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- The neuropsychiatry of inborn errors of metabolism. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Inherit Metab Dis 2013 May 23.
A number of metabolic disorders that affect the central nervous system can present in childhood, adolescence or adulthood as a phenocopy of a major psychiatric syndrome such as psychosis, depression, anxiety or mania. An understanding and awareness of secondary syndromes in metabolic disorders is of great importance as it can lead to the early diagnosis of such disorders. Many of these metabolic disorders are progressive and may have illness-modifying treatments available. Earlier diagnosis may prevent or delay damage to the central nervous system and allow for the institution of appropriate treatment and family and genetic counselling. Metabolic disorders appear to result in neuropsychiatric illness either through disruption of late neurodevelopmental processes (metachromatic leukodystrophy, adrenoleukodystrophy, GM2 gangliosidosis, Niemann-Pick type C, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, and alpha mannosidosis) or via chronic or acute disruption of excitatory/inhibitory or monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems (acute intermittent porphyria, maple syrup urine disease, urea cycle disorders, phenylketonuria and disorders of homocysteine metabolism). In this manuscript we review the evidence for neuropsychiatric illness in major metabolic disorders and discuss the possible models for how these disorders result in psychiatric symptoms. Treatment considerations are discussed, including treatment resistance, the increased propensity for side-effects and the possibility of some treatments worsening the underlying disorder.
- Oligosaccharide Analysis in Urine by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for the Diagnosis of Lysosomal Storage Diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Chem 2013 May 15.
BACKGROUND:There are 45 known genetic diseases that impair the lysosomal degradation of macromolecules. The loss of a single lysosomal hydrolase leads to the accumulation of its undegraded substrates in tissues and increases of related glycoconjugates in urine, some of which can be detected by screening of free oligosaccharides (FOS) in urine. Traditional 1-dimensional TLC for urine oligosaccharide analysis has limited analytical specificity and sensitivity. We developed fast and robust urinary FOS and glycoaminoacid analyses by MALDI-time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry for the diagnosis of oligosaccharidosis and other lysosomal storage diseases.
METHODS:The FOS in urine equivalent to 0.09 mg creatinine were purified through sequential passage over a Sep-Pak C18 column and a carbograph column and were then permethylated. MALDI-TOF/TOF was used to analyze the permethylated FOS. We studied urine samples from individuals in 7 different age groups ranging from 0-1 months to ≥17 years as well as urine from known patients with different lysosomal storage diseases.
RESULTS:We identified diagnostic urinary FOS patterns for α-mannosidosis, galactosialidosis, mucolipidosis type II/III, sialidosis, α-fucosidosis, aspartylglucosaminuria, Pompe disease, Gaucher disease, and GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis. Interestingly, the increase in urinary FOS characteristic of lysosomal storage diseases relative to normal FOS appeared to correlate with the disease severity.
CONCLUSIONS:The analysis of urinary FOS by MALDI-TOF/TOF is a powerful tool for first-tier screening of oligosaccharidoses and lysosomal storage diseases.
- Structural Basis for β-Galactosidase Associated with Lysosomal Disease. [Journal Article]
- Yakugaku Zasshi 2013; 133(5):509-17.
GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B are rare lysosomal storage diseases associated with a neurodegenerative disorder or dwarfism and skeletal abnormalities, respectively. These diseases are caused by deficiencies in the lysosomal enzyme human β-D-galactosidase (h-β-GAL), which lead to accumulations of the h-β-GAL substrates, GM1 ganglioside and keratan sulfate due to mutations in the h-β-GAL gene. H-β-GAL is an exoglycosidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal β-linked galactose residues. Here, we present the crystal structures of h-β-GAL in complex with its catalytic product galactose or with its inhibitor 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin. H-β-GAL showed a novel homodimer structure; each monomer was comprised of a catalytic TIM barrel domain followed by β-domain 1 and β-domain 2. The long loop region connecting the TIM barrel domain with β-domain 1 was responsible for the dimerization. To gain structural insight into the molecular defects of h-β-GAL in the above diseases, the disease-causing mutations were mapped onto the three-dimensional structure. Finally, the possible causes of the diseases are discussed.
- Glucosylceramide modulates endolysosomal pH in Gaucher disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Genet Metab 2013 Apr 3.
GlcCer accumulation causes Gaucher disease where GlcCer breakdown is inhibited due to a hereditary deficiency in glucocerebrosidase. Glycolipids are endocytosed and targeted to the Golgi apparatus in normal cells but in Gaucher disease they are mistargeted to lysosomes. To better understand the role of GlcCer in endocytic sorting RAW macrophages were treated with Conduritol B-epoxide to inhibit GlcCer breakdown. Lipid analysis found increases in GlcCer led to accumulation of both triacylglycerol and cholesterol consistent with increased lysosomal pH. Ratio imaging of macrophages using both acridine orange and lysosensor yellow/blue to measure endolysosomal pH revealed increases in Conduritol B-epoxide treated RAW macrophages and Gaucher patient lymphoblasts. Increased endolysosomal pH was restricted to Gaucher lymphoblasts as no significant increases in pH were seen in Fabry, Krabbe, Tay-Sachs and GM1-gangliosidosis lymphoblasts. Substrate reduction therapy utilises inhibitors of GlcCer synthase to reduce storage in Gaucher disease. The addition of inhibitors of GlcCer synthesis to RAW macrophages also led to increases in cholesterol and triacylglycerol and an endolysosomal pH increase of up to 1 pH unit. GlcCer modulation appears specific since glucosylsphingosine but not galactosylsphingosine reversed the effects of GlcCer depletion. Although no acute effects on glycolipid trafficking were observed using bafilomycin A the results are consistent with a multistep model whereby increases in pH lead to altered trafficking via cholesterol accumulation. GlcCer modulates endolysosomal pH in lymphocytes suggesting an important role in normal lysosomes which may be disrupted in Gaucher disease.
- Gangliosidoses. [Journal Article]
- Handb Clin Neurol 2013.:1707-8.
The gangliosidoses comprise a family of lysosomal storage diseases characterized by the accumulation of complex glycosphingolipids in the nervous system and other tissues, secondary to the deficient activity of lysosomal hydrolases or their associated activator proteins. GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis are associated with deficiency of β-galactosidase and β-hexosaminidase respectively. All gangliosidoses are characterized by progressive neurodegeneration, the severity of which is proportional to the residual enzyme activity. The GM1 gangliosidoses are characterized by dysostosis, organomegaly and coarsening in their most severe forms, whereas children with classic infantile GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) are usually spared systemic involvement, except in the case of the Sandhoff variant, in which organomegaly may occur. Cherry-red macular spots occur in the early onset forms of the gangliosidoses, but are less frequently seen in the less severe, later onset phenotypes. Macrocephaly, an exaggerated startle response, cognitive decline, seizures, ataxia, and progressive muscular atrophy may occur in different forms of gangliosidosis. The diagnosis is made by assay of enzyme activity, and can be confirmed by mutation analysis. Carrier screening for Tay-Sachs disease has been remarkably successful in reducing the incidence of this disease in the at-risk Ashkenazi population. There are no proven disease-modifying therapies for the gangliosidoses.
- Selective Screening for Lysosomal Storage Diseases with Dried Blood Spots Collected on Filter Paper in 4,700 High-Risk Colombian Subjects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JIMD Rep 2013 Apr 23.
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a very heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders. The diagnostic process usually involves complex sampling, processing, testing, and validation procedures, performed by specialized laboratories only, which causes great limitations in reaching a diagnosis for patients affected by these diseases.There are few studies about LSDs in Colombia. The diagnostic limitations often make medical practitioners disregard the possibility of these disorders while diagnosing their patients. The current study documents the results of a 7-year screening in high-risk patients, aimed to detect LSDs using dried blood spots (DBS) collected on filter paper, with a micromethodology that facilitates diagnosis even with a large number of samples.The activities of α-galactosidase A, α glucosidase, α-L-iduronidase, arylsulfatase B, β-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, total hexosaminidase, iduronate sulfatase, and chitotriosidase were analyzed in high-risk patients for lysosomal disease. The catalytic activity was evaluated with fluorometric micromethods using artificial substrates marked with 4-methylumbelliferone.The reference values for a control population were established for the enzymes listed above, and 242 patients were found to have an enzyme deficiency, guiding to the following diagnoses: Fabry disease (n = 31), Pompe disease (n = 16), Hurler Syndrome (n = 15), Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome (n = 34), GM1 Gangliosidosis (n = 10), Morquio B (n = 1), Gaucher disease (n = 101), Sandhoff disease (n = 1), Mucolipidosis (n = 2), and Hunter Syndrome (n = 31). In conclusion, this protocol provides a comprehensive diagnostic approach which could be carried out in Colombia and made it available to medical services spread around the country, enabling the identification of a large number of patients affected by LSDs, which could potentially benefit from the therapeutic tools already available for many of these diseases.
- In cellulo examination of a beta-alpha hybrid construct of beta-hexosaminidase A subunits, reported to interact with the GM2 activator protein and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(3):e57908.
The hydrolysis in lysosomes of GM2 ganglioside to GM3 ganglioside requires the correct synthesis, intracellular assembly and transport of three separate gene products; i.e., the alpha and beta subunits of heterodimeric beta-hexosaminidase A, E.C. # 126.96.36.199 (encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes, respectively), and the GM2-activator protein (GM2AP, encoded by the GM2A gene). Mutations in any one of these genes can result in one of three neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as GM2 gangliosidosis (HEXA, Tay-Sachs disease, MIM # 272800; HEXB, Sandhoff disease, MIM # 268800; and GM2A, AB-variant form, MIM # 272750). Elements of both of the hexosaminidase A subunits are needed to productively interact with the GM2 ganglioside-GM2AP complex in the lysosome. Some of these elements have been predicted from the crystal structures of hexosaminidase and the activator. Recently a hybrid of the two subunits has been constructed and reported to be capable of forming homodimers that can perform this reaction in vivo, which could greatly simplify vector-mediated gene transfer approaches for Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff diseases. A cDNA encoding a hybrid hexosaminidase subunit capable of dimerizing and hydrolyzing GM2 ganglioside could be incorporated into a single vector, whereas packaging both subunits of hexosaminidase A into vectors, such as adeno-associated virus, would be impractical due to size constraints. In this report we examine the previously published hybrid construct (H1) and a new more extensive hybrid (H2), with our documented in cellulo (live cell- based) assay utilizing a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative. Unfortunately when Tay-Sachs cells were transfected with either the H1 or H2 hybrid construct and then were fed the GM2 derivative, no significant increase in its turnover was detected. In vitro assays with the isolated H1 or H2 homodimers confirmed that neither was capable of human GM2AP-dependent hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside.
- Prevalence and Novel Mutations of Lysosomal Storage Disorders in United Arab Emirates : LSD in UAE. [Journal Article]
- JIMD Rep 2013.:1-9.
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are rare entities of recessive inheritance. The presence of a "founder" mutation in isolated communities with a high degree of consanguinity (e.g., tribes in the Middle East North Africa, MENA, region) is expected to lead to unusually high disease prevalence. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LSD and report their mutation spectrum in UAE. Between 1995 and 2010, 119 patients were diagnosed with LSD (65 Emiratis and 54 non-Emiratis). Genotyping was performed in 59 (50 %) patients (39 Emirati from 17 families and 20 non-Emiratis from 17 families). The prevalence of LSD in Emiratis was 26.9/100,000 live births. Sphingolipidoses were relatively common (9.8/100,000), with GM1-gangliosidosis being the most prevalent (4.7/100,000). Of the Mucopolysaccharidoses VI, IVA and IIIB were the predominant subtypes (5.5/100,000). Compared to Western countries, the prevalence of fucosidosis, Batten disease, and α-mannosidosis was 40-, sevenfold, and fourfold higher in UAE, respectively. The prevalence of Pompe disease (2.7/100,000) was similar to The Netherlands, but only the infantile subtype was found in UAE. Sixteen distinct LSD mutations were identified in 39 Emirati patients. Eight (50 %) mutations were reported only in Emirati, of which three were novel [c.1694G>T in the NAGLU gene, c.1336 C>T in the GLB1 gene, and homozygous deletions in the CLN3 gene]. Twenty-seven (42 %) patients were clustered in five of the 70 Emirati tribes. These findings highlight the need for tribal-based premarital testing and genetic counseling.
- β-Galactosidosis in Patient with Intermediate GM1 and MBD Phenotype. [Journal Article]
- JIMD Rep 2013.:77-9.
A 5-year-old girl with clinical and biochemical phenotypes encompassing both GM1-gangliosidosis (GM1) and Morquio B disease (MBD) is described. Mild generalized skeletal dysplasia and keratan sulfaturia were consistent with a diagnosis of MBD, while developmental delay and GM1-specific oligosacchariduria were consistent with GM1 gangliosidosis. No observable β-galactosidase activity was detected in leukocytes, and two mutations, p.R201H (c.602G>A) and p.G311R (c.931G>A), were identified by gene sequencing. The R201H substitution has been previously reported in patients with both GM1 and MBD, and G311R is a novel mutation. Our patient represents a further example of the clinical heterogeneity that can result from mutations at the β-galactosidase locus.
- [Molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic approach of GM2 gangliosidosis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Yakugaku Zasshi 2013; 133(2):269-74.
Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases (GM2 gangliosidoses) are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage diseases caused by gene mutations in HEXA and HEXB, each encoding human lysosomal β-hexosaminidase α-subunits and β-subunits, respectively. In Tay-Sachs disease, excessive accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2), mainly in the central nervous system, is caused by a deficiency of the HexA isozyme (αβ heterodimer), resulting in progressive neurologic disorders. In Sandhoff disease, combined deficiencies of HexA and HexB (ββ homodimer) cause not only the accumulation of GM2 but also of oligosaccharides carrying terminal N-acetylhexosamine residues (GlcNAc-oligosaccharides), resulting in systemic manifestations including hepatosplenomegaly as well as neurologic symptoms. Hence there is little clinically effective treatment for these GM2 gangliosidoses. Recent studies on the molecular pathogenesis in Sandhoff disease patients and disease model mice have shown the involvement of microglial activation and chemokine induction in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in this disease. Experimental and therapeutic approaches, including recombinant enzyme replacement, have been performed using Sandhoff disease model mice, suggesting the future application of novel techniques to treat GM2 gangliosidoses (Hex deficiencies), including Sandhoff disease as well as Tay-Sachs disease. In this study, we isolated astrocytes and microglia from the neonatal brain of Sandhoff disease model mice and demonstrated abnormalities of glial cells. Moreover, we demonstrated the therapeutic effect of an intracerebroventricular administration of novel recombinant human HexA carrying a high content of M6P residue in Sandhoff disease model mice.