(fecal fat test) articles in PubMed
- Medium-chain triglycerides promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Res 2016; 36(9):964-73NR
- We previously observed that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could reduce body fat mass and improve the metabolism of cholesterol. We hypothesized that MCTs can improve atherosclerosis by promoting ...
We previously observed that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could reduce body fat mass and improve the metabolism of cholesterol. We hypothesized that MCTs can improve atherosclerosis by promoting the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the roles of MCTs in macrophage RCT and the progression of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, 30 4-week-old ApoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed a diet of 2% MCTs or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) for 16 weeks. Ten age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet of 2% LCTs as the control. Macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed in vivo by intraperitoneal injection of RAW 264.7 macrophages containing (3)H-labeled cholesterol, and atherosclerotic plaques were measured. The mRNA and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. There was a greater decrease in body fat mass, atherosclerotic plaques, and an improvement in serum lipid profiles. In addition, the MCT mice group showed an increase in (3)H-tracer in the feces and a decrease in the liver. Significantly higher levels of mRNA and protein expression of hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, ATP-binding cassette transporter G5, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and intestinal ATP-binding cassette transporter G8, as well as lower levels of expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, were found in the MCT group. These results suggest that MCTs could obviously promote macrophage RCT and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice, indicating that MCTs have the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease.
- Variability in residual feed intake and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo heifers. [Journal Article]
- Trop Anim Health Prod 2016 Sep 12TA
- A feeding trial with 18 Murrah buffalo heifers (238 ± 63 kg; 1.7 ± 0.4 years old) was conducted for 57 days, and feed intake and body weight were recorded followed by 7 days of urine and feces collec...
A feeding trial with 18 Murrah buffalo heifers (238 ± 63 kg; 1.7 ± 0.4 years old) was conducted for 57 days, and feed intake and body weight were recorded followed by 7 days of urine and feces collection. Heifers were grouped into low (RFI-I) and high (RFI-II) feed efficiency groups by regressing DMI (g head(-1) day(-1)) on BWG (g head(-1) day(-1)) and mid-test MBW (kg). RFI-II heifers had slightly higher DMI (g head(-1) day(-1) and expressed per unit of BW, %BW, MBW, mid-test BW, and mid-test MBW) and all associated nutrient intakes, BWG, feed efficiency traits (FCR, CPCR), digestibility of nutrients, and retentions of crude protein and fat over RFI-I heifers. The corresponding intake values (kg head(-1) day(-1)) for RFI-I versus RFI-II were the following: DMI (6.73 ± 0.56 vs 6.51 ± 0.50), CPI (0.99 ± 0.008 vs 0.97 ± 0.07), DOMI (5.06 ± 0.47 vs 5.11 ± 0.42), and TDNI (4.95 ± 0.47 vs 5.00 ± 0.42). BWG (669 ± 52 vs 776 ± 47 g head(-1) day(-1)), feed efficiency traits (FCR: 10.32 ± 1.16 vs 8.77 ± 1.04 and CPCR: 1.52 ± 0.17 vs 1.30 ± 0.16), N balance (38 ± 9 vs 45 ± 8 g N head(-1) day(-1)), and protein and fat retentions (239 ± 57 vs 282 ± 51 g CP head(-1) day(-1) and 430 ± 6 vs 494 ± 59 g fat head(-1) day(-1)) of RFI-I were less than RFI-II heifers, respectively. Based on the predicted RFI values, RFI-II buffalo heifers could be selected for feed efficiency.
- Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs: effects on apparent digestibility of fat and energy and fecal characteristics. [Journal Article]
- Int J Obes (Lond) 2016 Sep 13IJ
- CONCLUSIONS: In dogs, flaxseed mucilage decreased fat apparent digestibility and this effect was enhanced when combined with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 13 September 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.139.
- Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging findings after posterior sagittal anorectoplasty for anorectal malformations and the clinical outcome: Preliminary report. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Surg 2016 Jul 27JP
- CONCLUSIONS: Thanks to soft tissue definition, multiplanar imaging, and lack of ionizing radiation, MRI is a valuable tool in the postoperative anatomical evaluation of patients with ARM. Our preliminary results show that abnormal anatomical findings can correlate to a nonoptimal functional outcome, thus helping in understanding the clinical course. The degree of anorectal centering in the muscle complex (DARC) seems to have the better correlation with the outcome, especially in terms of fecal continence.
- Agavins Increase Neurotrophic Factors and Decrease Oxidative Stress in the Brains of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice. [Journal Article]
- Molecules 2016; 21(8)M
- CONCLUSIONS: Agavins may act as bioactive ingredients with antioxidant and protective roles in the brain.
- Defining the physical properties of corn grown under drought-stressed conditions and the associated energy and nutrient content for swine. [Journal Article]
- J Anim Sci 2016; 94(7):2843-50JA
- Historically high temperatures and low rainfall during the 2012 growing season resulted in drought-stressed conditions in much of the U.S. corn belt. The objective of this experiment was to investiga...
Historically high temperatures and low rainfall during the 2012 growing season resulted in drought-stressed conditions in much of the U.S. corn belt. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the impact of these conditions on the composition and energy content in corn and determine if relationships exist among corn quality measurements, chemical composition, and digestibility of energy. Twenty-eight samples of corn from the 2012 drought-stressed crop (DS), plus 2 representative corn samples from the 2011 crop (CNTRL), were collected in Iowa and Illinois using yield as an initial screen for drought impact. Yields ranged from 2.5 to 14.8 t/ha. Each sample was graded by an official of the U.S. grain inspection agency and analyzed for 1,000 kernel weight, kernel density, ether extract, starch, GE, NDF, and CP content. Diets were formulated using each of the 30 corn samples and were fed at 2.6 times the estimated maintenance energy requirement according to the . Sixty individually housed barrows (PIC 359 × C29; 34.2 ± 0.2 kg initial BW) were randomly allotted in an incomplete crossover design to 30 diets across 4 periods. Diet and fecal samples were analyzed to determine DE values. Both ME and NE values were then calculated from DE values using methods developed by and , respectively. Mean DE, ME, and NE values between the CNTRL and DS were not different (3.72 vs. 3.68 Mcal/kg, respectively, 3.66 vs. 3.62 Mcal/kg, respectively, and 2.92 vs. 2.87 Mcal/kg, respectively; > 0.10). Comparing CNTRL with DS, there were no differences ( > 0.10) in ether extract (4.07 vs. 3.96%), CP (8.56 vs. 9.18%), or starch (70.5 vs. 69.5%). However, ADF and NDF were higher in the DS (2.23 and 8.19%, respectively) when compared with CNTRL (1.89 and 6.92%, respectively; < 0.001 and = 0.015, respectively). Small but significant correlations were observed between DE and NDF ( = -0.51, = 0.008), kernel density ( = 0.51, = 0.007), and percent damaged kernels ( = 0.41, = 0.031). No statistically significant correlations were observed between DE and starch or ADF content or between DE and test weight. We can conclude that corn grown in drought-stressed conditions has energy content similar to corn grown under more favorable conditions and, therefore, can be successfully used in swine diets. Furthermore, NDF proved to be superior to fat, starch, and ADF content in explaining the variation in corn energy content.
- Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows. [Journal Article]
- J Dairy Sci 2016; 99(10):7982-92JD
- Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover ...
Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a 1:1 DM mixture of corn and red clover silages.
- Intestinal dysbiosis contributes to the delayed gastrointestinal transit in high-fat diet fed mice. [Journal Article]
- Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 2(3):328-339CM
- CONCLUSIONS: Together our data suggest that intestinal dysbiosis in HFD fed mice contribute to the delayed intestinal motility by inducing a TLR4-dependant neuronal loss. Manipulation of gut microbiota with OFS improved intestinal motility in HFD mice.
- Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet. [Journal Article]
- Front Nutr 2016; 3:15FN
- Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. ...
Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10(10) bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6-2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol - alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron - increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0-8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0-8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters.
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- Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice. [Journal Article]
- J Nutr Biochem 2016; 35:30-6JN
- Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates ...
Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice.