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- Deletion of mesenchymal glucocorticoid receptor attenuates embryonic lung development and abdominal wall closure. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e63578.
As a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for normal embryonic development. To date, the role of mesenchymal glucocorticoid signaling during development has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of the GR during embryogenesis specifically in mesenchymal tissues. To this aim, we crossed GRflox mice with Dermo1-Cre mice to generate GR(Dermo1) mice, where the GR gene was deleted within mesenchymal cells. Compared to their wild type littermates, GR(Dermo1) mice displayed severe pulmonary atelectasis, defects in abdominal wall formation resulting in intestinal herniation, abnormal extracellular matrix synthesis in connective tissues and high postnatal lethality. Lungs of GR(Dermo1) mice failed to progress from the canalicular to saccular stage, as evidenced by the presence of immature air sacs, thickened interstitial mesenchyme and an underdeveloped vascular network between E17.5 and E18.5. Furthermore, myofibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells, although present in normal numbers in GR(Dermo1) animals, were characterized by significantly reduced elastin synthesis, whilst epithelial lining cells of the immature saccules were poorly differentiated. A marked reduction in normal elastin and collagen deposits were also observed in connective tissues adjacent to the umbilical hernia. This study demonstrates that eliminating the GR in cells of the mesenchymal lineage results in marked effects on interstitial fibroblast function, including a significant decrease in elastin synthesis. This results in lung atelectasis and postnatal lethality, as well as additional and hitherto unrecognized developmental defects in abdominal wall formation. In addition, altered glucocorticoid signaling in the mesenchyme attenuates normal lung epithelial differentiation.
- Prenatal diagnosis of two fetuses with deletions of 8p23.1, critical region for congenital diaphragmatic hernia and heart defects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Med Genet A 2013 May 21.
Microdeletions of 8p23.1 are mediated by low copy repeats and can cause congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and cardiac defects. Within this region, point mutations of the GATA4 gene have been shown to cause cardiac defects. However, the cause of CDH in these deletions has been difficult to determine due to the paucity of mutations that result in CDH, the lack of smaller deletions to refine the region and the reduced penetrance of CDH in these large deletions. Mice deficient for one copy of the Gata4 gene have been described with CDH and heart defects suggesting mutations in Gata4 can cause the phenotype in mice. We report on the SNP microarray analysis on two fetuses with deletions of 8p23.1. The first had CDH and a ventricular septal defect (VSD) on ultrasonography and a family history of a maternal VSD. Microarray analysis detected a 127-kb deletion which included the GATA4 and NEIL2 genes which was inherited from the mother. The second fetus had an incomplete atrioventricular canal defect on ultrasonography. Microarray analysis showed a 315-kb deletion that included seven genes, GATA4, NEIL2, FDFT1, CTSB, DEFB136, DEFB135, and DEFB134. These results suggest that haploinsufficiency of the two genes in common within 8p23.1; GATA4 and NEIL2 can cause CDH and cardiac defects in humans. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Preferential Streaming of the Ductus Venosus Toward the Right Atrium Is Associated With a Worse Outcome Despite a Higher Rate of Invasive Procedures in Human Fetuses With Left Diaphragmatic Hernia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ultraschall Med 2013 May 21.
Purpose:Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus (DV) toward the right atrium has been observed in fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia (LDH). The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates to discharge between a group with preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart and a group in which this abnormal flow pattern was not present.Materials and
Methods:We retrospectively searched our patient records for fetuses with LDH in whom liver position, DV streaming and postnatal outcome information was available. 55 cases were found and divided into two groups: Group I fetuses exhibited abnormal DV streaming toward the right side of the heart; group II fetuses did not. Various prognostic and outcome parameters were compared.
Results:62 % of group I fetuses and 88 % of group II fetuses survived to discharge (p = 0.032). Fetoscopic tracheal balloon occlusion (FETO) was performed in 66 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II fetuses (p = 0.003). Postnatal ECMO therapy was performed in 55 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II infants (p = 0.025). Moderate to severe chronic lung disease in survivors was observed in 56 % of the survivors of group I and 9 % of the survivors of group II (p = 0.002).
Conclusion:Preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart in human fetuses with left-sided diaphragmatic hernia was associated with a poorer postnatal outcome despite a higher rate of invasive pre- and postnatal procedures compared to fetuses without this flow abnormality. Specifically, abnormal DV streaming was found to be an independent predictor for FETO.
- Should we be wary of hernia mesh devices with reinforcement? : Invited Comment to: - The ONSTEP inguinal hernia repair technique: initial clinical experience of 693 patients, in two institutions. Lourenço A, Soares da Costa R. HERN 10.1007/s10029-013-1057-z. - Open preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair using a mesh with nitinol memory frame. Berrevoet F, Vanlander A, Bontinck J, Troisi RI. HERN 10.1007/s10029-013-1110-y. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hernia 2013 May 23.
- Reoperation after lumbar disc surgery in two hundred and seven patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Orthop 2013 May 22.
PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to compare the causes and characteristics of reoperations after different primary operations for lumbar disc herniation (LDH).
METHODS:Out of a series of 5,280 patients who underwent operations for LDH between 2001 and 2012, 207 patients (135 male and 72 female, mean age 47.7 years) underwent primary and revision operations, which were included in this study. The following clinical parameters were retrospectively assessed: the primary surgical methods, the intervals between primary and revision operations, and surgical findings in the revisions.
RESULTS:In total, 232 lumbar discs underwent reoperations. One hundred and nineteen reoperations were performed after microendoscopic discectomy (MED group), 68 after percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD group) and 45 after open disc surgery (open group). The locations of revision operations had priority over those of primary surgery, with a moderate correlation (kappa coefficient = 0.533). A total of 46.6 % of reoperations were performed within 0.5 years after primary surgery, and 35.3 % were performed between one and five years. Real recurrent herniation (homolateral herniations at the same level) was significantly more common than other reoperative surgical findings (70.6 % in PELD group, 47.1 % in MED group, 37.8 % in open group). The overall mean interval until revision surgery was 18.9 months (8.1 months in the PELD group vs. 19.7 months in the MED group vs. 33.1 months in the open group, p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS:For LDH, real recurrent herniation was the most common cause of reoperations, and more reoperations for real recurrent herniations and shorter intervals were found after minimally invasive endoscopic discectomy than after open disc surgery.
- Early awareness of cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia after craniotomy for microsurgical aneurysmal clipping. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2013 May 22.
BACKGROUND:Mild cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is a well-known clinical entity, but critical CSF hypovolemia that can cause transtentorial herniation is an unusual and rare clinical entity that occurs after craniotomy. We investigated CSF hypovolemia after microsurgical aneurysmal clipping for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
METHOD:This study included 144 consecutive patients with SAH. Lumbar drainage (LD) was inserted after general anesthesia or postoperatively as a standard perioperative protocol. CSF hypovolemia diagnosis was based on three criteria.
RESULTS:Eleven patients (7.6 %) were diagnosed with CSF hypovolemia according to diagnostic criteria in a postoperative range of 0-8 days. In all patients, signs or symptoms of CSF hypovolemia improved within 24 hours by clamping LD and using the Trendelenburg position.
CONCLUSIONS:As a cause of acute clinical deterioration after aneurysmal clipping, CSF hypovolemia is likely under-recognized, and may actually be misdiagnosed as vasospasm or brain swelling. We should always take the etiology of CSF hypovolemia into consideration, and especially pay attention in patients with pneumocephalus and subdural fluid collection alongside brain sag on computed tomography. These patients are at higher risk developing of pressure gradients between their cranial and spinal compartments, and therefore, brain sagging after LD, than after ventricular drainage. We should be vigilant to strictly manage LD so as not to produce high pressure gradients.
- [Hernia surgery in urology : Part 2: Parastomal, trocar and incisional hernias - fundamentals of clinical diagnostics and treatment.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Urologe A 2013 May 23.
Hernias are a common occurrence with a correspondingly huge clinical and economic impact on the healthcare system. Parastomal and trocar hernias are rare in routine urological work. The therapy of parastomal hernias remains problematic but basically the surgeon is able to use conventional techniques with suture repair or procedures with mesh implantation. The conventional parastomal hernia repair with mesh can be classified into sublay, onlay and intraperitoneal techniques. Furthermore, a relocation of the stoma is possible. Trocar hernias represent a rare but hazardous complication. Due to the increase in keyhole surgery there is also the danger of a rise in their occurrence. Incisional hernias occur frequently in patients who have undergone laparotomy and for repair different surgical techniques and types of meshes are available. This article presents an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapy of parastomal, trocar and incisional hernias.
- Two-port access laparoscopic surgery in gynecologic oncology. [Journal Article]
- Int J Gynecol Cancer 2013 Jun; 23(5):935-42.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of 2-port access (TPA) laparoscopy in gynecologic oncology.This was a retrospective review of 81 consecutive patients who underwent TPA laparoscopic surgery for various gynecologic cancers from March 2009 to September 2011. The TPA system consisted of a single multichannel port at the umbilicus and an ancillary 5-mm port in the suprapubic area.The surgical procedures included comprehensive ovarian cancer staging (33 patients), radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (19 patients), and endometrial cancer staging (29 patients). All surgical procedures were completed laparoscopically with no conversion to laparotomy. Two cases required 1 or 2 additional ports. The mean operating time, estimated blood loss, and number of lymph nodes were 253.8 minutes, 170.7 mL, and 34.9, respectively. Three patients (9.1%) with ovarian cancer and 4 patients (13.8%) with endometrial cancer were upstaged after surgery. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.6 days, and the mean postoperative pain scores (0-10 scale) were 3.4 at 6 hours, 3.0 at 24 hours, and 2.5 at 48 hours. Postoperative complications occurred at a low incidence (4.9%) and included one umbilical hernia, one vault dehiscence, and one lumbosacral nerve injury.Two-port access laparoscopic surgery using a single multichannel port system is a feasible and safe procedure in selected patients with gynecologic cancers. Prospective randomized trials will permit the evaluation of the potential benefits of this minimally invasive surgical technique.
- Spleen rupture: an unusual postoperative complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. [Journal Article]
- Ann Ital Chir 2013 Apr.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard in the surgical treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis and other benign gallbladder diseases. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy isn't devoid by some complications such as intra and post-operative bleeding, biliary injury, bile leakage, surgical site infection, port-site hernia and visceral injury. After an extensive literature research, we find only one case study in which the patients required a splenectomy after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case of uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy requiring an open splenectomy during the postoperative course.The Authors report a case of ruptured spleen during the second post-operative day after an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. At 36 hours after the operation, the patient referred a sudden upper abdominal pain. We performed a splenectomy, intra-abdominal lavage and two drainages have been placed. The patient was discarged in the 7th post-operative day in good clinical condition.As best of our Knowledge we report the second case of spleen rupture after a cholecystectomy, which is reported in the literature. We think that the splenic injury should not be due to direct trauma after or at the time of cholecystectomy, but it should be due to some adherences stretched by the pneumoperitoneum induction. KEY WORDS: Complication,Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Laparoscopy Spleen rupture.
- Not so fast to skin graft: Transabdominal wall traction closes most "domain loss" abdomens in the acute setting. [Journal Article]
- J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2013 Jun; 74(6):1486-92.
Damage-control laparotomy (DCL) has revolutionized the surgery of injury. However, this has led to the dilemma of the nonclosable abdomen. Subsequently, there exists a subgroup of patients who after resuscitation and diuresis, remain nonclosable. Before the adoption of our open abdomen protocol (OAP) and use of transabdominal wall traction (TAWT), these patients required skin grafting and a planned ventral hernia. We hypothesize that our OAP and TAWT device, which use full abdominal wall thickness sutures to dynamically distribute midline traction, achieve an improved method of fascial reapproximation.From 2008 to 2011, all DCL and decompressive laparotomy patients in our urban trauma center were managed by our OAP. Thirty two were noncloseable "domain loss abdomens" after achieving physiologic steady state and near dry weight. All patients received the TAWT device when near dry weight was achieved. Wound size, days to closure, days to TAWT, and TAWT to closure were tracked.During this 36-month period, OAP/TAWT was applied to 32 patients. All patients demonstrated domain loss precluding fascial closure. Average wound size was 18.5-cm width by 30.5-cm length. Mean time DCL surgery to TAWT was 9.5 days. At time of placement, TAWT decreased initial wound width by an average of 9.8 cm (51.4%). Patients returned to the operating room for tightening/washout an average of 2.2 times (excluding TAWT insertion and final closure operations). Mean time TAWT to closure was 8.7 days. Mean time from admission surgery to primary closure was 18.2 days. All patients achieved primary fascial closure using this method without components separation or biologic bridge operations.OAP/TAWT has revolutionized the way we manage "domain loss" open abdomen patients and has virtually eliminated the acceptance of planned ventral hernia. TAWT consistently recaptures lost domain, preserves the leading fascial edge, and eliminates the need for biologic bridges, components separation, or skin grafting.Therapeutic study, level III.