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- Airway Responsiveness to Adenosine after a Single Dose of Fluticasone Propionate Discriminates Asthma from COPD. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2013 May 17.
BACKGROUND:Regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is known to reduce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to adenosine 5' monophosphate (AMP) in asthma even after a single dose of fluticasone propionate (FP).
AIM:To determine whether this rapid protective effect of a single dose of FP is also present in COPD.
METHODS:23 mild asthmatic and 24 COPD subjects with documented AHR to both AMP and methacholine took part in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to measure AHR to inhaled AMP and methacholine 2 hours after either 1000μg FP or matched placebo.
RESULTS:In subjects with asthma, 1000μg FP in a single dose significantly attenuated the constrictor response to AMP, geometric mean (range) PC20AMP values increasing from a 19.2 (1.3- 116.3) to 81.5 (9.6-1600.0) (p<0.001; post-placebo vs post-FP) mg/ml. Change in the airways response to inhaled AMP after FP was well within test variability in patients with COPD, with PC20AMP values 59.6 (11.3-183.9) and 76.3.(21.0-445.3) (p=0.022; post-placebo vs post-FP) mg/ml. Additionally, FP failed to significantly attenuate the bronchial response to methacholine in both asthma and COPD subjects. A change in doubling dilution, between placebo and following a single dose of FP, in AMP had a better sensitivity and specificity of 95.8% and 65.2%, compared to Methacholine of 79.2% and 43.5% respectively in delineating between COPD and asthma.
CONCLUSION:A single dose of 1000μg FP rapidly improves AHR to AMP in asthmatics but not in COPD subjects. This may provide a convenient way by which provocation challenge with inhaled AMP may help in discriminating asthma from COPD.
- Efficacy, safety and tolerability of GSK2190915, a 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor, in adults and adolescents with persistent asthma: a randomised dose-ranging study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Res 2013 May 17; 14(1):54.
BACKGROUND:GSK2190915 is a high affinity 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitor being developed for the treatment of asthma. The objective of this study was to evaluate GSK2190915 efficacy, dose--response and safety in subjects with persistent asthma treated with short-acting beta2-agonists (SABAs) only.
METHODS:Eight-week multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, stratified (by age and smoking status), parallel-group, placebo-controlled study in subjects aged >=12 years with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of 50--85% predicted. Subjects (n = 700) were randomised to receive once-daily (QD) oral GSK2190915 (10--300 mg), twice-daily inhaled fluticasone propionate 100 mug, oral montelukast 10 mg QD or placebo. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline (randomisation) in trough (morning pre-dose and pre-rescue bronchodilator) FEV1 at the end of the 8-week treatment period. Secondary endpoints included morning and evening peak expiratory flow, symptom-free days and nights, rescue-free days and nights, day and night-time symptom scores, day and night-time rescue medication use, withdrawals due to lack of efficacy, Asthma Control Questionnaire and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores.
RESULTS:For the primary endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference between any dose of GSK2190915 QD and placebo. However, repeated measures sensitivity analysis demonstrated nominal statistical significance for GSK2190915 30 mg QD compared with placebo (mean difference: 0.115 L [95% confidence interval: 0.00, 0.23], p = 0.044); no nominally statistically significant differences were observed with any of the other doses. For the secondary endpoints, decreases were observed in day-time symptom scores and day-time SABA use for GSK2190915 30 mg QD versus placebo (p <= 0.05). No dose--response relationship was observed for the primary and secondary endpoints across the GSK2190915 dose range studied; the 10 mg dose appeared to be sub-optimal. GSK2190915 was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in urinary leukotriene E4. The profile and incidence of adverse events were similar between treatment groups.
CONCLUSION:Efficacy was demonstrated for GSK2190915 30 mg compared with placebo in day-time symptom scores and day-time SABA use. No additional improvement on efficacy endpoints was gained by administration of GSK2190915 doses greater than 30 mg. GSK2190915 was well-tolerated. These results may support further studies with GSK2190915 30 mg.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01147744.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01147744?term=NCT01147744&rank=1.
- Human parainfluenza type 3 virus impairs the efficacy of glucocorticoids to limit allergy-induced pulmonary inflammation in guinea pigs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Sci (Lond) 2013 May 17.
Viral exacerbations of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation in preclinical models reportedly reduce the efficacy of glucocorticoids to limit pulmonary inflammation and airways hyperesponsiveness to inhaled spasmogens. However exacerbations of airway obstruction induced by allergen challenge has not yet been studied. Human parainflueza type 3 virus (hPIV-3) inoculation of guinea pigs increased inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and caused hyperesponsiveness to inhaled histamine. Both responses were abolished by treatment with either dexamethasone (20 mg/kg, s.c, o.d.) or fluticasone propionate (a 0.5 mg/kg solution aerosolized and inhaled over 15 min, b.i.d.). In ovalbumin-sensitised guinea pigs, allergen (ovalbumin) challenge caused two phases of airway obstruction (measured as changes in specific airways conductance using whole body plethysmography); an immediate phase lasting between 4-6 h and a late phase at around 7 h. The late phase, airway hyperesponsiveness to histamine and inflammatory cell counts in BAL were all significantly reduced by either glucocorticoid. Inoculation of guinea pigs sensitised to ovalbumin with hPIV-3 transformed the allergen-induced airway obstruction from two transient phases into a single sustained response lasting up to 12 hours. This exacerbated airway obstruction and airway hyperesponsiveness to histamine were unaffected by treatment with either glucocorticoid whereas inflammatory cell counts in BAL were only partially inhibited. Virus- or allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation, individually, are glucocorticoid-sensitive but in combination generate a phenotype where glucocorticoid efficacy is impaired. This suggests that during respiratory virus infection, glucocorticoids might be less effective in limiting pulmonary inflammation associated with asthma.
- An integrated analysis of the efficacy of fluticasone furoate nasal spray versus placebo on the nasal symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis. [Journal Article]
- Allergy Asthma Proc 2013 May; 34(3):283-91.
Intranasal corticosteroids are widely prescribed for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). The aim of this analysis was to determine whether the beneficial effects of once-daily (q.d.) fluticasone furoate nasal spray (FFNS) effectively improved individual nasal symptoms of PAR. An integrated analysis was performed on data from three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FFNS at 110 micrograms, q.d. in subjects with PAR. The analysis included 460 subjects who received FFNS and 459 who received placebo for 4 weeks. All subjects evaluated the severity of individual nasal symptoms of nasal congestion, nasal itching, rhinorrhea, and sneezing on a four-point categorical scale. The main efficacy measures included change from baseline in daily reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS), reflective daily scores for each individual symptom, and predose instantaneous TNSS (iTNSS). Over 4 weeks of treatment, FFNS significantly improved rTNSS, iTNSS, and the reflective scores for each individual symptom compared with placebo. The least squares (LS) mean treatment difference over weeks 1-4 between FFNS and placebo for rTNSS was -0.93, ranging from -0.20 to -0.28 for the individual nasal symptoms (p < 0.001 for all versus placebo). For the iTNSS, the LS mean treatment difference between FFNS and placebo over weeks 1-4 was -0.95 (95% CI,-1.24, -0.66; p < 0.001). FFNS at 110 micrograms q.d. effectively relieved all nasal symptoms of PAR including nasal congestion over a 24-hour period.
- Do General Practitioners Know What They are Prescribing? [Journal Article]
- J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2013 May; 23(5):375-7.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore general practitioners' (GPs) knowledge regarding the major therapeutic use and adverse effects of drug(s) they prescribe. Three drugs namely tablet Montelukast Sodium, tablet Somatriptan and inhaler Fluticasone Propionate were selected from the list of drugs approved by the Ministry of Health in Pakistan. GPs who had prescribed at least one of the three were inquired about the cost, therapeutic use and one common adverse effect. For each question, one correct option and three distracting options were given. Two hundred and ninety four responses of 131 GPs were included in the final analysis. The correct options for therapeutic use and adverse effect were identified by 61.2% (n = 180) and 40.8% (n = 120) respectively. A statistically significant (p < 0.01) deficit of knowledge regarding adverse effects was observed for those GPs who identified pharmaceutical advertisements as their primary source of information for new drugs and those who were less experienced.
- Inhaled Steroids Modulate Extracellular Matrix Composition in Bronchial Biopsies of COPD Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e63430.
Smoking and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which involves changes in extracellular matrix. This is thought to contribute to airway remodeling and airflow obstruction. We have previously observed that long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids can not only reduce bronchial inflammation, but can also attenuate lung function decline in moderate-severe COPD. We hypothesized that inhaled corticosteroids and current smoking modulate bronchial extracellular matrix components in COPD.To compare major extracellular matrix components (elastic fibers; proteoglycans [versican, decorin]; collagens type I and III) in bronchial biopsies 1) after 30-months inhaled steroids treatment or placebo; and 2) between current and ex-smokers with COPD.We included 64 moderate-severe, steroid-naive COPD patients (24/40 (ex)-smokers, 62±7 years, 46 (31-54) packyears, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 62±9% predicted) at baseline in this randomized, controlled trial. 19 and 13 patients received 30-months treatment with fluticasone or placebo, respectively. Bronchial biopsies collected at baseline and after 30 months were studied using (immuno)histochemistry to evaluate extracellular matrix content. Percentage and density of stained area were calculated by digital image analysis.30-Months inhaled steroids increased the percentage stained area of versican (9.6% [CI 0.9 to 18.3%]; p = 0.03) and collagen III (20.6% [CI 3.8 to 37.4%]; p = 0.02) compared to placebo. Increased collagen I staining density correlated with increased post-bronchodilator FEV1 after inhaled steroids treatment (Rs = 0.45, p = 0.04). There were no differences between smokers and ex-smokers with COPD in percentages and densities for all extracellular matrix proteins.These data show that long-term inhaled corticosteroids treatment partially changes the composition of extracellular matrix in moderate-severe COPD. This is associated with increased lung function, suggesting that long-term inhaled steroids modulate airway remodeling thereby potentially preventing airway collapse in COPD. Smoking status is not associated with bronchial extracellular matrix proteins.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00158847.
- An evaluation of asthma medication utilization for risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) in the United States: 2005-2011. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Asthma 2013 May 13.
Purpose.The purpose of this study was to assess drug utilization patterns of fluticasone propionate (FP)/salmeterol (SAL) combination (FSC) and SAL over the 7-year period of 2005-2011 in patients with asthma as part of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). Methods. A descriptive, retrospective observational study utilizing national pharmacy data and employer-based claims data to characterize drug utilization patterns.
Results.For patients with asthma, the total number of FSC and SAL dispensings and users of FSC and SAL has declined between 2005 and 2011. During this period, FSC and SAL dispensing for asthma decreased 24% and 76%, respectively, with a more pronounced decline between 2010 and 2011 relative to other years. The total number of patients with asthma who were dispensed FSC has decreased 10% among adults and 40% in children and adolescents. While SAL-containing medications decreased, dispensings of FP monotherapy increased 39% during the same 7-year period. The number of patients dispensed FP for asthma has increased 47% in children 4-11 years of age, 72% in adolescents 12-17 years of age, and 6% in adults. SAL use without a controller was infrequent and decreasing, reported by 1.7% and 0.5% of patients with asthma in 2005 and 2011, respectively.
Conclusions.In patients with asthma, use of FSC and SAL decreased between 2005 and 2011, while the use of FP increased. Use of SAL monotherapy was infrequent and declined during the study period. The data suggest that the substantial communication activities have encouraged appropriate long acting beta-agonist (LABA) prescribing.
- Clinically Relevant Effect of a New Intranasal Therapy (MP29-02) in Allergic Rhinitis Assessed by Responder Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2013 May 4; 161(4):369-377.
Background:It is unclear what constitutes a clinically meaningful response for allergic rhinitis (AR) outcomes. The objectives of these post hoc analyses were (1) to define a clinically meaningful response using novel efficacy analyses (including a responder analysis), and (2) to compare the efficacy of MP29-02 [a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) and fluticasone propionate (FP)] with commercially available FP, AZE and placebo in seasonal AR (SAR) patients, using these novel analyses.
Methods:610 moderate-to-severe SAR patients (≥12 years old) were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 14-day, parallel-group trial. Change from baseline in the reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS) over 14 days was the primary outcome. Post hoc endpoints included the sum of nasal and ocular symptoms (rT7SS), efficacy by disease severity and by predominant nasal symptom, and a set of responder analyses.
Results:MP29-02 most effectively reduced rT7SS (relative greater improvement: 52% to FP; 56% to AZE) and both nasal and ocular symptoms irrespective of severity. More MP29-02 patients achieved a ≥30, ≥50, ≥60, ≥75 and ≥90% rTNSS reduction, which occurred days faster than with either active comparator; MP29-02 alone was superior to placebo at the ≥60% (or higher) threshold. One in 2 MP29-02 patients achieved a ≥50% rTNSS reduction and 1 in 6 achieved complete/near-to-complete response. Only MP29-02 was consistently superior to placebo for all patients, whatever their predominant symptom.
Conclusions:MP29-02 provided faster and more complete symptom control than first-line therapies. It was consistently superior irrespective of severity, response criteria or patient-type, and may be considered the drug of choice for moderate-to-severe AR. These measures define a new standard for assessing relevance in AR.
- Discovery of GW870086: A potent anti-inflammatory steroid with a unique pharmacological profile. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Pharmacol 2013 May 3.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Glucocorticoids are highly effective therapies for a range of inflammatory diseases. Advances in the understanding of the diverse molecular mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid action suggest that anti-inflammatory molecules with reduced side-effect liabilities can be discovered. Here we set out to explore whether modification of the 17α position of the steroid nucleus could generate molecules with a unique pharmacological profile, and to determine whether such molecules would retain anti-inflammatory activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The pharmacological properties of GW870086 were compared to fluticasone propionate (FP) using a range of cellular and in vivo model systems, including extensive gene expression profiling. KEY
RESULTS:GW870086 repressed inflammatory cytokine release from lung epithelial cells in a similar manner to FP, but antagonised the effect of dexamethasone on MMTV driven reporter gene transactivation. GW870086 had a strong effect on the expression of some glucocorticoid regulated genes (such as COX-2), while having minimal impact on the expression of other known target genes (such as SGK). GW870086 retained the ability to strengthen tight junctions in epithelial cell culture, but unlike FP was unable to protect the culture from elastase mediated damage. In murine models of irritant-induced contact dermatitis and ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation models, GW870086 showed comparable anti-inflammatory efficacy to FP.
IMPLICATIONS:GW870086 is a potent anti-inflammatory compound with a unique ability to regulate only a subset of those genes that are normally affected by classical glucocorticoids. It has the potential to become a new topical steroid with a different safety profile to existing therapies.
- Improvement of eosinophilic otitis media by optimized asthma treatment. [Journal Article]
- Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2013 May; 5(3):175-8.
Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) shows a very high rate of association with asthma, and intractable otitis media involves marked eosinophil infiltration into the middle ear. The middle ear space is connected to the nasopharynx by the Eustachian tube, and it is considered a part of the upper respiratory tract. Allergic rhinitis and asthma often coexist as chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower airways, respectively, and have an impact on each other. In fact, inhaled corticosteroids reduce seasonal eosinophilia systemically in the circulation and locally in the nasal mucosa, as well as attenuate seasonal nasal symptoms. We report a case of EOM associated with adult-onset asthma that improved following optimal asthma therapy after changing the treatment from inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) (200 µg b.i.d.) to a combination of FP/salmeterol (250/50 µg b.i.d.). This result supports the hypothesis that EOM and asthma are closely linked, presenting as different manifestations of a similar disease syndrome.