glial cell membrane [keywords]
- Aquaporin-4 in Astroglial Cells in the CNS and Supporting Cells of Sensory Organs-A Comparative Perspective. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Mol Sci 2016; 17(9)
The main water channel of the brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is one of the classical water-specific aquaporins. It is expressed in many epithelial tissues in the basolateral membrane domain. It is present in the membranes of supporting cells in most sensory organs in a specifically adapted pattern: in the supporting cells of the olfactory mucosa, AQP4 occurs along the basolateral aspects, in mammalian retinal Müller cells it is highly polarized. In the cochlear epithelium of the inner ear, it is expressed basolaterally in some cells but strictly basally in others. Within the central nervous system, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed by cells of the astroglial family, more specifically, by astrocytes and ependymal cells. In the mammalian brain, AQP4 is located in high density in the membranes of astrocytic endfeet facing the pial surface and surrounding blood vessels. At these locations, AQP4 plays a role in the maintenance of ionic homeostasis and volume regulation. This highly polarized expression has not been observed in the brain of fish where astroglial cells have long processes and occur mostly as radial glial cells. In the brain of the zebrafish, AQP4 immunoreactivity is found along the radial extent of astroglial cells. This suggests that the polarized expression of AQP4 was not present at all stages of evolution. Thus, a polarized expression of AQP4 as part of a control mechanism for a stable ionic environment and water balanced occurred at several locations in supporting and glial cells during evolution. This initially basolateral membrane localization of AQP4 is shifted to highly polarized expression in astrocytic endfeet in the mammalian brain and serves as a part of the neurovascular unit to efficiently maintain homeostasis.
- Mutant Huntingtin Impairs BDNF Release from Astrocytes by Disrupting Conversion of Rab3a-GTP into Rab3a-GDP. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2016 Aug 24; 36(34):8790-801.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neuronal differentiation and survival. We know that BDNF levels decline in the brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expression of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt), and furthermore that administration of BDNF in HD mice is protective against HD neuropathology. BDNF is produced in neurons, but astrocytes are also an important source of BDNF in the brain. Nonetheless, whether mHtt affects astrocytic BDNF in the HD brain remains unknown. Here we investigated astrocytes from HD140Q knock-in mice and uncovered evidence that mHtt decreases BDNF secretion from astrocytes, which is mediated by exocytosis in astrocytes. Our results demonstrate that mHtt associates with Rab3a, a small GTPase localized on membranes of dense-core vesicles, and prevents GTP-Rab3a from binding to Rab3-GAP1, disrupting the conversion of GTP-Rab3a into GDP-Rab3a and thus impairing the docking of BDNF vesicles on plasma membranes of astrocytes. Importantly, overexpression of Rab3a rescues impaired BDNF vesicle docking and secretion from HD astrocytes. Moreover, ATP release and the number of ATP-containing dense-core vesicles docking are decreased in HD astrocytes, suggesting that the exocytosis of dense-core vesicles is impaired by mHtt in HD astrocytes. Further, Rab3a overexpression reduces reactive astrocytes in the striatum of HD140Q knock-in mice. Our results indicate that compromised exocytosis of BDNF in HD astrocytes contributes to the decreased BDNF levels in HD brains and underscores the importance of improving glial function in the treatment of HD.Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that affects one in every 10,000 Americans. To date, there is no effective treatment for HD, in part because the pathogenic mechanism driving the disease is not fully understood. The dysfunction of astrocytes is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of HD. One important role of astrocytes is to synthesize and release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is vital for neuronal survival, development, and function. We found that mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) at the endogenous level decreases BDNF secretion from astrocytes by disrupting the conversion of GTP-Rab3a into GDP-Rab3a and that overexpressing Rab3a can rescue this deficient BDNF release and early neuropathology in HD knock-in mouse brain. Our study suggests that astrocytic Rab3a is a potential therapeutic target for HD treatment.
- Functional regeneration of the transected recurrent laryngeal nerve using a collagen scaffold loaded with laminin and laminin-binding BDNF and GDNF. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2016.:32292.
Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury remains a challenge due to the lack of effective treatments. In this study, we established a new drug delivery system consisting of a tube of Heal-All Oral Cavity Repair Membrane loaded with laminin and neurotrophic factors and tested its ability to promote functional recovery following RLN injury. We created recombinant fusion proteins consisting of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) fused to laminin-binding domains (LBDs) in order to prevent neurotrophin diffusion. LBD-BDNF, LBD-GDNF, and laminin were injected into a collagen tube that was fitted to the ends of the transected RLN in rats. Functional recovery was assessed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after injury. Although vocal fold movement was not restored until 12 weeks after injury, animals treated with the collagen tube loaded with laminin, LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF showed improved recovery in vocalisation, arytenoid cartilage angles, compound muscle action potentials and regenerated fibre area compared to animals treated by autologous nerve grafting (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate the drug delivery system induced nerve regeneration following RLN transection that was superior to that induced by autologus nerve grafting. It may have potential applications in nerve regeneration of RLN transection injury.
- How neuroinflammation contributes to neurodegeneration. [Journal Article, Review]
- Science 2016 Aug 19; 353(6301):777-83.
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal lobar dementia are among the most pressing problems of developed societies with aging populations. Neurons carry out essential functions such as signal transmission and network integration in the central nervous system and are the main targets of neurodegenerative disease. In this Review, I address how the neuron's environment also contributes to neurodegeneration. Maintaining an optimal milieu for neuronal function rests with supportive cells termed glia and the blood-brain barrier. Accumulating evidence suggests that neurodegeneration occurs in part because the environment is affected during disease in a cascade of processes collectively termed neuroinflammation. These observations indicate that therapies targeting glial cells might provide benefit for those afflicted by neurodegenerative disorders.
- Manduca Contactin Regulates Amyloid Precursor Protein-Dependent Neuronal Migration. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2016 Aug 17; 36(33):8757-75.
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) was originally identified as the source of β-amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also has been implicated in the control of multiple aspects of neuronal motility. APP belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of transmembrane proteins that can interact with a variety of adapter and signaling molecules. Recently, we showed that both APP and its insect ortholog [APPL (APP-Like)] directly bind the heterotrimeric G-protein Goα, supporting the model that APP can function as an unconventional Goα-coupled receptor. We also adapted a well characterized assay of neuronal migration in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to show that APPL-Goα signaling restricts ectopic growth within the developing nervous system, analogous to the role postulated for APP family proteins in controlling migration within the mammalian cortex. Using this assay, we have now identified Manduca Contactin (MsContactin) as an endogenous ligand for APPL, consistent with previous work showing that Contactins interact with APP family proteins in other systems. Using antisense-based knockdown protocols and fusion proteins targeting both proteins, we have shown that MsContactin is selectively expressed by glial cells that ensheath the migratory neurons (expressing APPL), and that MsContactin-APPL interactions normally prevent inappropriate migration and outgrowth. These results provide new evidence that Contactins can function as authentic ligands for APP family proteins that regulate APP-dependent responses in the developing nervous system. They also support the model that misregulated Contactin-APP interactions might provoke aberrant activation of Goα and its effectors, thereby contributing to the neurodegenerative sequelae that typify AD.Members of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family participate in many aspects of neuronal development, but the ligands that normally activate APP signaling have remained controversial. This research provides new evidence that members of the Contactin family function as authentic ligands for APP and its orthologs, and that this evolutionarily conserved class of membrane-attached proteins regulates key aspects of APP-dependent migration and outgrowth in the embryonic nervous system. By defining the normal role of Contactin-APP signaling during development, these studies also provide the framework for investigating how the misregulation of Contactin-APP interactions might contribute to neuronal dysfunction in the context of both normal aging and neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease.
- The relationship between anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and fibrosis in proliferative retinopathy: clinical and laboratory evidence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Ophthalmol 2016 Aug 16.
To investigate the progression of epiretinal membranes after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection therapy in patients with proliferative membranes and evaluate the changes in fibrosis-related cytokines in retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells after treatment with bevacizumab.Retrospective study of the proliferative membranes in patients with and without IVB therapy. In vitro, the human adult retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells and BV2 microglial cell lines were incubated in different bevacizumab concentrations under hypoxic conditions. Cell culture supernatants and cell lysates were harvested after incubation for 24, 48 or 72 hours for ELISA and western blot.Bevacizumab accelerated fibrosis in patients with proliferative membranes. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed more intense transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) staining in IVB-treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) membranes compared with membranes of patients not receiving IVB therapy. This result was consistent with real-time PCR results. Bevacizumab incubation significantly upregulated TGFβ2 and CTGF in ARPE-19 cells and BV2 microglial cells, but ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression was upregulated only in BV2 microglial cells.Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment likely accelerates fibrosis in PDR patients via upregulation of TGFβ2, CTGF and CNTF, suggesting the importance of adjunctive therapy for retinal fibrosis.
- Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system. [Journal Article, Review]
- Acta Neuropathol 2016 Sep; 132(3):317-38.
Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system. Recent developments in high-resolution imaging techniques have prompted a reassessment of the relationships between the CNS and the immune system. This review will take these developments into account in describing our present understanding of the anatomical connections of the CNS fluid drainage pathways towards regional lymph nodes and our current concept of immune cell trafficking into the CNS during immunosurveillance and neuroinflammation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid are the two major components that drain from the CNS to regional lymph nodes. CSF drains via lymphatic vessels and appears to carry antigen-presenting cells. Interstitial fluid from the CNS parenchyma, on the other hand, drains to lymph nodes via narrow and restricted basement membrane pathways within the walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries that do not allow traffic of antigen-presenting cells. Lymphocytes targeting the CNS enter by a two-step process entailing receptor-mediated crossing of vascular endothelium and enzyme-mediated penetration of the glia limitans that covers the CNS. The contribution of the pathways into and out of the CNS as initiators or contributors to neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, will be discussed. Furthermore, we propose a clear nomenclature allowing improved precision when describing the CNS-specific communication pathways with the immune system.
- Neuroimmunological Implications of AQP4 in Astrocytes. [Journal Article, Review]
- Int J Mol Sci 2016; 17(8)
The brain has high-order functions and is composed of several kinds of cells, such as neurons and glial cells. It is becoming clear that many kinds of neurodegenerative diseases are more-or-less influenced by astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a membrane-bound protein that regulates water permeability is a member of the aquaporin family of water channel proteins that is expressed in the endfeet of astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, AQP4 has been shown to function, not only as a water channel protein, but also as an adhesion molecule that is involved in cell migration and neuroexcitation, synaptic plasticity, and learning/memory through mechanisms involved in long-term potentiation or long-term depression. The most extensively examined role of AQP4 is its ability to act as a neuroimmunological inducer. Previously, we showed that AQP4 plays an important role in neuroimmunological functions in injured mouse brain in concert with the proinflammatory inducer osteopontin (OPN). The aim of this review is to summarize the functional implication of AQP4, focusing especially on its neuroimmunological roles. This review is a good opportunity to compile recent knowledge and could contribute to the therapeutic treatment of autoimmune diseases through strategies targeting AQP4. Finally, the author would like to hypothesize on AQP4's role in interaction between reactive astrocytes and reactive microglial cells, which might occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, a therapeutic strategy for AQP4-related neurodegenerative diseases is proposed.
- Promotion of axon regeneration and inhibition of astrocyte activation by alpha A-crystallin on crushed optic nerve. [Journal Article]
- Int J Ophthalmol 2016; 9(7):955-66.
To explore the effects of αA-crystallin in astrocyte gliosis after optic nerve crush (ONC) and the mechanism of α-crystallin in neuroprotection and axon regeneration.ONC was established on the Sprague-Dawley rat model and αA-crystallin (10(-4) g/L, 4 µL) was intravitreously injected into the rat model. Flash-visual evoked potential (F-VEP) was examined 14d after ONC, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the retina and crush site were analyzed 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14d after ONC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot respectively. The levels of beta Tubulin (TUJ1), growth-associated membrane phosphoprotein-43 (GAP-43), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and neurocan were also determined by IHC 14d after ONC.GFAP level in the retina and the optic nerve significantly increased 1d after ONC, and reached the peak level 7d post-ONC. Injection of αA-crystallin significantly decreased GFAP level in both the retina and the crush site 3d after ONC, and induced astrocytes architecture remodeling at the crush site. Quantification of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons indicated αA-crystallin markedly promoted axon regeneration in ONC rats and enhanced the regenerated axons penetrated into the glial scar. CSPGs and neurocan expression also decreased 14d after αA-crystallin injection. The amplitude (N1-P1) and latency (P1) of F-VEP were also restored.Our results suggest α-crystallin promotes the axon regeneration of RGCs and suppresses the activation of astrocytes.
- [REACTIVE CHANGES IN THE ASTROCYTES OF FOREBRAIN NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS AFTER RESTRICTION OF BLOOD FLOW IN THE BASIN OF BOTH COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES IN RATS]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Morfologiia 2016; 149(1):22-7.
Reactive changes of astrocytes were studied in forebrain nucleus accumbens in rats (n = 12) after global cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries, which is a frequently used model to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological agents that have anti-ischemic and neuroprotective properties. Under these conditions, the nucleus accumbens was in the area of partial ischemia. Morphometric study of nucleus accumbens was performed in three groups of rats (4 animals in each group) after ligation of both common carotid arteries, after a sham operation and in healthy animals. Astrocytes were demonstrated in serial sections using the reaction to glial fibrillary acidic protein counterstained with hematoxylin. 7 days after the surgery, in each animal the number of astrocytes was counted in the sections in 7 successiive squares of 0.01 mm2 each, the distance between their bodies and the capillary wall was measured within the circle of 20 μm radius, the cell body area and the length of their main processes were determined. It is found that astrocytes in the nucleus accumbens in the model of bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 7 days experienced a partial state of ischemia. Their reactive changes were manifested by the signs of the cytotoxic edema, damaging intermediate filament proteins in their bodies, processes and in the perivascular glial membranes. The concentration of the astrocyte cell bodies near blood capillaries is the adaptation mechanism and is a condition for the survival of cells under the restriction of blood flow in the brain.