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glial cell membrane [keywords]
- Seasonal plasticity of the pituitary pars intermedia of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Tissue Cell 2013 Nov 12.
The pituitary pars intermedia of Camelus dromedarius is well developed and completely surrounds the pars nervosa. Two major groups of cells are present: endocrine (ec) and glial-like cells (glc). The ec group is composed of three morphologically distinct cell types. Type I, or polyhedral light cells (LC-I) and type II, or polyhedral dark cells (DC-II), have secretory granules of heterogeneous electron density whose size ranges from 170 to 300nm. Type III cells are elongated with homogeneous electron-dense secretory granules of 80-200nm. The glc make up an organized network, form follicles in the centrolobular zones and are positive for vimentin and S-100β immunolabelling. The nerve fibres penetrating the lobe are numerous, and can be classified into two types according to the membrane bound vesicles found in their endings (ne). Ultrastructural quantitative analysis revealed significant variations in PI elements between winter and summer seasons (F=8.014, p=0.006). DC-II cells characterized by developed biosynthetic machinery and a large pool of secretory granules storage are increased with the ne in winter. However, LC-I cells showing frequent cytoplasmic degranulation are predominant with glc in summer. Thus, important cellular remodelling occurs in the dromedary PI that may depend upon, or perhaps anticipate, external living conditions.
- Array CGH analysis of a cohort of Russian patients with intellectual disability. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gene 2013 Nov 27.
The use of array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) as a diagnostic tool in molecular genetics has facilitated the identification of many new microdeletion/microduplication syndromes (MMSs). Furthermore, this method has allowed for the identification of copy number variations (CNVs) whose pathogenic role has yet to be uncovered. Here, we report on our application of array CGH for the identification of pathogenic CNVs in 79 Russian children with intellectual disability (ID). Twenty-six pathogenic or likely pathogenic changes in copy number were detected in 22 patients (28%): 8 CNVs corresponded to known MMSs, and 17 were not associated with previously described syndromes. In this report, we describe our findings and comment on genes potentially associated with ID that are located within the CNV regions.
- KV10.1 K(+)-channel plasma membrane discrete domain partitioning and its functional correlation in neurons. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Nov 22.
KV10.1 potassium channels are implicated in a variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation and tumour progression. Their expression in over 70% of human tumours makes them an attractive diagnostic and therapeutic target. Although their physiological role in the central nervous system is not yet fully understood, advances in their precise cell localization will contribute to the understanding of their interactions and function. We have determined the plasma membrane (PM) distribution of the KV10.1 protein in an enriched mouse brain PM fraction and its association with cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich domains. We show that the KV10.1 channel has two different populations in a 3:2 ratio, one associated to and another excluded from Detergent Resistant Membranes (DRMs). This distribution of KV10.1 in isolated PM is cholesterol- and cytoskeleton-dependent since alteration of those factors changes the relationship to 1:4. In transfected HEK-293 cells with a mutant unable to bind Ca(2+)/CaM to KV10.1 protein, Kv10.1 distribution in DRM/non-DRM is 1:4. Mean current density was doubled in the cholesterol-depleted cells, without any noticeable effects on other parameters. These results demonstrate that recruitment of the KV10.1 channel to the DRM fractions involves its functional regulation.
- In vivo labeling of peroxisomes by photoconvertible mEos2 in myelinating glia of mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biochimie 2013 Nov 18.
Mutations of several genes encoding peroxisomal proteins have been associated with human diseases. Some of these display specific white matter abnormalities in the brain, although the affected proteins are ubiquitously expressed. To better understand the etiology of peroxisomal myelin diseases, we aimed to label these organelles in vivo and in a cell type specific fashion. We had previously shown that in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells numerous peroxisomes reside in the cytoplasmic channels of "non-compacted" myelin. These organelles are smaller and biochemically distinct from non-myelin peroxisomes. Targeting peroxisomal functions in various cell types of the brain has demonstrated that oligodendroglial peroxisomes are specifically important for long-term integrity of the CNS. To visualize myelin peroxisomes in intact cells and tissues by live imaging, we have generated a novel line of transgenic mice for the expression of fluorescently tagged peroxisomes specifically in myelinating glia. This was achieved by modifying the gene for a photoconvertible mEos2 with a peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) and generating a fusion gene with the myelin-specific Cnp1 promoter. In the brain of resulting transgenic mice, peroxisomes are selectively labeled in oligodendrocytes. In this novel genetic tool, photoconversion of single peroxisomes from green to red fluorescence can be used to monitor the fate of single organelles and to determine the dynamics of PTS1-mediated protein import in the context of myelin diseases that affect peroxisomal functions.
- Impact of Lipid Nutrition on Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells. [REVIEW]
- Stem Cells Int 2013.:973508.
The neural system originates from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). Embryonic NSPCs first proliferate to increase their numbers and then produce neurons and glial cells that compose the complex neural circuits in the brain. New neurons are continually produced even after birth from adult NSPCs in the inner wall of the lateral ventricle and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These adult-born neurons are involved in various brain functions, including olfaction-related functions, learning and memory, pattern separation, and mood control. NSPCs are regulated by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Diet is one of such important extrinsic factors. Of dietary nutrients, lipids are important because they constitute the cell membrane, are a source of energy, and function as signaling molecules. Metabolites of some lipids can be strong lipid mediators that also regulate various biological activities. Recent findings have revealed that lipids are important regulators of both embryonic and adult NSPCs. We and other groups have shown that lipid signals including fat, fatty acids, their metabolites and intracellular carriers, cholesterol, and vitamins affect proliferation and differentiation of embryonic and adult NSPCs. A better understanding of the NSPCs regulation by lipids may provide important insight into the neural development and brain function.
- The role of cAMP-mediated intracellular signaling in regulating Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2013 Nov 20.
In the current study, the role of cAMP in stimulating Na(+) uptake in larval zebrafish was investigated. Treating larvae at 4 days post fertilization (dpf) with 10 µM forskolin or 1 µM 8-bromo cAMP significantly increased Na(+) uptake by 3- and 2-fold, respectively. The cAMP-dependent stimulation of Na(+) uptake was probably unrelated to protein trafficking via microtubules because pre-treatment with 200 µM colchicine or 30 µM nocodazole did not attenuate the magnitude of the response. Na(+) uptake was stimulated markedly following acute (2 h) exposure to acidic water. The acid-induced increase in Na(+) uptake was accompanied by a 2-fold elevation in whole body cAMP levels and attenuated by inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA) with 10 µM H-89. Knockdown of Na+-H+ exchanger 3b (NHE3b) attenuated, but did not abolish the stimulation of Na(+) uptake during forskolin treatment. In glial cell missing 2 morphants, in which the role of NHE3b in Na(+) uptake is diminished and the Na(+)-Cl- co-transporter (NCC) becomes the predominant route of Na(+) entry, forskolin treatment continued to increase Na(+) uptake. These data suggest that at least NHE3b and NCC are targeted by cAMP in zebrafish larvae. Staining of larvae with fluorescent forskolin and propranolol revealed the presence of trans-membrane adenylyl cyclase within multiple subtypes of ionocytes expressing beta-adrenergic receptors. Taken together, results of the present study demonstrate that cAMP-mediated intracellular signalling may regulate multiple Na(+) transporters, and plays an important role in regulating Na(+) uptake in zebrafish larvae during acute exposure to an acidic environment.
- N-cadherin is a Novel ERα Anchor that Protects Against 6-OHDA Damage to Dopaminergic Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 Nov 20.
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the selective loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. In this study, we investigated the protective roles of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in the neuron cell line MN9D following treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. This result showed that phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) was significantly increased in treated MN9D cells following co-application of GDNF and E2 compared with only GDNF or E2. Moreover, GDNF enhanced the E2-induced translocation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) from the cytosol to the membrane. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the translocated ERα interacted with neural cadherin (N-cadherin) in the membrane. Site-directed mutagenesis of Tyr860 (Y860) in N-cadherin inhibited its interaction with ERα. Combined with the fact that GDNF can stimulate N-cadherin Y860 phosphorylation, we hypothesize that N-cadherin is a novel anchor for ERα, and phosphorylation at Y860 further increases ER's capacity to activate the neuroprotective phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway. This study provides evidence that co-application of GDNF and E2 exert important protective effects on DA neurons by increasing the interaction between ERα and N-cadherin.
- Glial scaffold required for cerebellar granule cell migration is dependent on dystroglycan function as a receptor for basement membrane proteins. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Neuropathol Commun 2013; 1(1):58.
Cobblestone lissencephaly is a severe neuronal migration disorder associated with congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) such as Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease, and Fukuyama-type CMD. In these severe forms of dystroglycanopathy, the muscular dystrophy and other tissue pathology is caused by mutations in genes involved in O-linked glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. While cerebellar dysplasia is a common feature of dystroglycanopathy, its pathogenesis has not been thoroughly investigated.Here we evaluate the role of dystroglycan during cerebellar development. Brain-selective deletion of dystroglycan does not affect overall cerebellar growth, yet causes malformations associated with glia limitans disruptions and granule cell heterotopia that recapitulate phenotypes found in dystroglycanopathy patients. Cerebellar pathology in these mice is not evident until birth even though dystroglycan is lost during the second week of embryogenesis. The severity and spatial distribution of glia limitans disruption, Bergmann glia disorganization, and heterotopia exacerbate during postnatal development. Astrogliosis becomes prominent at these same sites by the time cerebellar development is complete. Interestingly, there is spatial heterogeneity in the glia limitans and granule neuron migration defects that spares the tips of lobules IV-V and VI.The full spectrum of developmental pathology is caused by loss of dystroglycan from Bergmann glia, as neither granule cell- nor Purkinje cell-specific deletion of dystroglycan results in similar pathology. These data illustrate the importance of dystroglycan function in radial/Bergmann glia, not neurons, for normal cerebellar histogenesis. The spatial heterogeneity of pathology suggests that the dependence on dystroglycan is not uniform.
- Adrenal steroids in the brain: Role of the intrinsic expression of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) in the stress response. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Steroids 2013 Nov 16.
The complex interaction between hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands is a key component of the neuroendocrine stress response. The major stress hormones - glucocorticoids - have both central and peripheral effects. Among the factors regulating their availability to target tissues are levels of corticosteroid-binding globulin, as the major transport protein for glucocorticoids in systemic circulation. Our recent findings demonstrated expression of corticosteroid-binding globulin in various brain regions and in different cell populations (neurons and glial cells). We showed at the cellular level the presence of corticosteroid-binding globulin in the human hypothalamus, where it was co-localized with the classical neurohypophyseal neurohormones - vasopressin and oxytocin. For the first time we demonstrated in mouse that the same gene encodes brain and liver corticosteroid-binding globulin. The full-length sequencing of hypothalamic corticosteroid-binding globulin revealed a full homology with liver corticosteroid-binding globulin cDNA. Thus, we confirmed that corticosteroid-binding globulin mRNA is produced locally within various cerebral regions and thus not transported from blood. However, the amounts of mRNA encoding corticosteroid-binding globulin are in liver about 200 times higher than in brain. The wide distribution of corticosteroid-binding globulin, distinct from the localization of glucocorticoid receptors, observed in our comparative study in rodents, led us to propose two possibilities: (1) corticosteroid-binding globulin is made in certain neurons to deliver glucocorticoids into the cell and within the cell in the absence of cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors or (2) is internalized into neurons specifically to deliver glucocorticoids to classical glucocorticoid receptors. Brain corticosteroid-binding globulin may be involved in the response to changing systemic glucocorticoid levels either additionally to known nuclear and membrane corticosteroid receptors or in glucocorticoid responsive brain regions devoid of these receptors. Clearly the multiple locations of corticosteroid-binding globulin within the central nervous system of humans and rodents imply multiple functional properties in normal and/or pathological conditions, which are yet to be determined. Most likely, the importance of brain corticosteroid-binding globulin exceeds the function of a mere steroid transporter.
- Physiological functions of endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer OASIS in central nervous system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anat Sci Int 2013 Nov 16.
Eukaryotic cells can adapt to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction by producing diverse signals from the ER to the cytosol or nucleus. These signaling pathways are collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The canonical branches of the UPR are mediated by three ER membrane-bound proteins: double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). These ER stress transducers basically play important roles in cell survival after ER stress. Recently, novel types of ER stress transducers that share a region of high sequence similarity with ATF6 have been identified. They have a transmembrane domain, which allows them to associate with the ER, and possess a transcription-activation domain and a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. These membrane-bound bZIP transcription factors include OASIS, BBF2H7 CREBH, CREB4 and Luman, and are collectively referred to as OASIS family members. Despite their structural similarities with ATF6, differences in activating stimuli and tissue distribution indicate specialized functions of each member on regulating UPR signaling in specific organs and tissues. One of them, OASIS, is expressed preferentially in astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). OASIS temporally regulates the differentiation from neural precursor cells into astrocytes to promote the expression of Glial Cell Missing 1 through dynamic interactions among OASIS family members followed by accelerating demethylation of the Gfap promoter. This review is a summary of our current understanding of the physiological functions of OASIS in the CNS.