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glial cell membrane [keywords]
- Optic nerve glioma: A great mimicker. [Journal Article]
- Surg Neurol Int 2014.:9.
Arachnoid proliferation, although rare, is known to occur in association with optic gliomas. However, chondroid and chordoid metaplasia has not been reported previously.A 27-year-old male presented with progressive, painless loss of vision in right eye, associated with vomiting and headache for one and a half months. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a contrast enhancing mass arising from planum sphenoidale. Perioperative findings showed the tumor adherent to the right optic nerve and attached to basal dura and falx. A clinical impression of an intradural, optic nerve sheath meningioma was made. Histopathological examination revealed a glial tumor with adjacent areas displaying marked fibroblastic and arachnoid cell proliferation with chondroid as well as chordoid differentiation along with myxoid change and dense collagenisation. Reticulin stain, immunochemistry with glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and S-100 helped to arrive at the final diagnosis of optic glioma displaying exuberant arachnoid proliferation with cartilaginous metaplasia.We report a case of optic nerve glioma displaying extensive arachnoid proliferation, chordoid, and cartilaginous metaplasia, which mimicked chondrosarcoma or chordoid meningioma, posing a diagnostic dilemma. A clinical feedback, simple reticulin stain, and GFAP staining is of immense value in such cases to arrive at the correct diagnosis.
- Glial cell ceruloplasmin and hepcidin differentially regulate iron efflux from brain microvascular endothelial cells. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e89003.
We have used an in vitro model system to probe the iron transport pathway across the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This model consists of human BMVEC (hBMVEC) and C6 glioma cells (as an astrocytic cell line) grown in a transwell, a cell culture system commonly used to quantify metabolite flux across a cell-derived barrier. We found that iron efflux from hBMVEC through the ferrous iron permease ferroportin (Fpn) was stimulated by secretion of the soluble form of the multi-copper ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin (sCp) from the co-cultured C6 cells. Reciprocally, expression of sCp mRNA in the C6 cells was increased by neighboring hBMVEC. In addition, data indicate that C6 cell-secreted hepcidin stimulates internalization of hBMVEC Fpn but only when the end-feet projections characteristic of this glia-derived cell line are proximal to the endothelial cells. This hepcidin-dependent loss of Fpn correlated with knock-down of iron efflux from the hBMVEC; this result was consistent with the mechanism by which hepcidin regulates iron efflux in mammalian cells. In summary, the data support a model of iron trafficking across the BBB in which the capillary endothelium induce the underlying astrocytes to produce the ferroxidase activity needed to support Fpn-mediated iron efflux. Reciprocally, astrocyte proximity modulates the effective concentration of hepcidin at the endothelial cell membrane and thus the surface expression of hBMVEC Fpn. These results are independent of the source of hBMVEC iron (transferrin or non-transferrin bound) indicating that the model developed here is broadly applicable to brain iron homeostasis.
- Imaging mGluR5 Dynamics in Astrocytes Using Quantum Dots. [Journal Article]
- Curr Protoc Neurosci 2014.:2.21.1-2.21.18.
This unit describes the method that we have developed to clarify endogenous mGluR5 (etabotropic tamate eceptors 5) dynamics in astrocytes by single-particle tracking using quantum dots (QD-SPT). QD-SPT has been a powerful tool to examine the contribution of neurotransmitter receptor dynamics to synaptic plasticity. Neurotransmitter receptors are also expressed in astrocytes, the most abundant form of glial cell in the brain. mGluR5s, which evoke intracellular Ca(2+) signals upon receiving glutamate, contribute to the modulation of synaptic transmission efficacy and local blood flow by astrocytes. QD-SPT has previously revealed that the regulation of the lateral diffusion of mGluR5 on the plasma membrane is important for local Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes. Determining how mGluR5 dynamics are regulated in response to neuronal input would enable a better understanding of neuron-astrocyte communication in future studies. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 66:2.21.1-2.21.18. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of isocortical and hippocampal astrocytes in the human brain. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Feb 5; 34(6):2285-98.
To examine the diversity of astrocytes in the human brain, we immunostained surgical specimens of temporal cortex and hippocampus and autopsy brains for CD44, a plasma membrane protein and extracellular matrix receptor. CD44 antibodies outline the details of astrocyte morphology to a degree not possible with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibodies. CD44+ astrocytes could be subdivided into two groups. First, CD44+ astrocytes with long processes were consistently found in the subpial area ("interlaminar" astrocytes), the deep isocortical layers, and the hippocampus. Many of these processes ended on blood vessels. Some were also found adjacent to large blood vessels, from which they extended long processes. We observed these CD44+, long-process astrocytes in every brain we examined, from fetal to adult. These astrocytes generally displayed high immunostaining for GFAP, S100β, and CD44, but low immunostaining for glutamine synthetase, excitatory amino-acid transporter 1 (EAAT1), and EAAT2. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) appeared distributed all over the cell bodies and processes of the CD44+ astrocytes, while, in contrast, AQP4 localized to perivascular end feet in the CD44- protoplasmic astrocytes. Second, there were CD44+ astrocytes without long processes in the cortex. These were not present during gestation or at birth, and in adult brains varied substantially in number, shape, and immunohistochemical phenotype. Many of these displayed a "mixed" morphological and immunocytochemical phenotype between protoplasmic and fibrous astrocytes. We conclude that the diversity of astrocyte populations in the isocortex and archicortex in the human brain reflects both intrinsic and acquired phenotypes, the latter perhaps representing a shift from CD44- "protoplasmic" to CD44+ "fibrous"-like astrocytes.
- Cl- and K+ channels and their role in primary brain tumour biology. [Journal Article]
- Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2014; 369(1638):20130095.
Profound cell volume changes occur in primary brain tumours as they proliferate, invade surrounding tissue or undergo apoptosis. These volume changes are regulated by the flux of Cl(-) and K(+) ions and concomitant movement of water across the membrane, making ion channels pivotal to tumour biology. We discuss which specific Cl(-) and K(+) channels are involved in defined aspects of glioma biology and how these channels are regulated. Cl(-) is accumulated to unusually high concentrations in gliomas by the activity of the NKCC1 transporter and serves as an osmolyte and energetic driving force for volume changes. Cell volume condensation is required as cells enter M phase of the cell cycle and this pre-mitotic condensation is caused by channel-mediated ion efflux. Similarly, Cl(-) and K(+) channels dynamically regulate volume in invading glioma cells allowing them to adjust to small extracellular brain spaces. Finally, cell condensation is a hallmark of apoptosis and requires the concerted activation of Cl(-) and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Given the frequency of mutation and high importance of ion channels in tumour biology, the opportunity exists to target them for treatment.
- Astrocytic activation in the anterior cingulate cortex is critical for sleep disorder under neuropathic pain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Synapse 2014 Feb 1.
Insomnia, depression and anxiety disorder are common problems for people with neuropathic pain. In the present study, mild noxious heat stimuli increased the duration and number of spontaneous pain-like behaviors in sciatic nerve-ligated mice. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to visualize the increased blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of mice with sciatic nerve ligation under mild noxious stimuli. Such stimuli significantly increased the release of glutamate in the ACC of nerve-ligated mice. In addition, sciatic nerve ligation and mild noxious stimuli changed the morphology of astrocytes in the ACC. Treatment of cortical astrocytes with glutamate caused astrocytic activation, as detected by a stellate morphology. Furthermore, glutamate induced the translocation of GAT-3 to astrocyte cell membranes using primary cultured glial cells from the mouse cortex. Moreover, the GABA level at the synaptic cleft in the ACC of nerve-ligated mice was significantly decreased exposure to mild noxious stimuli. Finally, we investigated whether astrocytic activation in the ACC could directly mediate sleep disorder. With the optogenetic tool channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), we demonstrated that selective photostimulation of these astrocytes in vivo triggered sleep disturbance. Taken together, these results suggest that neuropathic pain-like stimuli activated astrocytes in the ACC and decreased the extracellular concentration of GABA via an increase in the release of glutamate. Furthermore, the present findings provide novel evidence that astrocytic activation in the ACC can mimic sleep disturbance in mice. (234 words/ 250 words) Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Sigma receptor 1 modulates ER stress and Bcl2 in murine retina. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Tissue Res 2014 Jan 28.
Sigma receptor 1 (σR1), a non-opiate transmembrane protein located on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial membranes, is considered to be a molecular chaperone. Marked protection against cell death has been observed when ligands for σR1 have been used in in vitro and in vivo models of retinal cell death. Mice lacking σR1 (σR1 (-/-)) manifest late-onset loss of retinal ganglion cells and retinal electrophysiological changes (after many months). The role of σR1 in the retina and the mechanisms by which its ligands afford neuroprotection are unclear. We therefore used σR1 (-/-) mice to investigate the expression of ER stress genes (BiP/GRP78, Atf6, Atf4, Ire1α) and proteins involved in apoptosis (BCL2, BAX) and to examine the retinal transcriptome at young ages. Whereas no significant changes occurred in the expression of major ER stress genes (over a period of a year) in neural retina, marked changes were observed in these genes, especially Atf6, in isolated retinal Müller glial cells. BCL2 levels decreased in σR1 (-/-) retina concomitantly with decreases in NFkB and pERK1/2. We postulate that σR1 regulates ER stress in retinal Müller cells and that the role of σR1 in retinal neuroprotection probably involves BCL2 and some of the proteins that modify its expression (such as ERK, NFκB). Data from the analysis of the retinal transcriptome of σR1 null mice provide new insights into the role of σR1 in retinal neuroprotection.
- Ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X in frog and turtle retina: Glial and neuronal localization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Histochem 2014 Jan 22.
Purinergic signaling is represented in both the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS), and in particular in the retina, which may be regarded as a part of the CNS. While purigenic signaling is relatively well studied in mammalian retinas, little is known about it in retinas of lower vertebrates. The aim of present study was to investigate, using immunocytochemistry, the distribution of purinoreceptors P2X in retinas of frog and turtle, which are appropriate models of the brain neuron-to-glia interactions. The results showed widespread expression of all seven ionotropic purinoreceptors (P2X1-P2X7) in both frog and turtle retinas. They were predominantly expressed in Müller cells, the principal glial cells in the retina. All structures typical of Müller cells: the outer and the inner limiting membranes, the cells bodies in the inner nuclear layer, the radial processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), and the so called endfeet (frog) or the orthogonal arrays of particles (turtle) in the ganglion cells layer were immunostained. Colocalizations between P2X1-P2X7 and the glial cell marker Vimentin proved that the immunostaining was in the Müller cells. In addition to the glial staining, neuronal staining was also seen as fine puncta in the inner plexiform layer and by small dots and patches in the outer plexiform layer. Some cell bodies of horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells were also stained. The results obtained imply that the purinergic P2X receptors may significantly contribute to the neuron-to-glia signaling in retinas of the lower vertebrates.
- Perlecan is required for FGF-2 signaling in the neural stem cell niche. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stem Cell Res 2013 Dec 28; 12(2):492-505.
In the adult subventricular zone (neurogenic niche), neural stem cells double-positive for two markers of subsets of neural stem cells in the adult central nervous system, glial fibrillary acidic protein and CD133, lie in proximity to fractones and to blood vessel basement membranes, which contain the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan. Here, we demonstrate that perlecan deficiency reduces the number of both GFAP/CD133-positive neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and new neurons integrating into the olfactory bulb. We also show that FGF-2 treatment induces the expression of cyclin D2 through the activation of the Akt and Erk1/2 pathways and promotes neurosphere formation in vitro. However, in the absence of perlecan, FGF-2 fails to promote neurosphere formation. These results suggest that perlecan is a component of the neurogenic niche that regulates FGF-2 signaling and acts by promoting neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis.
- Axon-glia interaction and membrane traffic in myelin formation. [REVIEW]
- Front Cell Neurosci 2014 Jan 6.:284.
In vertebrate nervous systems myelination of neuronal axons has evolved to increase conduction velocity of electrical impulses with minimal space and energy requirements. Myelin is formed by specialized glial cells which ensheath axons with a lipid-rich insulating membrane. Myelination is a multi-step process initiated by axon-glia recognition triggering glial polarization followed by targeted myelin membrane expansion and compaction. Thereby, a myelin sheath of complex subdomain structure is established. Continuous communication between neurons and glial cells is essential for myelin maintenance and axonal integrity. A diverse group of diseases, from multiple sclerosis to schizophrenia, have been linked to malfunction of myelinating cells reflecting the physiological importance of the axon-glial unit. This review describes the mechanisms of axonal signal integration by oligodendrocytes emphasizing the central role of the Src-family kinase Fyn during central nervous system (CNS) myelination. Furthermore, we discuss myelin membrane trafficking with particular focus on endocytic recycling and the control of proteolipid protein (PLP) transport by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Finally, PLP mistrafficking is considered in the context of myelin diseases.