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- Mitochondrial oxidative energy metabolism in guanethidine-induced sympathectomized ducklings. [Journal Article]
- Gen Physiol Biophys 2014 Mar; 33(1):91-7.
Here we investigate the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in the respiratory properties of intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial populations from heart and gastrocnemius muscles. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was assessed polarographically by using succinate (plus rotenone), and ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenyl-enediamine (plus antimycin) as respiratory substrates. We report that chronic chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine (150 mg/kg, daily for 3 weeks) induced a marked decrease in whole body metabolic and heart rates, in plasma metabolites (fatty acids and glucose) and norepinephrine levels. Guanethidine treatment decreased mainly the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of subsarcolemmal mitochondria in heart, irrespective of the substrate used. In contrast, both mitochondrial populations were affected by the treatment in skeletal muscle. This suggests that sympathetic nervous system activity can alter the energetic status of muscle cells, and to some extent play a thermogenic role in birds.
- Cholinergic neuromuscular transmission mediated by interstitial cells of Cajal in the myenteric layer in mouse ileal longitudinal smooth muscles. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2014 Apr; 387(4):377-88.
To elucidate the roles played by the interstitial cells of Cajal in the myenteric layer (ICC-MY) in cholinergic neuromuscular transmission, we recorded mechanical and electrical activities in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) of the ileal longitudinal muscle strips from WBB6F1-W/W(V) (W/W(V)) mutant mice, that lacked ICC-MY and compared with those in WBB6F1-+/+ (+/+) control mice. In +/+ muscle strips, EFS induced phasic contractions, which were abolished or strongly attenuated by atropine or tetrodotoxin. In W/W(V) preparations, EFS induced similar phasic contractions, but the cholinergic component was smaller than that in +/+ strips. This was despite of the fact that the contractions because of exogenous applications of carbachol and high K(+) solution in W/W(V) strips were comparable to or rather greater than those in the +/+ preparations. EFS induced atropine-sensitive excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) in the +/+ longitudinal smooth muscle cells but not in W/W(V) cells. In the presence of eserine, EFS induced atropine-sensitive EJPs in W/W(V) cells. These results suggest that ICC-MY mediate the cholinergic neuromuscular transmission in mouse ileal longitudinal smooth muscles. In addition, the other pathway in which ICC-MY are not involved can operate concomitantly.
- Chemical renal denervation in the rat. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2014 Feb; 37(1):218-23.
The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery.Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose-response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10(-5) M through 10(-2) M paclitaxel.We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.
- Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Braz J Med Biol Res 2013 Sep; 46(9):735-8.
Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg-1·day-1, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean ± SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7 ± 1.6 vs 47.1 ± 2.3%) and of At (33.2 ± 2.3 vs 54.7 ± 3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1 ± 3.2 vs 67.2 ± 3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean ± SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1 ± 1.7 vs 46.9 ± 2.7%) and At (30.5 ± 1.7 vs 49 ± 3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4 ± 2.6 vs 59.5 ± 3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives.
- Tetrodotoxin-dependent effects of menthol on mouse gastric motor function. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Oct 15; 718(1-3):131-7.
Menthol, the main active constituent of peppermint oil, exerts gut spasmolytic effects, although its mechanism of action remains unclear. We investigated the effects of menthol on gastric emptying and spontaneous- or evoked- mechanical activity of whole murine stomach. Gastric emptying was calculated after i.p. administration of menthol (50mg/Kg). Responses induced by menthol on gastric intraluminal pressure and evoked-cholinergic contractions were analyzed in vitro. Menthol decreased the gastric emptying rate. In vitro, menthol (0.3-30 mM) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of whole stomach, that was significantly reduced by tetrodotoxin or ω-conotoxin GVIA. The gastric relaxant responses were not affected by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, inhibitor of nitric oxide-synthase, apamin or [Lys1,Pro2,5,Arg3,4,Tyr6] vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)(7-28), a VIP receptor antagonist, but they were significantly antagonized by atropine or guanethidine, a blocker of adrenergic neurotransmission. The joint application of atropine and guanethidine did not produce any additive effects on menthol effects. Phentolamine, an α-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, significantly reduced menthol responses and the contemporary administration of both adrenergic antagonists did not produce additive effects. Menthol (1-100 μM) produced a reduction of the electrically-evoked cholinergic contractions, which was prevented by guanethidine. Menthol did not affect the contractions induced by carbachol. In conclusion, menthol in mouse, is able to reduce the rate of gastric emptying and to relax the stomach in vitro. The latter effect appears due, almost in part, to neural mechanisms, with involvement of α-adrenoceptors leading to reduction of tonic ongoing release of acetylcholine.
- Properties of submucosal venules in the rat distal colon. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Br J Pharmacol 2013 Nov; 170(5):968-77.
Venules within the gut wall may have intrinsic mechanisms for maintaining the circulation even upon the intestinal wall distension. We aimed to explore spontaneous and nerve-mediated contractile activity of colonic venules.Changes in the diameter of submucosal venules of the rat distal colon were measured using video microscopy. The innervation of the microvasculature was investigated using fluorescence immunohistochemistry.Submucosal venules exhibited spontaneous constrictions that were abolished by blockers of L-type Ca(2+) channels (1 μM nicardipine), Ca(2+)-ATPase (10 μM cyclopiazonic acid), IP3 receptor (100 μM 2-APB), Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (100 μM DIDS) or store-operated Ca(2+) entry channels (10 μM SKF96365). Transmural nerve stimulation (TNS at 10 Hz) induced a phasic venular constriction that was blocked by phentolamine (1 μM, α-adrenoceptor antagonist) or sympathetic nerve depletion using guanethidine (10 μM). Stimulation of primary afferent nerves with TNS (at 20 Hz) or capsaicin (100 nM) evoked a sustained venular dilatation that was attenuated by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) 8-37 (2 μM), a CGRP receptor antagonist. Immunohistochemistry revealed sympathetic and primary afferent nerves running along submucosal venules.Submucosal venules of the rat distal colon exhibit spontaneous constrictions that appear to primarily rely on Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and subsequent opening of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels that trigger Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels. Venular contractility is modulated by sympathetic as well as CGRP-containing primary afferent nerves, suggesting that submucosal venules may play an active role in regulating the microcirculation of the digestive tract.
- Glycogen shortage during fasting triggers liver-brain-adipose neurocircuitry to facilitate fat utilization. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Nat Commun 2013.:2316.
During fasting, animals maintain their energy balance by shifting their energy source from carbohydrates to triglycerides. However, the trigger for this switch has not yet been entirely elucidated. Here we show that a selective hepatic vagotomy slows the speed of fat consumption by attenuating sympathetic nerve-mediated lipolysis in adipose tissue. Hepatic glycogen pre-loading by the adenoviral overexpression of glycogen synthase or the transcription factor TFE3 abolished this liver-brain-adipose axis activation. Moreover, the blockade of glycogenolysis [corrected] through the knockdown of the glycogen phosphorylase gene and the resulting elevation in the glycogen content abolished the lipolytic signal from the liver, indicating that glycogen is the key to triggering this neurocircuitry. These results demonstrate that liver glycogen shortage activates a liver-brain-adipose neural axis that has an important role in switching the fuel source from glycogen to triglycerides under prolonged fasting conditions.
- Diffused and sustained inhibitory effects of intestinal electrical stimulation on intestinal motility mediated via sympathetic pathway. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Neuromodulation 2014 Jun; 17(4):373-79; discussion 380.
The aims were to investigate the energy-dose response effect of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on small bowel motility, to compare the effect of forward and backward IES, and to explore the possibility of using intermittent IES and mechanism of IES on intestinal motility.Five dogs implanted with a duodenal cannula and one pair of intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in five sessions: 1) energy-dose response study; 2) forward IES; 3) backward IES; 4) intermittent IES vs. continuous IES; 5) administration of guanethidine. The contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine were recorded. The duration of sustained effect after turning off IES was manually calculated.1) IES with long pulse energy dose dependently inhibited contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine (p < 0.001). 2) The duration of sustained inhibitory effect of IES on the small intestine depended on the energy of IES delivered (p < 0.001). 3) The potency of the inhibitory effect was the same between forward and backward IES. 4) The efficacy of intermittent IES was the same as continuous IES in inhibiting motility of the small intestine. 5) Guanethidine blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility.IES with long pulses inhibits small intestinal motility; the effect is energy-dose dependent, diffused, and sustained. Intermittent IES has the same efficacy as the continuous IES in inhibiting small intestinal motility. Forward and backward IES have similar inhibitory effects on small bowel motility. This IES-induced inhibitory effect is mediated via the sympathetic pathway.
- Acute and chronic effects of desvenlafaxine on gastrointestinal transit and motility in dogs. [Journal Article]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 Oct; 25(10):824-e637.
Antidepressants are commonly used for treating functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. However, little is known whether antidepressants improve or impair GI motility. This study aimed at exploring possible effects of a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS), on GI motility in dogs.Eight dogs chronically implanted with a duodenal cannula and a colon cannula were used in the study. Experiments were performed to assess the effects of a single dose of DVS (50 or 100 mg) and DVS given 50 mg once a day for 2 weeks on gastric emptying of solid, small intestinal transit, and colon transit and contractions.(1) DVS significantly delayed gastric emptying of solid at a single dose of 50 or 100 mg. The inhibitory effect on gastric emptying was completely blocked by guanethidine (an adrenergic blocking agent). (2) DVS at a single dose of 50 or 100 mg accelerated colon transit, but showed no effects on small bowel transit. (3) DVS at a single dose of 50 mg enhanced colon contractions and guanethidine blocked the effect. (4) Surprisingly, DVS given at 50 mg once daily for 2 weeks did not alter gastric emptying, small bowel transit or colon transit.Acute DVS delays gastric emptying of solid and enhances the contractions of the colon, which may be mediated via the sympathetic mechanism. Acute DVS promotes the transit of the colon but not the small intestine. However, chronic administration of DVS does not seem to alter GI motility.
- Physiological regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in rat cardiovascular tissues by sympathetic nervous system and angiotensin II. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Gen Physiol Biophys 2013 Dec; 32(4):569-75.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines regulation by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and angiotensin II (ANG II) was widely described in cardiovascular system, but the role of such neuro-humoral interaction needs further investigation in this context. We tested SNS-ANG II interaction on IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in left ventricle and aorta from normotensive rats by sympathectomy with guanethidine and blockade of the ANG II AT1 receptors (AT1R) antagonist with losartan. mRNA synthesis of IL-6 and TNF-α were performed by Q-RT-PCR. In the left ventricle, IL-6 mRNA increased by 63% (p < 0.01) after sympathectomy, still unchanged after losartan treatment and decreased by 38% (p < 0.05) after combined treatment. TNF-α mRNA decreased by 44% (p < 0.01), only after combined treatment. In the aorta, IL-6 mRNA increased equally by 65% (p < 0.05) after sympathectomy or losartan treatment. TNF-α mRNA decreased by 28, 41, and 42% (p < 0.05) after sympathectomy, losartan and combined treatments, respectively. Our data suggest that ANG II stimulates directly (via AT1R) and indirectly (via SNS) IL-6 mRNA synthesis in left ventricle and aorta and TNF-α mRNA in left ventricle. ANG II seems unable to influence directly TNF-α mRNA synthesis in the aorta but can stimulate this cytokine via SNS. The results are relevant to prevent or reduce proinflammatory cytokines overexpression seen in cardiovascular diseases.