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herpes labialis [keywords]
- Evaluation of the efficacy of low-level light therapy using 1072 nm infrared light for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Dermatol 2013 Jun 3.
BACKGROUND:Recent research has shown that low-level light therapy (LLLT) using 1072 nm infrared light is effective in reducing the duration of herpes simplex labialis (HSL) episodes and enhancing the healing process.
METHODS:This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a 1072 nm light-emitting diode device for the treatment of HSL. In total, 87 patients with recurrent HSL were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. Subjects received a 3-min treatment with either 1072 nm infrared light therapy or placebo (sham) light therapy three times/day for 2 days. The devices used for both groups were identical in appearance and could not be differentiated by volunteers or researchers, and 1072 nm light is invisible to the human eye. The primary endpoint was healing time, which was taken as the time for the HSL lesions to resolve fully and for the underlying skin to become completely re-epithelialized, and the secondary endpoint was lesion crusting.
RESULTS:The median time to healing for the active group was 129 h, compared with 177 h for the control group, which was significant (P = 0.01). There was no difference between the two groups for median time to lesion crusting (P = 0.66).
CONCLUSIONS:Compared with placebo treatment, the treatment of HSL lesions with 1072 nm infrared light significantly reduced healing time.
- Erythema multiforme associated with herpes labialis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- CMAJ 2013 Apr 22.
- Herpes simplex virus reactivation and dental procedures. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Oral Investig 2013 Apr 21.
OBJECTIVES:Dental extraction is reported to trigger recurrent herpes labialis (RHL).
AIM:This aims to prospectively study the clinical occurrence of RHL and the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) viral shedding before and 3 days after different dental procedures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:Oral HSV-1 DNA was measured by real-time PCR before and 3 days after dental procedures of the inferior dentition in 57 immunocompetent patients (mean age 32.4 years) who were selected and divided into four distinct subgroups (dental inspection without anesthesia, n = 19; dental filling under local anesthesia, n = 14; molar extraction under local anesthesia, n = 15; and molar extraction under general anesthesia, n = 9) and compared to 32 healthy controls (mean age 33 years).
RESULTS:None of the patients suffered from RHL at day 3. Oral HSV-1 DNA was detected before and after procedure in 1.7 % (1/57) and 5.3 % (3/57), respectively [dental inspection without anesthesia, 5.3 % (1/19); molar extraction under local anesthesia, 6.7 % (1/15); and molar extraction under general anesthesia, 11 % (1/9)]. None of the controls presented RHL or detectable oral HSV-1 DNA. There was no statistically significant difference between the study groups and controls.
CONCLUSION:Molar extraction increases the risk of oral HSV-1 shedding but not of RHL. Procedure-related nerve damage probably accounts for HSV reactivation.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Antiviral prophylaxis for RHL is not routinely recommended for dental procedures, regardless of a prior history of RHL.
- Recent developments in anti-herpesvirus drugs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br Med Bull 2013 Apr 17.
BackgroundHerpesviruses notably establish lifelong infections, with latency and reactivation. Many of the known human herpesviruses infect large proportions of the population worldwide. Treatment or prevention of herpes infections and recurrent disease still pose a challenge in the 21st century.Sources of dataOriginal papers and review articles, meeting abstracts, a book (Clinical Virology; DD Richman, RJ Whitley & FG Hayden eds) and company web sites.Areas of agreementFor herpes simplex types 1 and 2 and for varicella zoster, acyclovir (ACV; now increasingly replaced by its prodrug valacyclovir, VACV) and famciclovir (FCV) have greatly reduced the burden of disease and have established a remarkable safety record. Drug-resistance, in the otherwise healthy population, has remained below 0.5% after more that 20 years of antiviral use. In immunocompromised patients, drug resistance is more common and alternative drugs with good safety profiles are desirable. For human cytomegalovirus disease, which occurs in immunocompromised patients, ganciclovir and increasingly its prodrug valganciclovir are the drugs of choice. However, alternative drugs, with better safety, are much needed.Areas of controversyVarious questions are highlighted. Should the new 1-day therapies for recurrent herpes labialis and genital herpes replace the current standard multi-day therapies? The marked differences between VACV and FCV (e.g. triphosphate stability, effect on latency) may not yet be fully exploited? Do current antivirals reduce post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN)? For immunocompromised patients with varicella zoster virus (VZV) disease, should the first-line treatment be FCV, not ACV or VACV? Should there be more support to explore new avenues for current antivirals, for example in possibly reducing herpes latency or Alzheimer's disease (AD)? Should primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease in adolescents be treated with antivirals? How can new compounds be progressed when the perceived market need is small but the medical need is great. FCV was reclassified from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled for herpes labialis in New Zealand in 2010; should this be repeated more widely?This article reviews new drugs in clinical trials and highlights some of the problems hindering their progress.
- Laser treatment of recurrent herpes labialis: a literature review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lasers Med Sci 2013 Apr 13.
Recurrent herpes labialis is a worldwide life-long oral health problem that remains unsolved. It affects approximately one third of the world population and causes frequent pain and discomfort episodes, as well as social restriction due to its compromise of esthetic features. In addition, the available antiviral drugs have not been successful in completely eliminating the virus and its recurrence. Currently, different kinds of laser treatment and different protocols have been proposed for the management of recurrent herpes labialis. Therefore, the aim of the present article was to review the literature regarding the effects of laser irradiation on recurrent herpes labialis and to identify the indications and most successful clinical protocols. The literature was searched with the aim of identifying the effects on healing time, pain relief, duration of viral shedding, viral inactivation, and interval of recurrence. According to the literature, none of the laser treatment modalities is able to completely eliminate the virus and its recurrence. However, laser phototherapy appears to strongly decrease pain and the interval of recurrences without causing any side effects. Photodynamic therapy can be helpful in reducing viral titer in the vesicle phase, and high-power lasers may be useful to drain vesicles. The main advantages of the laser treatment appear to be the absence of side effects and drug interactions, which are especially helpful for older and immunocompromised patients. Although these results indicate a potential beneficial use for lasers in the management of recurrent herpes labialis, they are based on limited published clinical trials and case reports. The literature still lacks double-blind controlled clinical trials verifying these effects and such trials should be the focus of future research.
- Therapeutic low-intensity red laser for herpes labialis on plasmid survival and bacterial transformation. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Photochem Photobiol Sci 2013 May; 12(5):930-5.
A low-intensity laser is used in treating herpes labialis based on the biostimulative effect, albeit the photobiological basis is not well understood. In this work experimental models based on Escherichia coli cultures and plasmids were used to evaluate effects of low-intensity red laser on DNA at fluences for treatment of herpes labialis. To this end, survival and transformation efficiency of plasmids in E. coli AB1157 (wild type), BH20 (fpg/mutM(-)) and BW9091 (xthA(-)), content of the supercoiled form of plasmid DNA, as well as nucleic acids and protein content from bacterial cultures exposed to the laser, were evaluated. The data indicate low-intensity red laser: (i) alters the survival of plasmids in wild type, fpg/mutM(-) and xthA(-)E. coli cultures depending of growth phase, (ii) alters the content of the supercoiled form of plasmids in the wild type and fpg/mutM(-)E. coli cells, (iii) alters the content of nucleic acids and proteins in wild type E. coli cells, (iv) alters the transformation efficiency of plasmids in wild type and fpg/mutM(-)E. coli competent cells. These data could be used to understand positive effects of low-intensity lasers on herpes labialis treatment.
- There is modest evidence that systemic acyclovir or valacyclovir prevents recurrent herpes labialis. [Comment, Journal Article]
- J Evid Based Dent Pract 2013 Mar; 13(1):16-7.
- Detection of serum IgA to HSV1 and its diagnostic role in sudden hearing loss. [Journal Article]
- New Microbiol 2013 Jan; 36(1):41-7.
A viral etiology of sudden hearing loss has been hypothesized by many authors. HSV1 neurotropism and its involvement in sudden hearing loss has implicated HSV1 as one of the most accredited etiological agents. A non-invasive method such as the titration of HSV1-specific IgA was evaluated to determine the role of HSV1 as a possible cause sudden hearing loss. A prospective study was carried out by titration of serum IgA to HSV1 in 93 patients and in a control group of 50 healthy subjects and 35 subjects suffering from recent herpes labialis reactivation. Statistical analysis of the results disclosed that IgA titers to HSV1 higher than 1:80 are suggestive for the association of HSV1 infection and sudden hearing loss. Moreover, acyclovir therapy was effective in 81% of patients who showed high specific IgA titers. Overall, the titration of specific serum IgA to HSV1 can be a useful tool to determine the viral etiology of certain cases of sudden hearing loss. This method is simple to perform and minimally invasive. It can lead to a rapid presumptive diagnosis and to prompt specific therapy, reducing the need for corticosteroids.
- An unusual presentation of herpes infection in the head and neck. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is among a spectrum of viruses known to affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Gingivostomatitis and pharyngitis are the most common clinical manifestations of first-episode HSV infection, whereas recurrent herpes labialis is the most common clinical manifestation of reactivation HSV infection. Herpetic viral infections seldom attack the larynx. Laryngeal disorders provoked by the herpes virus are characterised by a large spectrum of presentations and polymorphisms, and can simulate mucous lesions such as an extensive laryngeal neoplasm (supraglottic tumour). We report a case of a 69-year-old woman, smoker, who presented with a large ulcerated supraglottic mass mimicking laryngeal cancer, requiring emergency tracheostomy for worsening stridor, which turned out to be an HSV laryngitis superimposed onto an underlying Streptococcus A lower respiratory tract infection. The patient was treated for Streptococcus A infection and her symptoms resolved following treatment. Patient's tracheotomy tube was removed on follow-up appointment.
- Recurrent oral herpes: diagnosis & management. [Journal Article]
- J N J Dent Assoc 2012; 83(4):24-6.