- Biotechnological interventions for harnessing podophyllotoxin from plant and fungal species: current status, challenges, and opportunities for its commercialization. [Journal Article]
- Crit Rev Biotechnol 2016 Sep 20; :1-15CR
- Podophyllotoxin is an aryltetralin lignan synthesized in several plant species, which is used in chemotherapies for cancers and tumor treatment. More potent semisynthetic derivatives of podophyllotox...
Podophyllotoxin is an aryltetralin lignan synthesized in several plant species, which is used in chemotherapies for cancers and tumor treatment. More potent semisynthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin such as etoposide and teniposide are being developed and evaluated for their efficacy. To meet the ever increasing pharmaceutical needs, species having podophyllotoxin are uprooted extensively leading to the endangered status of selective species mainly Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. This has necessitated bioprospection of podophyllotoxin from different plant species to escalate the strain on this endangered species. The conventional and non-conventional mode of propagation and bioprospection with the integration of biotechnological interventions could contribute to sustainable supply of podophyllotoxin from the available plant resources. This review article is focused on the understanding of different means of propagation, development of genomic information, and its implications for elucidating podophyllotoxin biosynthesis and metabolic engineering of pathways. In addition, various strategies for sustainable production of this valuable metabolite are also discussed, besides a critical evaluation of future challenges and opportunities for the commercialization of podophyllotoxin.
- Novel 2-aryl-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridines as potent DNA non-intercalative topoisomerase catalytic inhibitors. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Med Chem 2016 Sep 8; 125:14-28EJ
- On the basis of previous reports on the importance of thienyl, furyl or phenol group substitution on 5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridine skeleton, a new series of rigid 2-aryl-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5H-indeno[1,2...
On the basis of previous reports on the importance of thienyl, furyl or phenol group substitution on 5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridine skeleton, a new series of rigid 2-aryl-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridine derivatives were systematically designed and synthesized. Topoisomerase inhibitory activity and antiproliferative activity of all the synthesized compounds were determined using human colorectal (HCT15), breast (T47D), prostate (DU145) and cervix (HeLa) cancer cells. Compounds 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18 and 19 with thienyl or furyl moiety at the 2-position and hydroxyl group at the meta or para positions of 4-phenyl ring displayed strong to moderate topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) inhibitory activity and significant antiproliferative activity. The evaluation of compound 16 to determine its mechanism of action was performed with topo IIα-DNA cleavable complex, topo IIα-mediated ATPase assay, DNA unwinding and in vitro and ex vivo topo IIα relaxation assay. Compound 16 functioned as a DNA non-intercalative topo IIα catalytic inhibitor with better potency than etoposide in T47D breast cancer cells. Molecular docking study revealed that compound 16 cannot intercalate into regularly stacked base-pairs of DNA duplex but can interact or intercalate to topo IIα-bound DNA.
- Tertiary amine mediated targeted therapy against metastatic lung cancer. [Journal Article]
- J Control Release 2016 Sep 14; 241:81-93JC
- In this work, two tertiary amine-derived 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP) conjugates (DC and DP) have been designed and synthesized using N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(4-carboxyl benzyl)-1,3-propanediamin...
In this work, two tertiary amine-derived 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP) conjugates (DC and DP) have been designed and synthesized using N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(4-carboxyl benzyl)-1,3-propanediamine (CPDM) and 4-(4-methylpiperazinomethyl)benzoic acid (PBA) as the targeting ligands. Both DC and DP exhibited strong in vitro cytotoxicity against small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Cellular uptake efficiencies of DC and DP in human alveolar type II epithelial cells were significantly enhanced compared to DMEP and etoposide (VP-16), which were demonstrated to be concentration-, time- and energy-dependent. The active transport process of DC and DP might be mediated by organic cation transporters (OCTs). After systemic administration in mice, both DC and DP selectively accumulated in the lung, displaying the highest Cmax and AUC0-t values of all tested tissues. Compared with DMEP and VP-16, DC and DP remarkably reduced the lung weight and the number of lung metastases of B16 melanoma in mice, and further prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Also, DC and DP exhibited comparable levels of cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, DC and DP demonstrated minimum toxicity towards vital organs and reduced gastrointestinal injury compared to DMEP and VP-16. Taken together, tertiary amine-derived moieties such as CPDM and PBA represent an efficient yet safe strategy to achieve lung-targeted drug delivery.
- Heterogeneity of grade 3 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas: New insights and treatment implications. [Review]
- Cancer Treat Rev 2016 Aug 28; 50:61-67CT
- Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are currently classified as grade (G) 1, G2 and G3, in accordance with the 2010 WHO classification. G1 and G2 are named neuroendocrine tum...
Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are currently classified as grade (G) 1, G2 and G3, in accordance with the 2010 WHO classification. G1 and G2 are named neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) whereas G3 neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). While advanced G1 and G2 are usually treated with several different therapies, including somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, interferon, molecular targeted agents, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and liver-directed treatments, advanced G3 NECs are usually treated with a platinum-etoposide chemotherapy, trusting their clinical homogeneity is similar to that of small cell lung cancer. However, over the last years a number of reports suggested that 2010 WHO G3 GEP NECs are more heterogeneous than expected. Therefore, we critically reviewed the literature about this topic and reported pathological and clinical considerations on 2010 WHO G3 GEP NEC category proposing new sub-categories. Over the last five years, six studies specifically investigating large series of G3 GEP NECs have been published, including around 800 patients. Tumor morphology and Ki-67 Labeling Index (that will be mentioned as Ki-67 in this manuscript) combination has been reported as a tool to define two or even three subgroups of this category with different prognosis and potentially different therapeutic approach. Prospective trials are warranted to investigate if several types of therapy other than the platinum/etoposide chemotherapy can be effective in well differentiated GEP NEN with 21-55% Ki-67 and alkylating-based chemotherapy in poorly differentiated GEP NEN with 21-55% Ki-67.
- Preradiation Chemotherapy for Adult High-risk Medulloblastoma: A Trial of the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (E4397). [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Oncol 2016 Sep 15AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: The OR to this preradiation chemotherapy regimen is lower than anticipated from the adult and pediatric literature raising a question about comparative efficacy of chemotherapy in different age groups. The OS achieved is similar to retrospective adult series, but worse than pediatric outcomes. Although this regimen can be administered without compromising delivery of CSI, our results do not provide support for the use of this neoadjuvant chemotherapy for adult medulloblastoma.
- Use of Extracorporeal Support in Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Secondary to Ehrlichiosis. [Journal Article]
- Pediatrics 2016 Sep 15Ped
- Ehrlichiosis, caused by transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis to humans through the bite of an infected lone star tick, can lead to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threaten...
Ehrlichiosis, caused by transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis to humans through the bite of an infected lone star tick, can lead to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threatening condition caused by uncontrolled activation of the cellular immune system. We describe a child with HLH secondary to ehrlichiosis who developed multiorgan failure and was successfully managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 9-year-old boy developed headaches, fever, and sore throat after suspected tick exposure. He presented with pancytopenia, elevated ferritin, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels, all consistent with HLH. Bone marrow biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis. Polymerase chain reaction was positive for E chaffeensis He developed acute kidney injury, coagulation failure, hepatic insufficiency, and progressive respiratory failure requiring intubation. Due to refractory hypoxemia, he was cannulated for veno-venous ECMO. Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration was used to manage acute kidney injury and fluid overload. He received doxycycline and dexamethasone/etoposide for treatment of ehrlichiosis and HLH, respectively. Plasma exchange was used for thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure. The patient was decannulated after 140 hours of ECMO and subsequently transferred for inpatient rehabilitation after extubation. Review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry database identified 6 patients with tickborne diseases who received ECMO for organ support (survival in 3 of 6); ehrlichiosis was not reported in any of these cases. ECMO likely allowed a platform for stabilization and additional therapeutic interventions in this patient.
- Multi-Target Approach to Metastatic Adrenal Cell Carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- Arch Iran Med 2016; 19(9):671-3AI
- Adrenal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor and more than 70% of patients present with advanced stages. Adrenal cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Surgical intervention is the go...
Adrenal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor and more than 70% of patients present with advanced stages. Adrenal cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Surgical intervention is the gold standard treatment and mitotane is the only drug approved for the treatment of adrenal cell carcinoma. Until recently in 2012, the etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin plus mitotane are approved as first-line therapy based on response rate and progression-free survival. This case illustrates a case of advanced adrenal cell carcinoma in a young girl who presented with huge adrenal mass with inferior vena cava thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Multi-approach of therapy was used to control the tumor size and metastasis. Therefore, it may prolong her survival rate for up to 5 years and 4 months.
- A Case of Metastatic Adamantinoma That Responded Well to Sunitinib. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Oncol Med 2016; 2016:5982313CR
- Adamantinoma is a rare low-grade malignant bone tumor of epithelial origin. Metastatic adamantinoma has been reported to be resistant to chemotherapy. We report a case of metastatic adamantinoma to t...
Adamantinoma is a rare low-grade malignant bone tumor of epithelial origin. Metastatic adamantinoma has been reported to be resistant to chemotherapy. We report a case of metastatic adamantinoma to the lung, 10 years after the initial diagnosis of tibial mass. The patient received radiation therapy to the lung with partial response. A surveillance PET scan revealed progression of the lung mass and biopsy confirmed to be progressive residual metastatic adamantinoma. He received carboplatin and etoposide for 7 months and achieved a partial response. Four months later, PET scan showed disease progression. We started him on sunitinib, a multikinase inhibitor. He achieved a good partial response for 3 years. He died due to pneumonia at the age of 72.
- A Case of Mixed Germ Cell Tumor in the Intramedullary Spinal-cord. [Journal Article]
- Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2016; 41(3):147-51TJ
- A 28-year-old man was hospitalized with advancing paraplegia. Under the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, steroid pulse therapy was administered and plasmapheresis was performed. However, the par...
A 28-year-old man was hospitalized with advancing paraplegia. Under the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, steroid pulse therapy was administered and plasmapheresis was performed. However, the paraplegia gradually progressed. Subsequently, a spinal cord tumor was revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The pathological diagnosis, obtained by open biopsy, confirmed a mixed germ cell tumor in the spinal cord. Multiple lung and lymph nodes metastases were also detected upon computed tomography, along with increased serum alpha-fetoprotein (33.9 ng/mL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (182.5 mIU/mL) levels. Consequently, he received chemotherapy comprising three courses of BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) as first-line therapy, followed by four courses of TGN (paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and nedaplatin) as second-line treatment. As a result, the spinal cord lesion area was significantly decreased and the alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin levels were normalized. Four years after chemotherapy, MRI revealed pituitary gland and pineal organ recurrence of the germ cell tumor and additional TGN chemotherapy was performed.
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- [Double-Hit Follicular Lymphoma with BCL2 and MYC Translocations]. [Journal Article]
- Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2016; 43(9):1135-8GT
- Double-hit lymphomas are rare tumors that are defined by a chromosomal breakpoint affecting the MYC/8q24 locus in combination with another recurrent breakpoint, mainly a t(14; 18)(q32;q21)involving B...
Double-hit lymphomas are rare tumors that are defined by a chromosomal breakpoint affecting the MYC/8q24 locus in combination with another recurrent breakpoint, mainly a t(14; 18)(q32;q21)involving BCL2. We report a case of a 38-yearold woman with a 2-month history of abdominaldistention. 18F-FDG PET showed multiple positive systemic lymph nodes, positive peritoneum, and multiple positive intra-abdominal masses. Histopathology results of the cervical lymph node were compatible with double-hit follicular lymphoma(Grade 3A)because fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH)demonstrated both MYC rearrangement and BCL2 gene fusion. She was initially started on R-CHOP(rituximab and doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone), but after one course the regimen was changed to dose-adjusted EPOCH-R(rituximab and doxorubicin, etoposide, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone). However, she showed no response to this chemotherapy regimen or haploidentical stem cell transplantation. The treatment strategy included salvage chemothera- py. An autologous and/or allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation is important for non-responders to DA-EPOCH-R.