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facial paralysis [keywords]
- The use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of plunging nose: cosmetic results and a functional serendipity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Ter 2013 Mar-Apr; 164(2):e107-e113.
Introduction.Muscles of the nose are active in facial movements both with the other facial muscles. An active depressor septi muscle (DSN) can accentuate a drooping nasal tip and shorten the upper lip on animation, especially during smiling. Paralysis of the DSN allows the tip of the nose to be lifted up. Materials and Methods. Between January and June 2011 a double blinded, randomized study was performed on 40 patients for nasal defects as "plunging" tip. 20 patients underwent to Botulinum toxin injection (B), 20 patients were treated with placebo such as saline solution (S). Both aesthetic and functional results were evaluated using objective and subjective parameters at time 0, after 7, 15 and 30 days and values were compared using t Student test.
Results.S group results were not significant from an objective point of view. In botulinum group, patients showed an increase in columellar-lip distance. Satisfaction of the Group B patients was an average of 6.3 on VAS (range from 4 to 9). VAS mean values were studied with t-Student test and were found significant. Discussion. Several authors recommend the incision of DSN muscle during rhinoplasty to correct the plunging tip. In patients with no needs for rhinoplasty this procedure is unnecessary and a quick and targeted injection of Botulinum toxin is the most convenient choice to improve aesthetic of the plunging tip. Clin Ter 2013; 164(2):e107-113. doi: 10.7417/CT.2013.1541.
- Ocular protection in facial paralysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 May 17.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Facial nerve paralysis has a profound impact on patients' quality of life, of which one of the most important sequelae is a risk of corneal surface disease. Herein, we discuss methods to protect the eye following insult to the facial nerve.
RECENT FINDINGS:Protection of the ocular surface in patients with facial nerve injury is of paramount importance to prevent corneal injury and potential blindness. Many interventions on the eye are temporary and therefore easily reversible. A systematic approach to managing the eye is required in these patients.
SUMMARY:This article provides a review of current methods used for ocular protection in patients with facial nerve paralysis.
- Retrospective study of the functional recovery of men compared with that of women with long-term facial paralysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013 May 16.
Sex is likely to play an important part in reanimation of the face after paralysis, with women being superior in terms of resistance to neural injury and regeneration. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the sex of the patient on the recovery of facial paralysis after surgical reanimation by comparing the degree of restored movement between men and women with long-standing paralysis that was reanimated by transfer of the hypoglossal nerve or cross-face nerve grafting. Between 1999 and 2010 we operated on 174 patients with facial paralysis. Of these we studied 26 cases (19 women and 7 men) with complete long-standing paralysis reanimated with either cross-face nerve grafting (n=14) or transfer of the hemihypoglossal nerve (n=12). The degree of movement restored was recorded in each case. Statistical analysis showed that in cases with long-standing paralysis women had significantly more movement restored than men for both cross-face nerve grafting (p=0.02) and hypoglossal transposition (p=0.04). We conclude that, after a neural injury, women tend to maintain the viability of the facial musculature longer than men, which suggests that they are more resistant to both denervation and the development of muscular atrophy. Whether this phenomenon can be explained by neural or muscular processes, or both, warrants further studies.
- Botulinum toxin injection of both sides of the face to treat post-paralytic facial synkinesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2013 May 15.
OBJECTIVE:An attempt has been made to produce a new 'balance' in facial dynamics between a paralysed and a non-paralysed face with reduction of synkinesis, by concomitant injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on both sides in patients with long-lasting facial sequelae.
STUDY DESIGN:Prospective clinical study.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Forty-two consecutive patients who recovered partially from facial nerve paralysis were enrolled for this study. The amount injected per site of the paralysed side with synkinesis varied from 1.5 to 2.5 U, and the total dose used per patient was 10-26 U (mean 17.12 ± 5.3 U). That of the non-paralysed side with muscular hypertrophy varied from 2.5 to 5 U, and the total dose used per patient was 35-72 U (mean 52.6 ± 9.7 U). All patients had been evaluated by the Sunnybrook (SB) facial nerve grading systems and developed dynamic facial asymmetry ratio.
RESULTS:After administration of injection of BTX-A on both sides of the face, relief of facial synkinesis and enhancement of facial symmetry were observed in all patients. Before the injection, the patients showed an SB score of 38.8 ± 10.68. After the injection, changes of synkinesis and symmetry score were 7.9 ± 1.81 and 8.4 ± 3.25, respectively, resulting in a 58.4 ± 12.46 score at the last evaluation. Before the administration, the mean ± standard deviation (SD) value of dynamic facial asymmetry was 0.83 ± 0.06 and it was increased significantly to 0.90 ± 0.05 1 month after administration.
CONCLUSION:After BTX-A injection on both sides for synkinesis and contralateral hypertrophy, the patients showed significant suppression of the synkinesis and improvement of facial symmetry with resulting elevated quality of life, social interaction, personal appearance and food intake.
- Mask face: Bilateral simultaneous facial palsy in an 11-year-old boy. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Int 2013 Apr; 55(2):e35-7.
Bilateral facial paralysis is an uncommon clinical entity especially in the pediatric age group and occurs frequently as a manifestation of systemic disease. The most important causes are trauma, infectious diseases, neurological diseases, metabolic, neoplastic, autoimmune diseases and idiopathic disease (Bell's palsy). We report a case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with bilateral simultaneous peripheral facial paralysis. All possible infectious causes were excluded and the patient was diagnosed as having Bell's palsy (idiopathic). The most important approach in these cases is to rule out a life-threatening disease.
- Reversal of Acute Ischemic Stroke After THA Using Tissue Plasminogen Activator. [Journal Article]
- Orthopedics 2013 May 1; 36(5):e676-8.
Acute ischemic stroke is a potentially catastrophic medical emergency. Recently, successful reversal of the neurologic deficits associated with major ischemic strokes has been accomplished in selected patients through the use of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), an agent that can accomplish thrombolysis of arterial clots if given within the first few hours after the onset of stroke. Because tPA works by thrombolysis of fresh clots, a potential exists for catastrophic hemorrhage if given to acute postoperative patients. Therefore, the use of tPA has never been studied in postoperative patients, and the safety of the drug in postoperative patients is unknown.The author describes a patient who had an acute ischemic stroke 2 days after total hip arthroplasty who was successfully treated with tPA without major complications. The patient was 51 years old and developed progressive facial droop, right arm paralysis, and dysarthria 2 days after elective hip arthroplasty. Imaging confirmed occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Neurologic recovery was believed to be unlikely without tPA. After tPA administration, the patient had full neurologic recovery within minutes but did develop a large (nondraining) hematoma and severe ecchymosis at the surgical site; a drop in hematocrit required 3 units of packed red blood cell transfusion. The wound did not develop skin necrosis, infection, or compartment syndrome, and the hematoma resolved within several weeks without the need for surgical intervention.The author describes the patient's specific circumstances, the decision-making process behind the use of tPA, and the need for contingency plans in the event that severe uncontrolled hemorrhage occurs. This information may be useful if other surgeons are faced with the dilemma of a major stroke in acute postoperative patients.
- Hypoglossal-facial-jump-anastomosis without an interposition nerve graft. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Laryngoscope 2013 May 13.
HYPOTHESIS:The hypoglossal-facial-anastomosis is the most often applied procedure for the reanimation of a long lasting peripheral facial nerve paralysis. The use of an interposition graft and its end-to-side anastomosis to the hypoglossal nerve allows the preservation of the tongue function and also requires two anastomosis sites and a free second donor nerve. We describe the modified technique of the hypoglossal-facial-jump-anastomosis without an interposition and present the first results.
STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective case study.
METHODS:We performed the facial nerve reconstruction in five patients. The indication for the surgery was a long-standing facial paralysis with preserved portion distal to geniculate ganglion, absent voluntary activity in the needle facial electromyography, and an intact bilateral hypoglossal nerve. Following mastoidectomy, the facial nerve was mobilized in the fallopian canal down to its bifurcation in the parotid gland and cut in its tympanic portion distal to the lesion. Then, a tensionless end-to-side suture to the hypoglossal nerve was performed. The facial function was monitored up to 16 months postoperatively.
RESULTS:The reconstruction technique succeeded in all patients: The facial function improved within the average time period of 10 months to the House-Brackmann score 3.
CONCLUSION:This modified technique of the hypoglossal-facial reanimation is a valid method with good clinical results, especially in cases of a preserved intramastoidal facial nerve.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level 4. Laryngoscope, 2013.
- Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome: a review of seven patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Neurosci 2013 May 7.
Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is a rare disorder consisting of a triad of persistent or recurrent orofacial edema, relapsing facial paralysis and fissured tongue. It is difficult to diagnose and treat. A retrospective review of our MRS patients was performed. The medical files, and treatment, radiologic and histopathologic records of these patients were reviewed. The study group consisted of seven male MRS patients. In four patients, the three classical manifestations were present simultaneously. Neuroimaging examinations found facial soft-tissue thickening and swelling in two patients. The indicators of the disease in our patients were as follows: two had family histories, two had elevated levels of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, one had an increased immunoglobulin G level in the blood and one had reactive arthritis. All patients responded to systemic corticosteroid treatment. We discuss the genetic, infectious and immunologic factors in the etiology of MRS. Neuroimaging examinations were useful in determining the diagnosis and in determining whether the initial treatment of MRS should be with systemic corticosteroids.
- [Quality of life survey on patients with peripheral facial paralysis by using Chinese version of the FaCE scale]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2013 Jan; 48(1):11-6.
To explore the health related quality of life (QOL) status of patients with peripheral facial paralysis.By introducing, translating and adjusting of the FaCE (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation) scale, a Chinese version came into being. The scale was further strictly tested in eighty-one patients with peripheral facial paralysis and thirty healthy volunteers.The feasibility, reliability, validity and responsibility of Chinese version of FaCE scale all passed the test. The split-half reliability, Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient were 0.79, 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. The criteria validity calculated between FaCE and SF-36 was 0.41 (P < 0.05). Factor analysis of the construct validity showed that the 15 items were classified into six domains, which were in accordance with the original version. Every domain was sensitive and effective to discriminate between patient population and healthy population (P < 0.05). Chinese version of FaCE scale showed significant correlation with HBGS and SBGS scores (r = -0.40 and 0.42, P < 0.05).Chinese version of the FaCE scale can effectively assess QOL status of patients with facial paralysis in China.
- Static and dynamic repairs of facial nerve injuries. [Journal Article]
- Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2013 May; 25(2):303-12.
The patient with facial paralysis presents a daunting challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. A thorough evaluation is key in directing the surgeon to the appropriate treatment methods. Aggressive and immediate exploration with primary repair of the facial nerve continues to be the standard of care for traumatic transection of the facial nerve. Secondary repair using dynamic techniques is preferred over static procedures, because the outcomes have proved to be superior. However, patients should be counseled that facial movement and symmetry are difficult to mimic and none of the procedures described is able to restore all of the complex vectors and overall balance of facial movement and expression.