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hydrophobic tetanus [keywords]
- Liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A: A potent adjuvant system for inducing antibodies to heroin hapten analogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vaccine 2013 Apr 23.
In order to create an effective immunization approach for a potential vaccine to heroin, liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A [L(MPLA)] were tested as an adjuvant system to induce antibodies to heroin hapten analogs. Four synthetic haptens and two immunization strategies were employed. In the first strategy, a hydrophobic 23 amino acid immunogenic peptide derived from the membrane proximal external region of gp41 from HIV-1 envelope protein was embedded as a carrier in the outer surface of L(MPLA), to which was conjugated a 15 amino acid universal T cell epitope and a terminal heroin hapten analog. In the second strategy, tetanus toxoid (TT) carrier protein was decorated with haptens by conjugation, and the hapten-conjugated protein was mixed with L(MPLA). After immunization of mice, each of the immunization strategies was effective for induction of IgG anti-hapten antibodies. The first immunization strategy induced a mean end-point IgG titer against one of two haptens tested of approximately 12,800; however, no detectable antibodies were induced against the liposome-associated HIV-1 carrier peptide. In the second immunization strategy, depending on the hapten used for decorating the TT, end-point IgG titers ranged from 100,000 to 6,500,000. In this strategy, in which hapten was conjugated to the TT, end-point IgG titers of 400,000 to the TT carrier were observed with each conjugate. However, upon mixing unconjugated TT with L(MPLA), anti-TT titers of 6,500,000 were observed. We conclude that L(MPLA) serves as a potent adjuvant for inducing antibodies to candidate heroin haptens. However, antibodies to the carrier peptide or protein were partly or completed inhibited by the presence of conjugated hapten.
- Active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA microspheres. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Control Release 2013 Jan 10; 165(1):62-74.
Herein, we describe the detailed development of a simple and effective method to microencapsulate vaccine antigens in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by simple mixing of preformed active self-microencapsulating (SM) PLGA microspheres in a low concentration aqueous antigen solution at modest temperature (10-38 °C). Co-encapsulating protein-sorbing vaccine adjuvants and polymer plasticizers were used to "actively" load the protein in the polymer pores and facilitate polymer self-healing at a temperature>the hydrated polymer glass transition temperature, respectively. The microsphere formulation parameters and loading conditions to provide optimal active self-healing microencapsulation of vaccine antigens in PLGA was investigated. Active self-healing encapsulation of two antigens, ovalbumin and tetanus toxoid (TT), in PLGA microspheres was adjusted by preparing blank microspheres containing different vaccine adjuvants (aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)₃) or calcium phosphate). Active loading of vaccine antigen in Al(OH)₃-PLGA microspheres was found to: a) increase with an increasing loading of Al(OH)₃ (0.88-3 wt.%) and addition of porosigen, b) decrease when the inner Al(OH)₃/trehalose phase to 1 mL outer oil phase and size of microspheres was respectively >0.2 mL and 63 μm, and c) change negligibly by PLGA concentration and initial incubation (loading) temperature. Encapsulation of protein sorbing Al(OH)₃ in PLGA microspheres resulted in suppression of self-healing of PLGA pores, which was then overcome by improving polymer chain mobility, which in turn was accomplished by coincorporating hydrophobic plasticizers in PLGA. Active self-healing microencapsulation of manufacturing process-labile TT in PLGA was found to: a) obviate micronization- and organic solvent-induced TT degradation, b) improve antigen loading (1.4-1.8 wt.% TT) and encapsulation efficiency (~97%), c) provide nearly homogeneous distribution and stabilization of antigen in polymer, and d) provide improved in vitro controlled release of antigenic TT.
- Carbohydrate recognition by pentadecapeptide ligands for a series of sialylated oligosaccharides. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Bioorg Med Chem 2012 Nov 1; 20(21):6452-8.
Sialyloligosaccharides of glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids play important roles in biological events on cell membranes. GT1b is a ganglioside having a trisialyloligosaccharide and is a receptor for tetanus toxin. In the present study, pentadecapeptide ligands for GT1b were obtained by phage display selection from a random peptide library with the use of a GT1b monolayer. The artificial pentadecapeptides had high affinity for GT1b which tended to increase depending on the number of sialic acids in sialyloligosaccharides. Arg, Ser, and hydrophobic amino acids were found in a consensus motif and may contribute to carbohydrate recognition. The consensus motif of the GT1b-binding peptides was different from that of GM1-, GM2-, GM3-, or GD1a-binding peptides. Peptide ligands for GT1b should be investigated for trisialyloligosaccharide functions and the development of therapeutic agents against trisialyloligosaccharide-related diseases.
- Tetanus toxoid purification: chromatographic procedures as an alternative to ammonium-sulphate precipitation. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2011 Aug 1; 879(23):2213-9.
Given an existing demand to establish a process of tetanus vaccine production in a way that allows its complete validation and standardization, this paper focuses on tetanus toxoid purification step. More precisely, we were looking at a possibility to replace the widely used ammonium-sulphate precipitation by a chromatographic method. Based on the tetanus toxin's biochemical characteristics, we have decided to examine the possibility of tetanus toxoid purification by hydrophobic chromatography, and by chromatographic techniques based on interaction with immobilized metal ions, i.e. chelating chromatography and immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We used samples obtained from differently fragmented crude tetanus toxins by formaldehyde treatment (assigned as TTd-A and TTd-B) as starting material for tetanus toxoid purification. Obtained results imply that purification of tetanus toxoid by hydrophobic chromatography represents a good alternative to ammonium-sulphate precipitation. Tetanus toxoid preparations obtained by hydrophobic chromatography were similar to those obtained by ammonium-sulphate precipitation in respect to yield, purity and immunogenicity. In addition, their immunogenicity was similar to standard tetanus toxoid preparation (NIBSC, Potters Bar, UK). Furthermore, the characteristics of crude tetanus toxin preparations had the lowest impact on the final purification product when hydrophobic chromatography was the applied method of tetanus toxoid purification. On the other hand, purifications of tetanus toxoid by chelating chromatography or immobilized metal affinity chromatography generally resulted in a very low yield due to not satisfactory tetanus toxoid binding to the column, and immunogenicity of the obtained tetanus toxoid-containing preparations was poor.
- Mucosal delivery of antigens using adsorption to bacterial spores. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Vaccine 2010 Jan 22; 28(4):1021-30.
The development of new-generation vaccines has followed a number of strategic avenues including the use of live recombinant bacteria. Of these, the use of genetically engineered bacterial spores has been shown to offer promise as both a mucosal as well as a heat-stable vaccine delivery system. Spores of the genus Bacillus are currently in widespread use as probiotics enabling a case to be made for their safety. In this work we have discovered that the negatively charged and hydrophobic surface layer of spores provides a suitable platform for adsorption of protein antigens. Binding can be promoted under conditions of low pH and requires a potent combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between spore and immunogen. Using appropriately adsorbed spores we have shown that mice immunised mucosally can be protected against challenge with tetanus toxin, Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin and could survive challenge with anthrax toxin. In some cases protection is actually greater than using a recombinant vaccine. Remarkably, killed or inactivated spores appear equally effective as live spores. The spore appears to present a bound antigen in its native conformation promoting a cellular (T(h)1-biased) response coupled with a strong antibody response. Spores then, should be considered as mucosal adjuvants, most similar to particulate adjuvants, by enhancing responses against soluble antigens. The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with the attendant benefits of safety suggest that spore adsorption could be appropriate for improving the immunogenicity of some vaccines as well as the delivery of biotherapeutic molecules.
- Curdlan microspheres. Synthesis, characterization and interaction with proteins (enzymes, vaccines). [Journal Article]
- Int J Biol Macromol 2009 Apr 1; 44(3):215-21.
Microparticles of curdlan, synthesized through crosslinking with epichlorohydrin in organic suspension media, were chemically modified with the aim of introducing strongly and/or weakly acidic anionic and palmitoyl hydrophobic groups. Microparticles of both curdlan and curdlan derivatives were physico-chemically characterized. Study of the interaction with enzymes, such as lysozyme, and vaccines, such as tetanus anatoxin, showed a co-operative protein retention effect, induced by electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. The results of the in vitro release studies on support-protein complexes recommend them as potential controlled release systems.
- Nanoprecipitation versus emulsion-based techniques for the encapsulation of proteins into biodegradable nanoparticles and process-related stability issues. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2005; 6(4):E594-604.
The goal of this study was to investigate the entrapment of 3 different model proteins (tetanus toxoid, lysozyme, and insulin) into poly(D,L-lactic acid) and poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles and to address process-related stability issues. For that purpose, a modified nanoprecipitation method as well as 2 emulsion-based encapsulation techniques (ie, a solid-in oil-in water (s/o/w) and a double emulsion (w(1)/o/w(2)) method) were used. The main modification of nanoprecipitation involved the use of a wide range of miscible organic solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide and ethanol instead of the common acetone and water. The results obtained showed that tetanus toxoid and lysozyme were efficiently incorporated by the double emulsion procedure when ethyl acetate was used as solvent (>80% entrapment efficiency), whereas it was necessary to use methylene chloride to achieve high insulin entrapment efficiencies. The use of the s/o/w method or the formation of a more hydrophobic protein-surfactant ion pair did not improve protein loading. The nanoprecipitation method led to a homogenous population of small nanoparticles (with size ranging from approximately 130 to 560 nm) and in some cases also improved experimental drug loadings, especially for lysozyme (entrapment efficiency > 90%). With respect to drug content determination, a simple and quick matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method provided results very close to those obtained by reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography. With respect to protein stability, the duration and intensity of sonication were not a concern for tetanus toxoid, which retained more than 95% of its antigenicity after treatment for 1 minute. Only a high methylene chloride:water ratio was shown to slightly decrease toxoid antigenicity. Finally, no more than 3.3% of A21 desamido insulin and only traces of covalent insulin dimer were detected in nanoparticles. In conclusion, both the double emulsion and nanoprecipitation methods allowed efficient protein encapsulation. MALDI-TOF MS allowed accurate drug content determination. The manufacturing processes evaluated did not damage the primary structure of insulin.
- Calmodulin-dependent regulation of a lipid binding domain in the v-SNARE synaptobrevin and its role in vesicular fusion. [Journal Article, Review]
- Biol Cell 2003 Oct; 95(7):459-64.
Trans SNARE complex assembly is an essential step in Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion, although the SNARE proteins do not bind Ca2+ ions. Studies to evaluate how the Ca2+sensor protein calmodulin might regulate this process led to the identification of a consensus calmodulin binding motif in the v-SNARE VAMP2. This sequence (residues 77-90) is situated precisely C-terminal to the tetanus toxin (TeNT) and botulinum B toxin cleavage site (76Q-F77) close to the transmembrane anchor. The same domain also binds acidic phospholipids and Ca2+/calmodulin or lipid binding are mutually exclusive. Directed mutagenesis of basic or hydrophobic residues within this motif reduced interactions with both Ca2+/calmodulin and phospholipids to a similar extent. The effects of these mutations on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis was explored using an hGH release assay in permeabilized pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Treatment of cells with tetanus toxin (TeNT), which cleaves endogenous VAMP, abolished secretion. Secretion could be re-established by transfecting TeNT-resistant VAMP with mutations (Q76V,F77W) in the cleavage site. However rescue of exocytosis was abolished when additional mutations (K83A,K87V or W89A,W90A) were introduced that inhibited calmodulin and phospholipid binding to VAMP. Thus calmodulin and/or phospholipid binding to the membrane proximal region of VAMP is required for Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. We speculate that interactions between cis phospholipids at the vesicle surface and the membrane proximal region of VAMP inhibits SNARE complex assembly. Displacement of these interactions by Ca2+/calmodulin may promote SNARE complex assembly and lead to trans interactions between the membrane proximal region of VAMP and phospholipids in the plasma membrane.
- Improved immune response from biodegradable polymer particles entrapping tetanus toxoid by use of different immunization protocol and adjuvants. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Pharm 2002 Oct 1; 245(1-2):109-21.
Poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and polylactide (PLA) particles entrapping immunoreactive tetanus toxoid (TT) were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The effect of different formulation parameters such as polymer hydrophobicity, particle size and use of additional adjuvants on the generation of immune responses in experimental animals was evaluated. Immune responses from hydrophobic polymer particles were better than those from hydrophilic polymer. Immunization with physical mixtures of different size particles resulted in further improvement in anti-TT antibody titers in Wistar rats. Physical mixture of nano and microparticles resulted in early as well as high antibody titers in experimental animals. Immunization with polymer particles encapsulating stabilized TT elicited anti-TT antibody titers, which persisted for more than 5 months and were higher than those obtained with saline TT. However, antibody responses generated by single point immunization of either particles or physical mixture of particles were lower than the conventional two doses of alum-adsorbed TT. Immunization with nanoparticles along with alum resulted in very high and early immune response: high anti-TT antibody titers were detected as early as 15 days post-immunization. Use of a squalene emulsion along with the particles during immunization enhanced the level of anti-TT antibody titers considerably. Single point immunization with admixtures of PLA microparticles and alum resulted in antibody response very close to that achieved by two injections of alum-adsorbed TT; the antibody titers were more than 50 microg/ml over a period of 6 months. These results indicated that the judicious choice of polymer and particles size, protecting the immunoreactivity of the entrapped antigen and the appropriate design of immunization protocol along with suitable adjuvant can lead to the generation of long lasting immune response from single dose vaccine formulation using polymer particles.
- Legumain forms from plants and animals differ in their specificity. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Biol Chem 2001 Jun; 382(6):953-9.
We purified forms of legumain from a plant source (seeds of kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris) and a mammal (kidney of pig, Sus scropha) for comparison of their properties. Both forms were found to be stable only under moderately acidic pH conditions, and were maximally active at about pH 6; the plant enzyme was somewhat less stable and had a slightly higher pH optimum. With benzyloxycarbonyl-Xaa-Ala-Asn-aminomethylcoumarylamide substrates, the two forms of legumain showed distinctly different specificities for the P3 residue, the plant legumain preferring amino acids with bulky hydrophobic side chains because of lower Km values. Both forms of legumain were highly specific for hydrolysis of asparaginyl bonds in the arylamide substrates and in neurotensin. Aspartyl bonds were hydrolysed about 100-fold more slowly with lower pH optima. Potential substrates containing other amino acids structurally similar to asparagine were not hydrolysed. There were clear differences in specificity of hydrolysis of protein substrates. The plant legumain differed from pig legumain in its action on tetanus toxoid C-fragment, cleaving at Asn97 but not at Asn337, and produced more extensive digestion of phaseolin. The plant form of legumain was much more weakly inhibited by egg-white cystatin than was the mammalian form.