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fecal fat test [keywords]
- Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Funct 2013 Jun 12.
Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans.
- A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats. [Journal Article]
- Ayu 2012 Jul; 33(3):435-40.
Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya.
- Behavioral and physiological effects of a short-term feed restriction in lactating dairy cattle with different body condition scores at calving. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dairy Sci 2013 May 15.
Body condition score (BCS) around calving, and the typical BCS loss for up to 100 d after parturition, is associated with both production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. In addition, there is public concern that thin cows may have impaired welfare, particularly in early lactation where feed demand exceeds pasture growth, and a lag exists between peak milk energy requirements and intake. The aim of this experiment was to determine how BCS at calving influences behavioral and physiological responses to a short-term feed restriction at 47 DIM. Body condition score (on a 10-point scale) at calving was manipulated by modifying the diets in the previous lactation of healthy dairy cattle to generate 3 treatment groups: low BCS (3.4; n = 17), medium BCS (4.6; n = 18), or high BCS (5.4; n = 20). Cows were tested in 4 groups for 8 consecutive days; testing consisted of different levels of feed allocation (d 1 and 2: 100%; d 3 and 4: 75%; d 5: 50%; d 6 to 8: 125%), where 100% was 15 kg of DM/cow per day. All BCS groups had similar and marked behavioral and physiological responses to feed restriction. For example, they increased vocalization, time spent eating silage and grazing, aggressive behavior, and fat metabolism (as measured by concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids), and reduced milk production. Body condition affected some of these responses. Fewer cows with low BCS engaged in aggressive interactions in a feed competition test (trough filled with silage that could be consumed in 15 min) on the first day of feed restriction (low: 32%; medium: 74%; high: 64%; standard error of difference = 15.4%). High-BCS cows had greater concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids throughout the experimental period, which suggests more fat mobilization; however, plasma leptin and fecal glucocorticosteroid metabolite concentrations were unaffected by BCS. Whereas cows demonstrated marked responses to feed restriction, the results suggest that a BCS of 3.4, 4.6, or 5.4 in healthy cows at calving does not overwhelmingly influence this response at 47 DIM.
- Methods for Diagnosis of Bile Acid Malabsorption in Clinical Practice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 May 2.
Altered concentrations of bile acid (BA) in the colon can cause diarrhea or constipation. More than 25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea or chronic diarrhea in Western countries have BA malabsorption (BAM). As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are needed, to help direct the most effective course of treatment for the chronic bowel dysfunction. We review the methodologies, advantages, and disadvantages of tools that directly measure BAM: the (14)C-glycocholate breath and stool test, the (75)selenium homotaurocholic acid test (SeHCAT), and measurements of 7 α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. The (14)C-glycocholate test is laborious and no longer widely used. The (75)SeHCAT has been validated, but is not available in the United States (US). Measurement of serum C4 is a simple and accurate method that can be used for most patients, but requires further clinical validation. Assays to quantify fecal BA (total and individual levels) are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the US; assessment of the therapeutic effects of a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data indicate the advantages to studying fecal excretion of individual BAs and their role in BAM; these could support the use of the fecal BA assay, compared with other tests. Measurement of fecal BA levels could become a routine addition to the measurement of fecal fat in patients with unexplained diarrhea. Availability ultimately determines whether the C4, SeHCAT, or fecal BA test is used; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients.
- Bowel Functions, Fecal Unconjugated Primary and Secondary Bile Acids, and Colonic Transit in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 Apr 29.
Aims:There is an unclear relationship among bowel symptoms, excretion of unconjugated fecal bile acid (UBA), and colonic transit in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We measured total and main individual UBA in fecal samples of patients with IBS, and assessed relationships among stool frequency or consistency, fecal UBA (total and individual), and colonic transit.
METHODS:In a study of 30 healthy volunteers (controls), 31 subjects with IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), and 30 with IBS with constipation (IBS-C) were placed on 4-day diets containing 100 g fat; we measured stool characteristics, total fecal UBA and fat levels, and overall colonic transit. We assessed univariate associations of total and individual levels of fecal UBA with phenotype (controls, IBS-D, IBS-C) using the Kruskal-Wallis test; associations between endpoints were assessed using Spearman correlations. With response surface regression models, we assessed relationships between stool, colonic transit, and fecal total and secretory UBA.
RESULTS:There was a significant association between total fecal UBA and phenotype (P=.029); the association was greater for IBS-D than IBS-C, compared with controls. Fecal levels of primary UBAs (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids) were higher in subjects with IBS-D, compared with controls (both P<.01). Levels of fecal secretory UBAs (chenodeoxycholic acids, P=.019; deoxycholic acid, P=.025) were lower in subjects with IBS-C compared with controls, whereas levels of the nonsecretory UBA, lithocholic acid, were higher (P=.020). There were significant univariate associations between stool number and form and total fecal UBA (including percentages of lithocholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acids, and cholic acid), fecal fat, and colonic transit at 24 and 48 h after eating. In the regression models, the relative contribution of colonic transit was consistently greater, and largely independent of the contribution of bile acids.
CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of individual UBAs identify changes associated with stool characteristics in patients with IBS; these effects are independent of the effects of colonic transit.
- Effect of acute and chronic red wine consumption on lipopolysaccharide concentrations. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Clin Nutr 2013 May; 97(5):1053-61.
Chronic red wine (RW) consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular disease risk, mainly attributed to an improvement in lipid profile. RW intake is also able to change the composition of gut microbiota. High fat intake has recently been reported to increase metabolic endotoxemia. The gut microbiota has been proposed as the main resource of plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in metabolic endotoxemia.We analyzed the effect on LPS concentrations of chronic RW consumption and acute RW intake in relation to high fat intake in middle-aged men.For the chronic study, 10 middle-aged male volunteers were randomly assigned in a crossover trial, and after a washout period, all subjects received RW, dealcoholized red wine (DRW), or gin for 20 d. Serum endotoxin and LPS-binding protein (LBP) concentrations were determined after the washout period and after each of the treatments, and changes in fecal microbiota were quantified. For the acute study, 5 adult men underwent a fat overload or a fat overload together with the consumption of RW, DRW, or gin. Baseline and postprandial serum LPS and LBP concentrations and postprandial chylomicron LPS concentrations were measured.There were no significant differences in the change in LPS or LBP concentrations between chronic RW, DRW, and gin consumption. Bifidobacterium and Prevotella amounts were significantly increased by RW and correlated negatively with LPS concentrations. There were no differences in postprandial serum LPS, LBP, or chylomicron LPS concentrations between acute RW, DRW, or gin intake together with a fatty meal.Chronic RW consumption increases Bifidobacterium and Prevotella amounts, which may have beneficial effects by leading to lower LPS concentrations. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN88720134.
- Supplementation of Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 in diet-induced obese mice is associated with gut microbial changes and reduction in obesity. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(3):e59470.
To investigate the functional effects of probiotic treatment on the gut microbiota, as well as liver and adipose gene expression in diet-induced obese mice.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity, and then randomized to receive HFD+probiotic (Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032, n = 9) or HFD+placebo (n = 9) for another 10 weeks. Normal diet (ND) fed mice (n = 9) served as non-obese controls.Diet-induced obese mice treated with probiotics showed reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation as well as lowered plasma insulin, leptin, total-cholesterol and liver toxicity biomarkers. A total of 151,061 pyrosequencing reads for fecal microbiota were analyzed with a mean of 6,564, 5,274 and 4,464 reads for the ND, HFD+placebo and HFD+probiotic groups, respectively. Gut microbiota species were shared among the experimental groups despite the different diets and treatments. The diversity of the gut microbiota and its composition were significantly altered in the diet-induced obese mice and after probiotic treatment. We observed concurrent transcriptional changes in adipose tissue and the liver. In adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL6, IL1β and MCP1) were down-regulated in mice receiving probiotic treatment. In the liver, fatty acid oxidation-related genes (PGC1α, CPT1, CPT2 and ACOX1) were up-regulated in mice receiving probiotic treatment.The gut microbiota of diet-induced obese mice appears to be modulated in mice receiving probiotic treatment. Probiotic treatment might reduce diet-induced obesity and modulate genes associated with metabolism and inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue.
- Conserved shifts in the gut microbiota due to gastric bypass reduce host weight and adiposity. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Sci Transl Med 2013 Mar 27; 5(178):178ra41.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) results in rapid weight loss, reduced adiposity, and improved glucose metabolism. These effects are not simply attributable to decreased caloric intake or absorption, but the mechanisms linking rearrangement of the gastrointestinal tract to these metabolic outcomes are largely unknown. Studies in humans and rats have shown that RYGB restructures the gut microbiota, prompting the hypothesis that some of the effects of RYGB are caused by altered host-microbial interactions. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of RYGB that recapitulates many of the metabolic outcomes in humans. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of murine fecal samples collected after RYGB surgery, sham surgery, or sham surgery coupled to caloric restriction revealed that alterations to the gut microbiota after RYGB are conserved among humans, rats, and mice, resulting in a rapid and sustained increase in the relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria (Escherichia) and Verrucomicrobia (Akkermansia). These changes were independent of weight change and caloric restriction, were detectable throughout the length of the gastrointestinal tract, and were most evident in the distal gut, downstream of the surgical manipulation site. Transfer of the gut microbiota from RYGB-treated mice to nonoperated, germ-free mice resulted in weight loss and decreased fat mass in the recipient animals relative to recipients of microbiota induced by sham surgery, potentially due to altered microbial production of short-chain fatty acids. These findings provide the first empirical support for the claim that changes in the gut microbiota contribute to reduced host weight and adiposity after RYGB surgery.
- Antiobesity potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Jun 5; 709(1-3):28-36.
The present study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Two in vivo experiments such as high-fat diet-induced obesity mice model and lipid emulsion tolerance test in normal rats were performed. In vitro inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity was further measured to substantiate the results. In high-fat diet-induced obesity mice model, female Swiss mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD; 40% fat) with or without 1 or 2% of UASG or 0.012% orlistat for nine weeks. In lipid emulsion tolerance test male Wister rats were orally administered, lipid emulsion with or without 500 or 1000mg/kg of UASG and the plasma triglycerides were measured from 0.5 to 5h. Consumption of HFD containing UASG to mice for nine weeks exhibited significant reduction in lipid parameters, body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, liver triglyceride (TG) and different organ weight compared to HFD fed control. Further it was noted the improvement in insulin resistance induced by the HFD alone group. Furthermore, consumption of an HFD containing 1 or 2% of UASG significantly increased the fecal content and fecal triglyceride compared with the HFD group. Pre-treatment with UASG inhibited the elevated plasma triglyceride level after the oral administration of the lipid emulsion to rats. Further, UASG significantly inhibits activity of pancreatic lipase at a concentration of 2.5mg/ml. Data obtained from the results indicated that UASG prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice possibly by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity.
- Fatty liver accompanies an increase in lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- J Nutr 2013 May; 143(5):627-31.
High-fat (HF) diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in the gut microbiome. To test the hypothesis that HF feeding increases certain predominant hind gut bacteria and development of steatohepatitis, C57BL/6 mice were fed an HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet for 10 wk. At the end of the feeding period, body weights in the HF group were 34% greater than those in the LF group (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with dramatic increases in lipid droplet number and size, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein concentration in the livers of mice fed the HF diet. Consistent with the fatty liver phenotype, plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HF diet, indicative of chronic inflammation. Eight of 12 pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for bacterial species that typically predominate hind gut microbial ecology generated specific PCR products from the fecal DNA samples. The amount of DNA from Lactobacillus gasseri and/or Lactobacillus taiwanensis in the HF group was 6900-fold greater than that in the LF group. Many of these bacteria are bile acid resistant and are capable of bile acid deconjugation. Because bile acids are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism, the marked increase of gut L. gasseri and/or L. taiwanensis species bacteria with HF feeding may play a role in development of steatohepatitis in this model.