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hidebound disease [keywords]
- Unusual presentation of progressive systemic sclerosis. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Mymensingh Med J 2008 Jul; 17(2):192-6.
A female 38 years old, housewife, presented to the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) on 08.04.07 with the complaints of i) pain and reduced movement of hand, knee, shoulder and neck joints for 1 year and 9 months ii) tightness of skin over face, neck, limbs and trunk for 1 year and 6 months iii) patchy depigmentation over same areas for 1 year and 3 months iv) deformity of hands with flexion contractures for 6 months and v) dysphagia to solid food for 3 months. She had no complaints of Raynaud's phenomenon. On general examination, she was ill looking, anemic and nutritionally poor. Examination of integumentary system showed smooth, shiny, thick, hard and hidebound skin with pigmentary alteration of 'salt and pepper' appearance over fingers, hands, limbs, face, neck and trunk. Hands appear claw like but more on the right side than the left and there were no other obvious changes suggestive of digital ischaemia (atrophy, ulceration, scarring, gangrene etc). Face has got suggestive features of scleroderma. Examination of the respiratory system showed restriction of chest movement and reduced expansibility of chest wall. No other abnormality was found on examination of other systems. Laboratory investigations showed histopathology typical of scleroderma. X-ray of hands and feet showed suggestive changes, lung function test-showed restrictive lung disease. Barium swallow x-ray of esophagus in supine position showed mild dilation of lower oesophagus. But serology was non-reactive (negative ANA, Negative RA test, Negative VDRL). So, she was diagnosed as a case of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) with some atypicality.
- [When thinking to scleroderma?]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Med Brux 2007 Sep; 28(4):285-9.
Scleroderma encompasses an heterogeneous group of autoimmune disorders characterized by an hidebound thickened skin involvement. When the changes are limited to the skin, localized scleroderma is suspected. Although the latter is most often a benign disease, it may be exceptionally associated with involvement of multiple organs, mainly the neurological system. At the opposite, systemic sclerosis is a serious disorder associated with high morbidity and even mortality and defined by an extended skin sclerosis, multiple organ involvement and general symptoms. Raynaud phenomena is nearly always present at the beginning of the disease. Identifying initial manifestations of the disease (Raynaud phenomena, diffuse non pitting edema, symmetrical polyarthritis with tendon friction rubs, dysphagia associated with mucosal telangiectasia) may allow the clinician to rapidly transfer the patient to a specialized reference center in order to organize a multidisciplinary approach and to prompt optimum therapy.
- A single-center pilot validation study of a new chronic GVHD skin scoring system. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Validation Studies]
- Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2007 Jun; 13(6):715-23.
The use of a quantifiable and reproducible measurement tool for skin manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is key for the successful assessment and documentation of therapeutic response. Skin scoring methods for use in clinical trials have not been validated for application in patients suffering from cGVHD. For this purpose we performed a prospective single-center pilot study to validate a skin-scoring tool developed at our institution for evaluating cutaneous involvement of cGVHD approximately 10 years ago. It combines percentage of involved body surface area (BSA) divided into 10 separate anatomic regions with manifestations of cGVHD coded from 0 (normal skin) to 4 (hidebound skin, unmovable sclerosis). Sixteen patients were examined separately by 4 trained physicians 3 times on 2 consecutive days for a total of 192 individual skin assessments; intraobserver and interobserver reliability were calculated. Good to excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were obtained in almost all scores including erythematous lesions in areas with scores 3 and 4 for all observers. Moderate to good interrater reliability for observers 1 to 4 was seen in lesions with scores 0, 3, and 4, respectively. A marked improvement of interrater reliability in all scores and examinations was observed when ICCs were calculated only for the more experienced observers 1 to 3. This New Chronic GVHD Skin score is a reproducible, accurate, feasible, and inexpensive tool for use in selected clinical trials of chronic cutaneous GVHD. Further studies with larger patient numbers and validation of this new tool for assessment of treatment response are warranted.
- In vivo study of skin mechanical properties in patients with systemic sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Dermatol 1999 Mar; 40(3):436-42.
Measurements of skin elasticity are more sensitive than the skin severity score and appropriate for evaluation of sclerodermatous skin.Our purpose was to investigate the mechanical properties of the skin in patients with systemic sclerosis depending on the stage of the disease.Seventeen patients, 8 with edematous phase and 9 with indurative phase of skin involvement, and 16 healthy subjects were studied. Clinical scoring of skin thickness and measurements of skin elasticity with a noninvasive suction device (Cutometer) were performed over 11 anatomic regions.Edematous phase was characterized by significantly lower immediate distention (Ue) and final distention (Uf), and higher viscoelastic to elastic ratio (Uv/Ue) of the skin compared with indurative phase, except for the forehead (8 mm probe). The changes in skin mechanical parameters for fingers were identical in both phases. Low values of skin distensibility correlated with severe skin thickness or hidebound skin. Results were influenced by body site and by the diameter of measuring probe used.The noninvasive method applied is suitable for objective and quantitative monitoring of skin involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.
- A multicenter trial of recombinant human interferon gamma in patients with systemic sclerosis: effects on cutaneous fibrosis and interleukin 2 receptor levels. [Clinical Trial, Comparative Study, Controlled Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Rheumatol 1996 Apr; 23(4):654-8.
To evaluate the acute toxicity, potential efficacy, and effects on the soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) of recombinant human interferon gamma (rIFN-gamma) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).A multicentered, pilot clinical trial of rIFN-gamma was performed on 20 patients (15 women, 5 men, mean age 45 years) with active cutaneous SSc (mean disease duration 36 months) to evaluate it potential as a novel therapy for this untreatable disorder. After one week of rIFN-gamma 0.01 mg/m2/day, subjects self-administered rIFN-gamma 0.1 mg/m2/day intramuscularly for a total of 18 weeks. The major outcome variable was a modified skin score (0 = normal skin, 3 = hidebound skin) measured and summed from 15 anatomic areas of the body. sIL-2R levels were measured by ELISA at entry and exit from the study.The clinical results were modest at best. Nine of 20 patients achieved at least a 20% reduction in skin score, with one patient showing almost total remission of all skin abnormalities. The mean skin score at entry for all subjects was 22.8 +/- 8.9 and over the course of the trial improved marginally compared to baseline (mean change -4.72 +/- 6.62; p = 0.008). However, 8 subjects did not change appreciably while in the trial. Antibodies to Scl-70 were observed in only 5 patients (all with diffuse scleroderma) and were not associated with either response to or complications from therapy. The adverse reactions were frequent and occasionally severe. Ten subjects were withdrawn because of exacerbation of Raynaud's symptoms (n = 5), constitutional symptoms (n = 2), development of renal crises (n = 2), and mild pancytopenia (n = 1). Minor laboratory abnormalities were common and included elevation of cholesterol, triglycerides, hepatic transaminases, and reduction in white blood cell count. Compared to controls, mean sIL-2R was markedly elevated at entry (1309 +/- 495 U/ml; p = 0.0001) and did not change appreciably at exit. Spearman correlation analysis showed a trend but no statistically significant association of skin score with sIL-2R (R = 0.408; p = 0.074). However, sIL-2R was significantly correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (R = 0.542; p = 0.0165). A subset analysis revealed that skin score (p = 0.0001) and sIL-2R (p = 0.00170) were significantly higher at baseline for patients with diffuse scleroderma compared to patients with limited disease.rIFN-gamma may be beneficial for some patients with SSc, but the benefit appears marginal for most individuals and the side effects frequent. Although sIL-2R was elevated in many of the patients with SSc, it did not appear to be correlated with activity of cutaneous disease or response to therapy.
- Treatment of systemic sclerosis with recombinant interferon-gamma. A phase I/II clinical trial. [Clinical Trial, Clinical Trial, Phase I, Clinical Trial, Phase II, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Arthritis Rheum 1992 Oct; 35(10):1134-42.
A phase I/II trial to examine the safety and efficacy of interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) therapy for patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).An 18-week open-label study was performed. Eighteen patients with rapidly progressive SSc were enrolled, 14 of whom completed at least 16 weeks of the study. These 14 patients had a mean age of 40 years and had been diagnosed as having SSc an average of 10.1 months prior to study entry. Recombinant IFN gamma was injected intramuscularly 3 times weekly for 18 weeks. Six patients received a 0.1 mg/m2 dose, while 8 patients received a 0.5 mg/m2 dose. Patients who completed the 18-week trial were offered maintenance therapy at a dose of up to 0.5 mg/m2. The effects of IFN gamma on skin involvement were assessed by 2 methods: 1) evaluation of skin thickness, by scoring 15 zones according to a 0 (normal skin) to 3 (hidebound skin) scale; and 2) determination of the total body surface area involved, by using 2-dimensional body diagrams to indicate areas affected, and then having a second, "blinded," assessor calculate the area score with a planimeter.The mean skin thickness score decreased from a baseline of 25.9 to 19.1 (P < 0.03), and the mean area scores declined from 33.1 to 19.6 (P < 0.02) after 18 weeks of IFN gamma treatment. Ten patients had a > 25% decrease in area score. Five patients had a > or = 70% decrease in area score, and 3 of them have not experienced disease recurrence for 6 to 17 months after discontinuation of IFN gamma. Five patients withdrew before the study ended. Three of these patients developed renal crisis, which may reflect the severity of the SSc in the study group, although an adverse effect of IFN gamma in SSc cannot be excluded.IFN gamma was associated with a beneficial effect on the skin involvement in most of this series of patients with rapidly progressive SSc. A placebo-controlled study will be necessary to confirm these results.
- Extrapulmonary thoracic restriction (hidebound chest) complicating eosinophilic fasciitis. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Chest 1991 Nov; 100(5):1453-5.
Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is an unusual disorder characterized by diffuse skin thickening and induration due to inflammation within the deep fascia; visceral involvement is generally mild or absent. A patient with biopsy-proved EF developed progressive respiratory limitation. Physical examination revealed marked induration of the thoracic integument with a severely limited chest wall excursion. Total lung capacity was 62 percent of predicted with a normal corrected Dco and maximal inspiratory force; a chest computed tomogram with thin sections showed no evidence of parenchymal lung disease. Extrapulmonary thoracic restriction ("hidebound chest") has not been previously reported to complicate EF.
- The eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome and related disorders. [Editorial, Review]
- Recenti Prog Med 1991 May; 82(5):286-90.
The recognition of the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome associated with L-tryptophan in the United States during 1989 as a disorder resembling the previously described 1981 toxic oil syndrome of Spain has established an increased level of consciousness regarding drug and toxin associated diseases. Both of these disorders were characterized by the development of acute and chronic multisystem features that parallel many idiopathic connective tissue diseases. Common manifestations have included generalized myalgias, fever, transient pulmonary infiltrates, and xerostomia during the early months followed by late stage neuromuscular and cutaneous disease. The most conspicuous laboratory abnormality was a peripheral eosinophilia. One of the most striking clinical findings has been scleroderma-like skin disease manifesting as diffuse fasciitis or hidebound induration. A sensory neuropathy and proximal myopathy in association with skin thickening have established these syndromes as chronic disabling diseases for many of their victims. Mononuclear perimysial and epineurial infiltrates have been distinctive pathological findings. Although the etiology of the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome and the toxic oil syndrome are unknown, there is epidemiologic evidence to support the presence of contaminants in L-tryptophan and rapeseed oil, respectively, as the causative agents. No therapy has been demonstrated to arrest the evolution of the chronic sequelae in either disorder.
- Beta-mannosidosis in twelve Salers calves. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991 Jan 1; 198(1):109-13.
A diagnosis of beta-mannosidosis, a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of beta-mannosidase, was made in 12 purebred Salers calves. Affected neonatal calves were unable to rise and had intention tremors, hidebound skin, slightly domed calvaria, slight prognathism, and narrow palpebral fissures. Postmortem findings included variable dilatation of the lateral cerebral ventricles, marked pallor and paucity of white matter of the cerebrum and cerebellum, and mild to marked bilateral renomegaly. Microscopic lesions consisted of clear, intracytoplasmic vacuoles, which were especially prominent in neurons, thyroid follicular cells, proximal renal tubular epithelium, and reticuloendothelial cells. By ultrastructural examination, the intracytoplasmic vacuoles were identified as membrane-bound lysosomes distended by lucent material. The serum of affected calves was profoundly deficient in beta-mannosidase. Oligosaccharides, principally a trisaccharide with a terminal hexose in the beta-anomeric configuration, accumulated in tissues of affected calves. The percentage (37.2) of affected calves from groups of siblings, the approximately equal sex ratio, and the phenotypic normalcy of the parents of affected calves are compatible with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance typical of other glycoproteinoses.
- Eosinophilic fasciitis. A case report and review of the literature. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Cutis 1981 Sep; 28(3):268, 271-3.
Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a newly appreciated disease whose hallmarks are local areas of hidebound and puckered skin with peripheral eosinophilia. It looks similar to progressive systemic sclerosis and morphea but often lacks positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and Raynaud's phenomenon. Contractures over joints may develop; several cases of coincident aplastic anemia have been reported. Deep skin biopsy of involved skin reveals lymphocytes, plasma cells and occasionally eosinophils. Unlike scleroderma, EF improves with the administration of corticosteroids.