at 20 weeks of gestation with increased levels of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) at 4.74 multiples of the median (310277.7 mIU/mL). Ultrasonography showed a hydatidiform mole together with a normal fetus. Fetal karyotyping revealed 46XY. The serum beta-HCG levels were followed up throughout the remainder of the pregnancy. A male infant weighting 2260 g and the molar tissue were delivered at 37 weeks of gestation. The karyotype of the molar tissue showed 46XX and the histopathological report confirmed our diagnosis. At 4 months postpartum, metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease of the lung was diagnosed in the mother by a computed tomography scan due to increased beta-HCG levels. The patient received three unsuccessful cycles of methotrexate and folinate. Another four cycles of chemotherapy consisting of etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine (EMA-CO) were initiated and the beta-HCG levels returned to normal. There was no evidence of recurrence in the subsequent 5 years of regular follow up.A pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and a living cotwin can be a serious threat to the health of both the mother and the fetus. Early diagnosis depends on a combination of detecting an unusually high level of serum beta-HCG and ultrasound examination. We suggest that continuation of the pregnancy may be an acceptable option and that the pregnancy may continue until term if a normal fetal anatomy is assured and maternal complications are under control. Patients require careful postpartum follow up and any recurrent disease should be managed aggressively.