fecal fat test [keywords]
- Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet. [Journal Article]
- Front Nutr 2016.:15.
Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10(10) bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6-2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol - alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron - increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0-8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0-8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters.
- Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Nutr Biochem 2016 Jun 19.:30-36.
Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice.
- Effect of milk replacer feeding rate and functional fatty acids on dairy calf performance and digestion of nutrients. [Journal Article]
- J Dairy Sci 2016 Aug; 99(8):6352-61.
Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less MR; however, postweaning growth may be reduced because of impaired digestion of nutrients. This was explored in the current research, as was the inclusion of functional fatty acids (NT) that could ameliorate some poor growth and digestion issues in calves fed large amounts of MR. Two MR rates [moderate (MOD) or aggressive (AGG)] with and without NT were compared using 48 male Holstein calves initially 3d old (43±1.5kg of body weight) randomly assigned to treatments. The MOD rate was fed at 0.66kg of dry matter (DM) for 49d. The AGG rate was fed for 4d at 0.66kg of DM, 4d at 0.96kg of DM, then 34d at 1.31kg of DM, followed by 0.66kg of DM for the last 7d. Calves were completely weaned at 49d. The MR contained 27% crude protein and 17% fat. The textured starter was 20% crude protein. Starter and water were fed free-choice for the first 56d when calves were housed in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped (4 calves/pen), maintaining the same MR rate and NT treatments, and fed starter blended with 5% chopped grass hay free-choice with free-choice water. Digestibility was estimated from fecal collections made on d 19 to 23, 40 to 44, and 52 to 56. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of MR rate and NT using repeated measures with a mixed procedure. Fiber and starch digestion increased with age and was lower for AGG versus MOD. Calf average daily gain and hip width change were greater before approximately 6wk of age for AGG versus MOD, but this was reversed from approximately 6 to 16wk. Calves fed AGG had lower average daily gain per unit intake of DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy from 8 to 16wk than calves fed MOD. Preweaning starter intake was less for calves fed AGG versus MOD. Calves fed AGG had greater body weight gain than MOD over 112d, but hip width change did not differ. Feeding NT improved digestibility of organic matter, DM, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (over 50% improvement for neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber), which resulted in 10.7kg (13%) more body weight gain and 1.4cm (16%) more hip width change over 112d. This was a greater improvement in growth than the difference in AGG and MOD programs over 112d.
- Rice bran proteins and their hydrolysates modulate cholesterol metabolism in mice on hypercholesterolemic diets. [Journal Article]
- Food Funct 2016 Jun 15; 7(6):2747-53.
The hypolipidemic properties of defatted rice bran protein (DRBP), fresh rice bran protein (FRBP), DRBP hydrolysates (DRBPH), and FRBP hydrolysates (FRBPH) were determined in mice on high fat diets for four weeks. Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) contents, and the hepatic total cholesterol content were reduced while fecal total cholesterol and total bile acid (TBA) contents were increased in the FRBPH diet group. The expression levels of hepatic genes for cholesterol biosynthesis HMG-CoAR and SREBP-2 were lowest in the FRBPH diet group. The mRNA level of HMG-CoAR was significantly positively correlated with the hepatic TG content (r = 0.82, P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of genes related to bile acid biosynthesis and cholesterol efflux, CYP7A1, ABCA1, and PPARγ were up-regulated in all test groups. The results suggest that FRBPH regulates cholesterol metabolism in mice fed the high fat and cholesterol diet by increasing fecal steroid excretion and expression levels of genes related to bile acid synthesis and cholesterol efflux, and the down-regulation of the expression levels of genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis.
- Impaired Bile Acid Homeostasis in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(5):e0155143.
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major cause of mortality in children under 5 years and is associated with hepatic steatosis. Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and participate in dietary fat digestion, regulation of energy expenditure, and immune responses. The aim of this work was to investigate whether SAM is associated with clinically relevant changes in bile acid homeostasis.An initial discovery cohort with 5 healthy controls and 22 SAM-patients was used to identify altered bile acid homeostasis. A follow up cohort of 40 SAM-patients were then studied on admission and 3 days after clinical stabilization to assess recovery in bile acid metabolism. Recruited children were 6-60 months old and admitted for SAM in Malawi. Clinical characteristics, feces and blood were collected on admission and prior to discharge. Bile acids, 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and FGF-19 were quantified.On admission, total serum bile acids were higher in children with SAM than in healthy controls and glycine-conjugates accounted for most of this accumulation with median and interquartile range (IQR) of 24.6 μmol/L [8.6-47.7] compared to 1.9 μmol/L [1.7-3.3] (p = 0.01) in controls. Total serum bile acid concentrations did not decrease prior to discharge. On admission, fecal conjugated bile acids were lower and secondary bile acids higher at admission compared to pre- discharge, suggesting increased bacterial conversion. FGF19 (Fibroblast growth factor 19), a marker of intestinal bile acid signaling, was higher on admission and was associated with decreased C4 concentrations as a marker of bile acid synthesis. Upon recovery, fecal calprotectin, a marker of intestinal inflammation, was lower.SAM is associated with increased serum bile acid levels despite reduced synthesis rates. In SAM, there tends to be increased deconjugation of bile acids and conversion from primary to secondary bile acids, which may contribute to the development of liver disease.
- Hypolipidemic effects of chitosan and its derivatives in hyperlipidemic rats induced by a high-fat diet. [Journal Article]
- Food Nutr Res 2016.:31137.
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is the primary risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Various factors, including genetics, physical inactivity, and daily nutritional habits, affect the prevalence of HLP. Recently, it was revealed that dietary fibers, such as pectin, psyllium, and especially chitosan (CTS), may play important roles in hypolipidemic management. Thus, this study aims to determine the hypolipidemic effect and mechanism of CTS and its water-soluble derivatives, chitosan oligosaccharides (MN≤1,000 Da (COSI) and MN≤3,000 Da (COSIII)), in male hyperlipidemic rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).After the model creation, 120 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were equally assigned to 12 groups fed various diets as follows: the normal group with basic diet, an HFD group, an HFD group supplemented with three doses of CTS, COSI and COSIII groups, and an HFD group treated with simvastatin (7 mg/kg·d). After 6 weeks, body weight, fat/body ratio, and the relevant biomarkers of serum, liver, and feces were measured. Additionally, the histological analysis of liver and adipose tissue was performed, and the mRNA expressions of liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and hepatic lipase (HL) were examined.Compared with HFD group, rats fed CTS, COSI, and COSIII showed a better ability to regulate their body weight, liver and cardiac indices, fat/body ratio, as well as serum, liver, and fecal lipids, and simultaneously to maintain the appropriate activity of liver and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as well as liver and fecal total bile acids (TBA). Simultaneously, there had been a higher mRNA expression of PPARα and HL in the treatment groups.The obtained results suggested that these three function foods can effectively improve liver lipid metabolism by normalizing the expressions of PPARα and HL, and protect liver from the oxidized trauma by enhancing hepatic function, which could be potentially used to remedy hyperlipidemia.
- Selenium-fertilized forage as a way to supplement lactating dairy cows. [Journal Article]
- J Dairy Sci 2016 Jul; 99(7):5358-69.
Fertilization with Se improves forage organic Se concentration, but comparisons with other forms of Se supplementation in feeding lactating dairy cows are scarce. Our objective was to compare the effect of Se-enriched forages to dietary sources of inorganic and organic Se. Digestibility, retention, and balance were assessed by measuring Se concentrations in feces, urine, milk, and blood. The resulting effect on antioxidant status and lactation performance of dairy cows was also determined. High-Se silages [1.72 mg of Se/kg of dry matter (DM)] were produced following a spring application of 2.5 kg/ha of Selcote Ultra, whereas low-Se silages (0.05 mg of Se/kg of DM) were produced in the Se-unfertilized portion of the same fields. After a 77±17 d period of Se depletion, 33 late-lactation primiparous Holstein cows were blocked and randomly assigned for 43 d to 1 of 4 experimental total mixed rations fed for ad libitum intake in an unbalanced randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 4 diets: control with low-Se silages, without Se supplement (0.12±0.04 mg of Se/kg of DM); ISe with low-Se silages and inorganic Se (0.80±0.14 mg of Se/kg of DM); YSe with low-Se silages and organic Se from yeast (0.70±0.11 mg of Se/kg of DM); and FSe with high-Se silages, without Se supplement (0.79±0.14 mg of Se/kg of DM). Organic Se, either as YSe or FSe, was more available and more effective to increase blood and milk Se concentrations than ISe. Moreover, FSe was more available than YSe, as cows fed FSe excreted 16 and 22% less Se (as percentage of intake) in feces and urine, respectively, had higher Se apparent absorption (17%), retention (37%), and balance (45%), and had greater concentration of Se in serum (16%) and milk (11%) than cows fed YSe. Antioxidant status (whole blood and plasma glutathione peroxidase, and milk thioredoxin reductase and malondialdehyde) was not affected by treatments. Dry matter intake, yield of actual, energy-corrected, and fat-corrected milk, as well as milk fat and lactose concentrations, were not affected by the dietary treatments. Cows fed ISe had lower milk protein concentration (3.44%) than cows fed YSe (3.58%) or FSe (3.51%). Cows fed Se-supplemented diets had a lower milk somatic cell count than cows fed the control diet. Results from the current study showed that the production of Se-enriched forages is an effective method to supplement dairy cows in Se as it was more available than YSe, and did not alter antioxidant status and performances of lactating dairy cows.
- Impact of Dietary Lipids on Colonic Function and Microbiota: An Experimental Approach Involving Orlistat-Induced Fat Malabsorption in Human Volunteers. [Journal Article]
- Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2016.:e161.
High-fat diets alter gut microbiota and barrier function, inducing metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation. Whether these effects are due to the high dietary lipid content or to the concomitant decrease of carbohydrate intake is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether higher amounts of dietary fat reaching the colon (through orlistat administration) affect the colonic ecosystem in healthy volunteers and the effect of the prebiotic oligofructose (OF) in this model.Forty-one healthy young subjects were distributed among four groups: Control (C), Prebiotic (P), Orlistat (O), and Orlistat/Prebiotic (OP). They consumed a fat-standardized diet (60 g/day) during Week-1 (baseline) and after 1 week of washout, Week-3. During Week-3, they also received their respective treatment (Orlistat: 2 × 120 mg/day, OF: 16 g/day, and maltodextrin as placebo). A 72-h stool collection was carried out at the end of Week-1 (T0) and Week-3 (T1). Fecal fat, calprotectin, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as well as the antioxidant activity of fecal waters (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), fecal microbiota composition (by deep sequencing), and gut permeability (Sucralose/Lactulose/Mannitol test) were determined at these times.Fecal fat excretion was higher in the O (P=0.0050) and OP (P=0.0069) groups. This event was accompanied, in the O group, by an increased calprotectin content (P=0.047) and a decreased fecal antioxidant activity (P=0.047). However, these alterations did not alter gut barrier function and the changes observed in the composition of the fecal microbiota only affected bacterial populations with low relative abundance (<0.01%); in consequences, fecal SCFA remained mainly unchanged. Part of the colonic alterations induced by orlistat were prevented by OF administration.In the context of an equilibrated diet, the acute exposition of the colonic ecosystem to high amounts of dietary lipids is associated with an incremented excretion of fecal calprotectin and pro-oxidant activity of the colonic content, in the absence of significant changes in the microbiota.
- [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and diabetes mellitus]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Wien Klin Wochenschr 2016 Apr.:163-6.
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in diabetic patients is frequent. Studies based on fecal elastase-1 measurement give prevalence rates of 10‒30 % of severe and 22‒56 % of moderate EPI in type 1 and rates of 5‒46 % in type 2 diabetic patients. Nevertheless, not all patients report typical symptoms like diarrhea, steatorrhea and weight loss. For noninvasive testing the determination of fecal elastase-1 has the highest sensitivity and specificity. This test should be performed at least in all symptomatic patients. As differential diagnosis celiac disease (with a prevalence of about 3-5 % of type 1 diabetic patients), autonomic neuropathy, but also diseases like irritable bowel syndrome and gastrointestinal tumors have to be taken into account. Patients with symptoms and a fecal elastase-1 < 100 µg/g should be treated with pancreatic enzymes in adequate daily doses administered at main meals. Treatment improves symptoms significantly, supply with fat soluble vitamins is normalised, risk for osteoporosis is reduced. However, improvement of glucose metabolism has not been demonstrated consistently. A pancreatogenic diabetes, also termed as type 3c diabetes, has not necessarily to be treated with insulin, often-at least initially-treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs is sufficient.
- Prebiotics and Bioactive Milk Fractions Affect Gut Development, Microbiota and Neurotransmitter Expression in Piglets. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016 Mar 23.
This study tested the hypothesis that the addition of prebiotics and two functional milk ingredients to infant formula would maintain normal growth and gut development and modify microbiota composition and neurotransmitter gene expression in neonatal piglets.Two-day-old male piglets (n = 24) were fed formula (CONT) or formula with polydextrose (PDX; 1.2 g/100 g diet), galactooligosaccharides (GOS; 3.5 g/100 g diet), bovine lactoferrin (Lf; 0.3 g/100 g diet) and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM-10; 2.5 g/100 g diet) (TEST) for 30 days. On study day 31, intestinal samples, ileal and colonic contents and feces were collected. Intestinal histomorphology, disaccharidase activity, serotonin (5'HT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were measured. Gut microbiota composition was assessed by pyrosequencing of the V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.Body weight of piglets on TEST was greater (p ≤ 0.05) than CONT on day 17-30. Both groups displayed growth patterns within the range observed for sow-reared pigs. TEST piglets had greater jejunal lactase (p = 0.03) and higher (p = 0.003) ileal VIP expression. TEST piglets tended to have greater (p = 0.09) sucrase activity, longer (p = 0.08) ileal villi, and greater (p = 0.06) duodenal TH expression. Microbial communities of TEST piglets differed from CONT in ascending colon (p = 0.001) and feces (p ≤ 0.05). CONT piglets had greater relative abundances of Mogibacterium, Collinsella, Klebsiella, Escherichia/Shigella, Eubacterium and Roseburia compared to TEST piglets in AC. In feces, CONT piglets harbored lower (p ≤ 0.05) proportions of Parabacteroides, Clostridium IV, Lutispora and Sutterella than TEST piglets.A mixture of bioactive ingredients improved increased weight gain and gut maturation, modulated colonic and fecal microbial composition and reduced the proportions of opportunistic pathogens.