fecal fat test [keywords]
- Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs-effects on apparent digestibility of fat and energy and fecal characteristics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Obes (Lond) 2016 Aug 16.
In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs.To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility and fecal characteristics following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium.A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14 day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet), flaxseed mucilage or flaxseed mucilage and calcium. Feces from the last two days of each period were collected for analysis. Owners recorded fecal score (1-7: 1=very hard/dry feces. 2-3=ideal, 7=diarrhea).Apparent digestibility of fat was lower in both flaxseed mucilage diet (94.5±0.8%) and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, P<0.0001) with fat digestibility in flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet being significantly lower than the diet supplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected by diet. Fecal wet weight, dry weight and dry matter percentage was not affected by diet despite a higher fecal score for test diets (3.7±0.3) compared with control (2.8±0.2, P<0.007).In dogs, flaxseed mucilage decreased fat apparent digestibility and this effect was enhanced when combined with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 August 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.139.
- Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging findings after posterior sagittal anorectoplasty for anorectal malformations and the clinical outcome: Preliminary report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Surg 2016 Jul 27.
To assess the anatomical results after posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate the correlation of these findings with clinical outcomes.Patients followed-up at our center after PSARP, being at least 6year old, with neither evidence of sacral abnormalities nor spinal dysraphisms were prospectively included. Complex ARMs were excluded. MRI was performed on a 1.5T unit. T1- and T2-weighted sequences were acquired, in orthogonal planes, according to the anal canal orientation. The degree of anorectal centering in the muscle complex (DARC), the pelvic floor symmetry, the rectal maximum diameter, the fat tissue interposition, and the presence of fibrosis were evaluated. A clinical questionnaire (Rintala score) was filled in by the parents. MRI findings were compared to the clinical outcomes assessed by the Rintala score. For statistical analysis the Spearman rho correlation coefficient was calculated and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed.We recruited 11 patients (mean age 12years, range 6-19) with MRI. DARC (range 252-360°) was strongly correlated with the degree of fecal incontinence (rho=0.70), mildly with the ability to hold back defecation (rho=0.58), constipation (rho=0.46) and total Rintala score (rho=0.41). Pelvic floor symmetry correlated with the frequency of defecation (rho=0.58). Rectal maximum diameter negatively correlated with the ability to feel the urge to defecate (rho=-0.60). Patients with fibrosis were slightly more constipated (p=0.056) and presented more social impairment (p=0.04). Fat tissue interposition had no correlation with the clinical outcome.Thanks to soft tissue definition, multiplanar imaging, and lack of ionizing radiation, MRI is a valuable tool in the postoperative anatomical evaluation of patients with ARM. Our preliminary results show that abnormal anatomical findings can correlate to a nonoptimal functional outcome, thus helping in understanding the clinical course. The degree of anorectal centering in the muscle complex (DARC) seems to have the better correlation with the outcome, especially in terms of fecal continence.Prognosis study.level IV.
- Agavins Increase Neurotrophic Factors and Decrease Oxidative Stress in the Brains of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice. [Journal Article]
- Molecules 2016; 21(8)
Fructans obtained from agave, called agavins, have recently shown significant benefits for human health including obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of agavins as neuroprotectors and antioxidants by determining their effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as well as oxidative brain damage in of obese mice.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated daily with 5% (HFD/A5) or 10% (HFD/A10) of agavins or a standard diet (SD) for 10 weeks. The levels of BDNF and GDNF were evaluated by ELISA. The oxidative stress was evaluated by lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and carbonyls. SCFAs were also measured with GC-FID. Differences between groups were assessed using ANOVA and by Tukey's test considering p < 0.05.The body weight gain and food intake of mice HFD/A10 group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. Agavins restored BDNF levels in HFD/A5 group and GDNF levels of HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 groups in cerebellum. Interestingly, agavins decreased TBARS levels in HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 groups in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebellum. Carbonyl levels were also lower in HFD/A5 and HFD/A10 for only the hippocampus and cerebellum. It was also found that agavins enhanced SCFAs production in feces.Agavins may act as bioactive ingredients with antioxidant and protective roles in the brain.
- Defining the physical properties of corn grown under drought-stressed conditions and the associated energy and nutrient content for swine. [Journal Article]
- J Anim Sci 2016 Jul; 94(7):2843-50.
Historically high temperatures and low rainfall during the 2012 growing season resulted in drought-stressed conditions in much of the U.S. corn belt. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the impact of these conditions on the composition and energy content in corn and determine if relationships exist among corn quality measurements, chemical composition, and digestibility of energy. Twenty-eight samples of corn from the 2012 drought-stressed crop (DS), plus 2 representative corn samples from the 2011 crop (CNTRL), were collected in Iowa and Illinois using yield as an initial screen for drought impact. Yields ranged from 2.5 to 14.8 t/ha. Each sample was graded by an official of the U.S. grain inspection agency and analyzed for 1,000 kernel weight, kernel density, ether extract, starch, GE, NDF, and CP content. Diets were formulated using each of the 30 corn samples and were fed at 2.6 times the estimated maintenance energy requirement according to the . Sixty individually housed barrows (PIC 359 × C29; 34.2 ± 0.2 kg initial BW) were randomly allotted in an incomplete crossover design to 30 diets across 4 periods. Diet and fecal samples were analyzed to determine DE values. Both ME and NE values were then calculated from DE values using methods developed by and , respectively. Mean DE, ME, and NE values between the CNTRL and DS were not different (3.72 vs. 3.68 Mcal/kg, respectively, 3.66 vs. 3.62 Mcal/kg, respectively, and 2.92 vs. 2.87 Mcal/kg, respectively; > 0.10). Comparing CNTRL with DS, there were no differences ( > 0.10) in ether extract (4.07 vs. 3.96%), CP (8.56 vs. 9.18%), or starch (70.5 vs. 69.5%). However, ADF and NDF were higher in the DS (2.23 and 8.19%, respectively) when compared with CNTRL (1.89 and 6.92%, respectively; < 0.001 and = 0.015, respectively). Small but significant correlations were observed between DE and NDF ( = -0.51, = 0.008), kernel density ( = 0.51, = 0.007), and percent damaged kernels ( = 0.41, = 0.031). No statistically significant correlations were observed between DE and starch or ADF content or between DE and test weight. We can conclude that corn grown in drought-stressed conditions has energy content similar to corn grown under more favorable conditions and, therefore, can be successfully used in swine diets. Furthermore, NDF proved to be superior to fat, starch, and ADF content in explaining the variation in corn energy content.
- Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dairy Sci 2016 Jul 27.
Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4 kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21 d for adaptation to diets, and 7 d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R50 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n = 9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33 g/g for diet R10 to 0.25 g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R90 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a 1:1 DM mixture of corn and red clover silages.
- Intestinal dysbiosis contributes to the delayed gastrointestinal transit in high-fat diet fed mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 May; 2(3):328-339.
High-fat diet (HFD) feeding is associated with gastrointestinal motility disorders. We recently reported delayed colonic motility in mice fed a HFD mice for 11 weeks. In this study, we investigated the contributing role of gut microbiota in HFD-induced gut dysmotility.Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (60% kcal fat) or a regular/control diet (RD) (18% kcal fat) for 13 weeks. Serum and fecal endotoxin levels were measured, and relative amounts of specific gut bacteria in the feces assessed by real time PCR. Intestinal transit was measured by fluorescent-labeled marker and bead expulsion test. Enteric neurons were assessed by immunostaining. Oligofructose (OFS) supplementation with RD or HFD for 5 weeks was also studied. In vitro studies were performed using primary enteric neurons and an enteric neuronal cell line.HFD-fed mice had reduced numbers of enteric nitrergic neurons and exhibited delayed gastrointestinal transit compared to RD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice had higher fecal Firmicutes and Escherichia coli and lower Bacteroidetes compared to RD-fed mice. OFS supplementation protected against enteric nitrergic neurons loss in HFD-fed mice, and improved intestinal transit time. OFS supplementation resulted in a reductions in fecal Firmicutes and Escherichia coli and serum endotoxin levels. In vitro, palmitate activation of TLR4 induced enteric neuronal apoptosis in a p-JNK1 dependent pathway. This apoptosis was prevented by a JNK inhibitor and in neurons from TLR4 (-/-) mice.Together our data suggest that intestinal dysbiosis in HFD fed mice contribute to the delayed intestinal motility by inducing a TLR4-dependant neuronal loss. Manipulation of gut microbiota with OFS improved intestinal motility in HFD mice.
- Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet. [Journal Article]
- Front Nutr 2016.:15.
Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10(10) bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6-2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol - alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron - increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0-8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0-8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters.
- Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Nutr Biochem 2016 Jun 19.:30-36.
Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice.
- Effect of milk replacer feeding rate and functional fatty acids on dairy calf performance and digestion of nutrients. [Journal Article]
- J Dairy Sci 2016 Aug; 99(8):6352-61.
Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less MR; however, postweaning growth may be reduced because of impaired digestion of nutrients. This was explored in the current research, as was the inclusion of functional fatty acids (NT) that could ameliorate some poor growth and digestion issues in calves fed large amounts of MR. Two MR rates [moderate (MOD) or aggressive (AGG)] with and without NT were compared using 48 male Holstein calves initially 3d old (43±1.5kg of body weight) randomly assigned to treatments. The MOD rate was fed at 0.66kg of dry matter (DM) for 49d. The AGG rate was fed for 4d at 0.66kg of DM, 4d at 0.96kg of DM, then 34d at 1.31kg of DM, followed by 0.66kg of DM for the last 7d. Calves were completely weaned at 49d. The MR contained 27% crude protein and 17% fat. The textured starter was 20% crude protein. Starter and water were fed free-choice for the first 56d when calves were housed in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped (4 calves/pen), maintaining the same MR rate and NT treatments, and fed starter blended with 5% chopped grass hay free-choice with free-choice water. Digestibility was estimated from fecal collections made on d 19 to 23, 40 to 44, and 52 to 56. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of MR rate and NT using repeated measures with a mixed procedure. Fiber and starch digestion increased with age and was lower for AGG versus MOD. Calf average daily gain and hip width change were greater before approximately 6wk of age for AGG versus MOD, but this was reversed from approximately 6 to 16wk. Calves fed AGG had lower average daily gain per unit intake of DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy from 8 to 16wk than calves fed MOD. Preweaning starter intake was less for calves fed AGG versus MOD. Calves fed AGG had greater body weight gain than MOD over 112d, but hip width change did not differ. Feeding NT improved digestibility of organic matter, DM, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (over 50% improvement for neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber), which resulted in 10.7kg (13%) more body weight gain and 1.4cm (16%) more hip width change over 112d. This was a greater improvement in growth than the difference in AGG and MOD programs over 112d.
- Rice bran proteins and their hydrolysates modulate cholesterol metabolism in mice on hypercholesterolemic diets. [Journal Article]
- Food Funct 2016 Jun 15; 7(6):2747-53.
The hypolipidemic properties of defatted rice bran protein (DRBP), fresh rice bran protein (FRBP), DRBP hydrolysates (DRBPH), and FRBP hydrolysates (FRBPH) were determined in mice on high fat diets for four weeks. Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) contents, and the hepatic total cholesterol content were reduced while fecal total cholesterol and total bile acid (TBA) contents were increased in the FRBPH diet group. The expression levels of hepatic genes for cholesterol biosynthesis HMG-CoAR and SREBP-2 were lowest in the FRBPH diet group. The mRNA level of HMG-CoAR was significantly positively correlated with the hepatic TG content (r = 0.82, P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of genes related to bile acid biosynthesis and cholesterol efflux, CYP7A1, ABCA1, and PPARγ were up-regulated in all test groups. The results suggest that FRBPH regulates cholesterol metabolism in mice fed the high fat and cholesterol diet by increasing fecal steroid excretion and expression levels of genes related to bile acid synthesis and cholesterol efflux, and the down-regulation of the expression levels of genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis.