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fecal fat test [keywords]
- The influence of feed energy density and a formulated additive on rumen and rectal temperature in hanwoo steers. [Journal Article]
- Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2014 Nov; 27(11):1652-62.
The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7) and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed) steers were in a 4×4 Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4) and high energy (4:6). The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at 30°C and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01) and rectal temperatures (p<0.001) without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01) between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01) propionate and subsequently had lower acetate:propionate (A/P) ratios than non-additive supplementation. High concentrate diets had significantly lower pH. Interactions between energy and additive were observed (p<0.01) in ammonia nitrogen production. Supplementation of diets with the additive resulted in lower rumen and rectal temperatures, hence the additive showed promise in alleviating undesirable effects of heat stress in cattle.
- Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e109841.
Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.
- Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn coproducts from the wet-milling industry fed to growing pigs. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Anim Sci 2014 Oct; 92(10):4557-65.
Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in corn and corn coproducts (high-fat corn germ [HFCG], corn bran, liquid corn extractives [LCE], and a mixture of corn germ meal and LCE [CGM-LCE]) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing barrows (initial BW: 33.4 ± 5.77 kg) were housed individually in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets. A corn-based diet (97.4% corn) and 4 diets that contained both corn and each of the corn coproducts were formulated. Each diet was fed to 8 pigs. Feces and urine samples were collected using the marker to marker method with 5-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. The DE and ME were calculated using the difference procedure. The concentrations of DE and ME in HFCG, corn bran, LCE, and CGM-LCE were less (P < 0.05) than in corn. Among corn coproducts, the concentration of DE in HFCG was greater (P < 0.05) than in corn bran, but the DE in corn bran was not different from DE values in LCE and CGM-LCE. No differences were observed in the ME concentrations among corn coproducts. In Exp. 2, 6 growing barrows (initial BW: 96.6 ± 1.16 kg) with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. A N-free diet and 5 diets that contained corn, HFCG, corn bran, LCE, or CGM-LCE as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID of CP and all indispensable AA was greater (P < 0.05) in corn than in all corn coproducts with the exception that the SID of Lys in corn was not different from the SID of Lys in HFCG, and the SID of Trp in corn was also not different from the SID of Trp in CGM-LCE. Among corn coproducts, the SID of CP, Arg, and Lys were greater (P < 0.05) in HFCG and CGM-LCE than in corn bran, the SID of Lys and Val was greater (P < 0.05) in LCE than in corn bran, and the SID of Arg was greater (P < 0.05) in HFCG and CGM-LCE than in LCE, but for the remaining indispensable AA, no differences among corn coproducts were observed. In conclusion, the corn coproducts used in these experiments contain less ME and have reduced SID of most AA compared with corn, but there are no differences in ME among corn coproducts and only few differences in the SID of indispensable AA among HFCG, corn bran, LCE, and CGM-LCE.
- Considerations on pancreatic exocrine function after pancreaticoduodenectomy. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Gastrointest Oncol 2014 Sep 15; 6(9):325-9.
The pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) procedure may lead to pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. There are several types of reconstruction for this kind of operation. Pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) was introduced to reduce the rate of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Although some randomized control trials have shown no differences regarding pancreatic leakage between PG and pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ), recently some reports reveal benefits from the PG over the PJ. Some surgeons concern about the performing of the PG and inactivation of pancreatic enzymes being in contact with the gastric juice, and the detrimental results over the exocrine pancreatic function. The pancreatic exocrine function can be measured with direct and indirect tests. Direct tests have the highest sensitivity and specificity for detection of exocrine insufficiency but require tube placement. Among the tubeless indirect tests, the van de Kamer stool fat analysis remains the standard to diagnose fat malabsorption. The patient compliance and time consuming makes it not so suitable for its clinical use. Fecal immunoreactive elastase test is employed for screening of exocrine insufficiency, is not cumbersome, and has been used to study pancreatic function after resection. We analyze the FE1 levels in our patients after the PD with two types of reconstruction, PG and PJ, and we discuss some considerations about the pancreaticointestinal drainage method after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
- A Novel Method to Identify Fat Malabsorption: The Serum Retinyl Palmitate Test. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Chim Acta 2014 Aug 8.
Malabsorptive etiologies of chonic diarrhea are important to identify. The 72-h stool for fecal fat test (FFT), the gold standard for diagnosing fat malabsorption, is fraught with limitations that impact its reliability. Vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin, parallels the absorption of lipids. We assessed the feasibility and validate a novel clinical test, retinyl palmitate (RP), for the diagnosis of fat malabsorption, and to compare the results to the FFT.Using a case-control study design, patients with chonic diarrhea secondary to suspected malabsorption, and healthy control subjects were identified. A Dietitian taught subjects to consume a 100g fat diet for the FFT with measurements of stool fat after 72-h. Serum levels of Vitamin A (retinol) and RP were measured by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chomatography. Two-way comparisons were made between the groups using 2 sample Wilcoxon rank-sum tests.Sixteen patients completed this study (8 cases and 8 control subjects). Fecal fat results were available for 15/16 patients. The sensitivity of the FFT was 100% (identified all cases), but the FFT specificity was 42%, as 4/7 control patients were identified as malabsorbers. Cases with short bowel syndrome had the lowest RP levels but this did not meet statistical significance. There was no significant difference for serum RP levels when comparing cases and control patients' AUC.Serum RP is useful to identify malabsorption, albeit in severe cases. Furthermore, we have shown that the 72-hour FFT has poor performance characteristics, highlighting the need for more useful diagnostics in identifying malabsorption.
- The anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and basic molecular studies. [REVIEW]
- Eur J Clin Nutr 2014 Oct; 68(10):1075-1087.
Many researchers have reported that obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several forms of cancer (such as breast, colon and prostate), pulmonary, osteoarticular and metabolic diseases in the past decades. Recently, the hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects of green tea in animals and humans have slowly become a hot topic in nutritional and food science research. This review will up-date the information of the anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and animal studies. During recent years, an increasing number of clinical trials have confirmed the beneficial effects of green tea on obesity. However, the optimal dose has not yet been established owing to the very different results from studies with a similar design, which may be caused by differences in the extent of obesity, dietary intake, physical activity intensity, the strength of subjects' compliance to test instruction, the genetic background of populations, body composition and dietary habits. Therefore, further investigations on a larger scale and with longer periods of observation and tighter controls are needed to define optimal doses in subjects with varying degrees of metabolic risk factors and to determine differences in beneficial effects among diverse populations. Moreover, data from laboratory studies have shown that green tea has important roles in fat metabolism by reducing food intake, interrupting lipid emulsification and absorption, suppressing adipogenesis and lipid synthesis and increasing energy expenditure via thermogenesis, fat oxidation and fecal lipid excretion. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain elusive.
- Effects of reduced dietary protein and supplemental rumen-protected essential amino acids on the nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Dairy Sci 2014 Sep; 97(9):5688-99.
When fed to meet the metabolizable protein requirements of the National Research Council, dairy cows consume an excess of N, resulting in approximately 75% of dietary N being lost to the environment as urine and feces. Reductions in environmental N release could be attained through an improvement in N efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine if the predicted reduction in milk yield associated with feeding a low-protein diet to lactating dairy cows could be avoided by dietary supplementation with 1 or more ruminally protected (RP) AA. Fourteen multiparous and 10 primiparous Holstein cows, and 24 multiparous Holstein × Jersey crossbred cows were used in a Youden square design consisting of 8 treatments and 3 periods. The 8 dietary treatments were (1) a standard diet containing 17% crude protein [CP; positive control (PC)], (2) a 15% CP diet [negative control (NC)], (3) NC plus RP Met (+M), (4) NC plus RP Lys (+K), (5) NC plus RP Leu (+L), (6) NC plus RP Met and Lys (+MK), (7) NC plus RP Met and Leu (+ML), and (8) NC plus RP Met, Lys, and Leu (+MKL). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Crude protein intake was lower for NC and RP AA treatments compared with the PC treatment. No detrimental effect was detected of the low-CP diet alone or in combination with AA supplementation on milk and fat yield. However, milk protein yield decreased for NC and +MKL diets, and lactose yield decreased for the +MKL compared with the PC diet. Milk urea N concentrations were lower for all diets, suggesting that greater N efficiency was achieved by feeding the low-protein diet. Minimal effects of treatments on arterial plasma essential AA concentrations were detected, with only Ile and Val being significantly lower in the NC than in the PC diet. Phosphorylation ratios of signaling proteins known to regulate mRNA translation were not affected by treatments. This study highlights the limitations of requirement models aggregated at the protein level and the use of fixed postabsorptive efficiency to calculate milk protein requirements. Milk protein synthesis regulation by signaling pathways in vivo is still poorly understood.
- The potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and its use as starter culture results in safe nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Food Microbiol 2014 Jun 20.:55-60.
The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25g fuet a day for 21days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8logCFU/g. After 3days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8)CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35days of storage at 4°C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600MPa for 5min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels <1logCFU/g. After 35days of storage at 4°C the pathogen was not detected. Thus, the strain L. rhamnosus CTC1679 is a suitable starter culture for producing safe potentially probiotic fermented sausages.
- Effects of pre-slaughter feed withdrawal time on finishing pig carcass, body weight gain and food safety characteristics in a commercial environment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Anim Sci 2014 Jul 1.
The effects of feed withdrawal time before slaughter on finishing pig carcass composition were evaluated in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 728 pigs (BW = 128.9 ± 1.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized design with NUMBER OF PIGS PER PEN AND LOCATION WITHIN BARN BALANCED ACROSS TREATMENT: The 4 treatments were feed withdrawal times of 8, 24, 36, or 48 h AND THERE WERE 12 REPLICATE PENS PER TREATMENT: .igs were fed a STANDARD: corn-soybean meal diet containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), bakery co-products, and 5.0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl. Feed withdrawal time decreased (linear; P < 0.02) live weight, HCW, and backfat while increasing percentage yield (quadratic; P < 0.01), and fat-free lean index (FFLI; linear; P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, 843 pigs (BW = 125.4 ± 1.6 kg) were used to determine the impact of feed withdrawal on growth, carcass, blood lactate, and meat quality. There were 4 treatments: withholding feed for 8, 12, 24, or 36 h, with 10 replicates per treatment. Pigs were fed a common corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 20% DDGS and 5.0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl. Withholding feed decreased (linear; P < 0.001) live weight, ultimately resulting in decreased (P < 0.01) HCW. There were no differences in FFLI or backfat, but percentage yield (linear; P < 0.001) increased with longer withdrawal times. Carcass contaminations by STOMACH CONTENTS ESCAPING FROM THE ORAL CAVITY AFTER SHACKLING: (leaking ingesta) or VISIBLE: fecal CONTAMINATION OF THE EXTERIOR OF THE CARCASS: (runny bung) were also measured. Although withholding feed did not affect runny bung, it increased (linear; P < 0.001) the incidence of leaking ingesta, whereas blood lactate, visual color score, and purge loss were unaffected. Withholding feed increased 45-min pH (quadratic; P > 0.02) and ultimate pH (linear; P < 0.01) and increased (quadratic; P < 0.03) visual marbling score. Withholding feed decreased (linear; P < 0.001) feed intake, resulting in feed savings of up to 3 kg/pig. ALTHOUGH SEVERAL HEAVYWEIGHT PIGS WERE REMOVED PRIOR TO TRIAL COMMENCEMENT AND THE VARIABLE NUMBER OF REMAINING PIGS PER PEN MAY HAVE INFLUENCED THE RESPONSE TO FEED WITHDRAWAL, THE PRESENT DATA INDICATES THAT FINISHING PIGS CAN EXPERIENCE BETWEEN: 24 to 36 h of feed withdrawal without negatively affecting carcass composition.the increased incidence of leaking ingesta BEYOND: 12 h of feed withdrawal is concerning.
- Effect of flaxseed physical form on digestibility of lactation diets fed to Holstein steers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dairy Sci 2014 Jun 18.
Four multicannulated (rumen, duodenum, and ileum) Holstein steers (459.7 ± 46.4 kg of initial body weight) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of flaxseed processing method on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. Treatments were based on inclusion of (1) 7.5% linseed meal (control), (2) 10% whole flaxseed, (3) 10% rolled flaxseed, or (4) 10% ground flaxseed on a dry matter (DM) basis, and were formulated to mimic typical high-producing dairy cow lactation diets. The control diet contained linseed meal in a proportion to provide crude protein (CP) equal to the amount of CP contributed by the flaxseed in the other treatments. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained 30% corn silage, 17% chopped alfalfa hay, 6% sugar beet pulp, and 47% concentrate (comprising ground corn, supplemental protein, trace minerals and vitamins, and either flaxseed or linseed meal (DM basis). Diets were formulated to contain 17% CP, 34% neutral detergent fiber, 21% acid detergent fiber, and 4% fatty acid (DM basis). Periods were 14 d long and consisted of 7 d of adaptation and 7 d of sample collection. Dry matter intake (as a % of body weight) was similar (2.41 ± 0.17) for all treatments. The inclusion of flaxseed, regardless of processing method, tended to decrease total-tract organic matter digestibility relative to the linseed control, but no differences in CP intake, duodenal CP flow (bacterial, apparent feed, or total), ileal CP flow, fecal CP output, microbial efficiency, or CP digestibility (apparent ruminal, true ruminal, small intestine, large intestine, or total tract) were observed between treatments. Method of processing did not alter ruminal pH, ammonia, or volatile fatty acids production. The ground flaxseed treatment had the fastest rate of in situ DM degradation (11.25%/h), followed by the control (7.46%/h), rolled flaxseed (4.53%/h), and whole flaxseed (0.57%/h) treatments. Degradability of CP and fat followed the same pattern as DM degradability for processed flaxseed. In situ degradation rates of alfalfa hay neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber tended to be fastest for the ground flaxseed treatment. Taken together, the digestibility, fermentation, and in situ data indicate that rolling and grinding are both acceptable methods of processing flaxseed. The in situ data strongly support the need for processing flaxseed before inclusion in lactation diets.