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hyperemesis gravidarum [keywords]
- A case of osmotic demyelination syndrome occurred after the correction of severe hyponatraemia in hyperemesis gravidarum. [Journal Article]
- BMC Endocr Disord 2014; 14(1):34.
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) may be observed as a result of a rapid change in serum osmolarity, such as that induced by an overly rapid correction of serum sodium levels in hyponatraemic patients.We describe the case of a 21-year-old woman who was hospitalized at week 10 of gestation because of severe hyperemesis. At admission the patient appeared restless and confused and severe hyponatraemia (serum sodium 107 mmol/L) and hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.1 mmol/L) were detected. Active and simultaneous correction of these imbalances led to an overly rapid increase of serum sodium levels (17 mmol/L in the first 24 hours). Isotonic saline solution was stopped and replaced by 5% dextrose solution infusion. However, the neurological alterations worsened and the radiological features were consistent with the diagnosis of extra-pontine ODS. Steroids were administered intravenously with progressive improvement of biochemical and clinical abnormalities. At the time of discharge, 20 days later, the patient was able to walk and eat autonomously with only minimal external support.This report illustrates an unusual case of ODS, occurred after an excessive rate of correction of hyponatraemia obtained with isotonic saline infusion. Hypokaliemia and its active correction very likely played a crucial role in facilitating the onset of ODS. This interesting aspect will be explained in detail in the article. A more cautious and thoughtful correction of electrolyte alterations, would have probably prevented the onset of ODS in this patient. Physicians should be aware of the possibly fatal consequences that an exceedingly rapid change of serum osmolarity may have and should strictly follow the known safety measures in order to prevent it to occur.
- Wernicke's encephalopathy following hyperemesis gravidarum. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Crit Care Med 2014 Mar; 18(3):164-6.
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a potentially reversible yet serious neurological manifestation caused by vitamin B1(thiamine) deficiency. It is commonly associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Other clinical associations are with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), starvation, and prolonged intravenous feeding. Most patients present with the triad of ocular signs, ataxia, and confusion. It can be associated with life-threatening complication like central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). We report two cases of WE following HG, with two different outcomes.
- Transdermal clonidine in the treatment of severe hyperemesis. A pilot randomised control trial: CLONEMESI. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BJOG 2014 Apr 1.
To study the efficacy of transdermal clonidine in the treatment of severe refractory hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), the most severe illness of pregnancy.The study had a randomised, double -blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design (RCT).Single tertiary referral hospital after admission of patients.Twelve women of gestational age 6-12 weeks and a major grade of HG clinical severity who were unresponsive to standard antiemetic treatment.The patients were randomly treated with and without the active drug (5 mg patch) for two consecutive periods of 5 days. The patients were allocated to a random list to receive first placebo and then active drug or the other way round. Other antiemetic drugs were administered on a scheduled or as-needed basis. All patients received intravenous hydration and thiamine supplementation.Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) and visual analog scale (VAS) clinical scores, positive morning urine ketonuria, number of doses of standard antiemetic drugs required, and number of days off intravenous therapy were compared in the two periods.Transdermal clonidine led to a significantly greater improvement compared with placebo of the primary (PUQE score P = 0.026 CI 0.43-3.24; VAS score P = 0.010 CI 2.17-12.83) and secondary outcome measures. A reduction of blood pressure was reported for systolic 6 mmHg P = 0.01 and diastolic 3 mmHg P = 0.055.This preliminary RCT demonstrates the efficacy of transdermal clonidine in the treatment of severe HG, leading to a significant reduction of symptoms and reducing the need for other supportive measures and medications.
- Hemangiopericytoma of the foramen magnum in a pregnant patient: A case report and literature review. [Journal Article]
- Surg Neurol Int 2014.:13.
The presentation of intracranial hemangiopericytomas is very rare, and only one case of a hemangiopericytoma during pregnancy has been reported in the literature. The management of these lesions poses a great challenge to the neurosurgeon, since the physiological and hormonal changes of pregnancy can exacerbate the symptoms of this highly vascularized neoplasm and pose different risks to both the mother and the fetus. We report the case of a patient who had sudden onset of intracranial hypertension at the ninth week of gestation due to a hemangiopericytoma of the foramen magnum and review the literature in this regard.A 23-year-old female who presented with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension at the ninth week of gestation was initially thought to have hyperemesis gravidarum. Because her symptoms persisted, she was found to have intracranial hypertension due to a tumor in the foramen magnum. She was treated by means of derivative surgery to allow for her pregnancy to progress beyond the first trimester, and at the 22(nd) week of gestation she underwent a sub-occipital craniotomy with partial tumor removal. Pathology was consistent with hemangiopericytoma. Both the mother and the fetus had positive outcomes.To our knowledge, this is the second intracranial hemangiopericytoma presenting during pregnancy to be reported in the literature, and it is the first one of its kind to be located in the foramen magnum and causing severe intracranial hypertension.
- Gabapentin's anti-nausea and anti-emetic effects: a review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Brain Res 2014 Mar 26.
Gabapentin's main clinical use is in the treatment of neuropathic pain where its binding to neuronal alpha-2/delta subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is critical to its mechanism of action. Over the past 10 years, there have been several reports of gabapentin also having anti-nausea and anti-emetic effects in conditions including postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). In this report, a MEDLINE electronic search was performed, and relevant citations were reviewed and classified by level of evidence; a grade of recommendation was then assigned for gabapentin's use for each studied indication. Out of 33 clinical trials reviewed, 12 assessed nausea and/or vomiting (N/V) associated with gabapentin therapy as primary outcome measures. These 12 studies provided a Grade A recommendation for gabapentin use in treating PONV, a Grade B recommendation for use in treating CINV, and a Grade C recommendation for use in treating HG. Further research is needed to confirm these initial promising results, which implicate the alpha-2/delta VGCC subunit as a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of several N/V-associated clinical conditions.
- Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014.:CD007575.
Nausea, retching and vomiting are very commonly experienced by women in early pregnancy. There are considerable physical, social and psychological effects on women who experience these symptoms. This is an update of a review of interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy previously published in 2010.To assess the effectiveness and safety of all interventions for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy, up to 20 weeks' gestation.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field's Trials Register (27 April 2013).All randomised controlled trials of any intervention for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy. We excluded trials of interventions for hyperemesis gravidarum, which are covered by another Cochrane review. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials and trials using a cross-over design.Four review authors, in pairs, reviewed the eligibility of trials and independently evaluated the risk of bias and extracted the data for included trials.Thirty-seven trials involving 5049 women, met the inclusion criteria. These trials covered many interventions, including acupressure, acustimulation, acupuncture, ginger, chamomile, lemon oil, mint oil, vitamin B6 and several antiemetic drugs. We identified no studies of dietary or other lifestyle interventions. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of P6 acupressure, auricular (ear) acupressure and acustimulation of the P6 point was limited. Acupuncture (P6 or traditional) showed no significant benefit to women in pregnancy. The use of ginger products may be helpful to women, but the evidence of effectiveness was limited and not consistent, though two recent studies support ginger over placebo. There was only limited evidence from trials to support the use of pharmacological agents including vitamin B6, and anti-emetic drugs to relieve mild or moderate nausea and vomiting. There was little information on maternal and fetal adverse outcomes and on psychological, social or economic outcomes. We were unable to pool findings from studies for most outcomes due to heterogeneity in study participants, interventions, comparison groups, and outcomes measured or reported. The methodological quality of the included studies was mixed.Given the high prevalence of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, women and health professionals need clear guidance about effective and safe interventions, based on systematically reviewed evidence. There is a lack of high-quality evidence to support any particular intervention. This is not the same as saying that the interventions studied are ineffective, but that there is insufficient strong evidence for any one intervention. The difficulties in interpreting and pooling the results of the studies included in this review highlight the need for specific, consistent and clearly justified outcomes and approaches to measurement in research studies.
- Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- Clin Evid (Online) 2014.
More than half of pregnant women suffer from nausea and vomiting, which typically begins by the fourth week and disappears by the 16th week of pregnancy. The cause of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is unknown, but may be due to the rise in human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration. In 1 in 200 women, the condition progresses to hyperemesis gravidarum, which is characterised by prolonged and severe nausea and vomiting, dehydration, and weight loss.We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy? What are the effects of treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 32 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupressure; acupuncture; corticosteroids; ginger; metoclopramide; ondansetron; prochlorperazine; promethazine; and pyridoxine (vitamin B6).
- Depression, anxiety, stress and hyperemesis gravidarum: temporal and case controlled correlates. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(3):e92036.
To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum.We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation). Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who were matched to gestational age at the second DASS-21 assessment in the HG cohort.The prevalences of nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and stress caseness in newly hospitalised hyperemesis gravidarum women were 100% and 100%, 19%, 69% and 21% which by the third trimester had fallen to 15.7% and 9.9%, 4%, 19% and 3% and in third trimester controls were 15.9% and 14.2%, 14%, 61% and 20% respectively. Within the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, nausea, vomiting depression, anxiety and stress reduced significantly by an absolute 84.3% (95% CI 76.2%-89.8%), 90.1% (82.8%-94.2%), 14.9% (7.2%-23.0%), 49.6% (38.6%-58.7%) and 18.2% (10.4%-26.4%) respectively between hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum and at the third trimester. In the third trimester, when comparing the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort to controls, the risk of nausea or vomiting was similar but depression, anxiety and stress were significantly lower: adjusted odds ratio AOR 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.5), 0.11 (0.05-0.23) and 0.08 (0.02-0.33) respectively.Our study revealed a reassuring pattern of a strong rebound from depression, anxiety and stress in women with hyperemesis gravidarum such that by the third pregnancy trimester the level of psychological distress was even lower than in controls. This observation imply that much of the psychological distress in acute hyperemesis gravidarum is self-limiting and probably in the causal pathway of hyperemesis gravidarum. Care in women with hyperemesis gravidarum should focus on the relief of nausea and vomiting.
- [Wernicke's encephalopathy and Caine criteria.Report of six cases]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2014 Jan-Feb; 52(1):104-7.
Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute and reversible neurologic disorder due to deficiency of thiamin. Chronic alcoholism was the main cause in the past; currently, there are many other situations which favour this condition: prolonged intravenous feeding, hyperemesis gravidarum, anorexia nervosa, regional enteritis, malabsorption syndrome, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and abdominal surgery.We report six patients, three male and three female, who had in common total parenteral nutrition over two months, secondary to abdominal surgery complications and restriction to enteral nutrition. Clinical manifestations were drowsiness, psychomotor hyperactivity, ophthalmoplegia with bilateral abduction impairment, horizontal nystagmus; three patients with ataxia and appendicular dysmetria. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal T2 hyperintensity of the superior colliculus, periaqueductal gray matter, mammillary bodies and dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus, as well as abnormal T1 hyperintensity in both lenticular nucleus from manganese deposits due to total parenteral nutrition.The classical triad is global confusional state, ocular abnormalities and ataxia. However, using the Caine criteria, the diagnosis could be faster in susceptible patients without previous alcoholism.
- Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. [REVIEW]
- Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2013 Nov; 1(3):238-249.
Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations that are characteristic of hyperthyroidism must be distinguished from physiological changes in thyroid hormone economy that occur in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester. Approximately one to two cases of gestational hyperthyroidism occur per 1000 pregnancies. Identification of hyperthyroidism in a pregnant woman is important because adverse outcomes can occur in both the mother and the offspring. Graves' disease, which is autoimmune in nature, is the usual cause; but hyperthyroidism in pregnancy can be caused by any type of hyperthyroidism-eg, toxic multinodular goitre or solitary autonomously functioning nodule. Gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is typically reported in women with hyperemesis gravidarum, and is mediated by high circulating concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin. Post-partum thyroiditis occurs in 5-10% of women, and many of those affected ultimately develop permanent hypothyroidism. Antithyroid drug treatment of hyperthyroidism in pregnant women is controversial because the usual drugs-methimazole or carbimazole-are occasionally teratogenic; and the alternative-propylthiouracil-can be hepatotoxic. Fetal hyperthyroidism can be life-threatening, and needs to be recognised as soon as possible so that treatment of the fetus with antithyroid drugs via the mother can be initiated. In this Review, we discuss physiological and pathophysiological changes in thyroid hormone economy in pregnancy, the diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, severe life-threatening thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy, neonatal thyrotoxicosis, and post-partum hyperthyroidism.