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ideal body weight [keywords]
- Chocolate craving and disordered eating: beyond the gender divide? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Appetite 2014 Aug 27.
Chocolate craving in women has previously been linked to disordered eating behaviors. A relatively higher prevalence of eating disorder pathology may account for the fact that chocolate craving is significantly more common in women in North America, compared to many other countries. While support for a causal role of disordered eating in the etiology of craving in women is growing, little is known about the extent to which food cravings are associated with disordered eating behaviors in men. This study was designed to systematically assess the impact of gender and chocolate craving on measures of attitudes to chocolate, responsiveness to food cues in the environment, body shape dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and eating disorder and general pathology. Undergraduate men and women (n=645, 37.2% male) were invited to complete self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, height and weight, food cravings, dietary attitudes and behaviors, along with eating disorder and general pathology. Data suggest that the relationship between chocolate craving and disordered eating behaviors in men is the opposite of what has previously been observed in women: compared to non-cravers, male chocolate cravers reported significantly more guilt related to craving, but were significantly less likely to diet and reported lower levels of dietary restraint, less frequent weight fluctuations, and fewer symptoms of eating disorders. Findings indicate that a positive relationship between disordered eating behaviors and chocolate craving may be unique to women (and potentially women in North America). Findings have important implications for our understanding of cultural and psychosocial factors involved in the etiology of food cravings.
- Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of busulfan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation; an alliance study (CALGB 10503, 19808, and 100103). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2014 Aug 28.
Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome have often been excluded from myeloablative-conditioning regimens containing busulfan because of non-disease-related morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that busulfan clearance (BuCL) in older patients (>60 years) would be reduced compared to that in younger patients, potentially explaining observed differences in busulfan tolerability.AML patients in three CALGB hematopoietic cell transplantation studies were treated with a conditioning regimen using IV busulfan, dosed at 0.8 mg/kg. Plasma busulfan concentrations were determined by LC-MS and analyzed by non-compartmental methods. BuCL was normalized to actual (ABW), ideal (IBW), or corrected (CBW) body weight (kg). Differences in BuCL between age groups were examined using the Wilcoxon rank sum test.One hundred and eighty-five patients were accrued; 174 provided useable pharmacokinetic data. Twenty-nine patients ≥60 years old (median 66; range 60-74) had a significantly higher BuCL versus those <60 years old (median 50; range 18-60): BuCL 236 versus 168 mL/min, p = 0.0002; BuCL/ABW 3.0 versus 2.1 mL/min/kg, p = 0.0001; BuCL/IBW 3.8 versus 2.6 mL/min/kg, p = 0.0035; BuCL/CBW 3.4 versus 2.6 mL/min/kg, p = 0.0005. Inter-patient variability in clearance (CV %) was up to 48 % in both age groups. Phenytoin administration, a potential confounder, did not affect BuCL, regardless of weight normalization (p > 0.34).Contrary to our hypothesis, BuCL was significantly higher in older patients compared to younger patients in these studies and does not explain the previously reported increase in busulfan toxicity observed in older patients.
- Ethnic and Gender Differences in Ideal Body Size and Related Attitudes among Asians, Native Hawaiians, and Whites. [Journal Article]
- Hawaii J Med Public Health 2014 Aug; 73(8):236-43.
Often overlooked explanations for the varied obesity rates across ethno-cultural groups include differences in attitudes toward excess weight, with certain populations assumed to have larger ideal body sizes (IBS). Past studies found ethnic and gender difference in IBS across and within different groups. This study examined the effects of ethnicity and gender, and their interaction, in accounting for differences in IBS and attitudes toward those ideals. Multiple regression analyses were used to better understand the effects of ethnicity and gender in accounting for differences in perceived IBS according to ethnic-specific and Western ideals and attitudes in 1,124 people of Native Hawaiian, Filipino, Japanese, and White ancestry. The analyses controlled for socio-demographics, body mass index, health-related behaviors, and psychosocial variables. The results indicated that Native Hawaiians selected larger ethnic IBS, Filipinos selected smaller ethnic IBS, and Native Hawaiians selected slightly smaller Western IBS than other ethnic groups. Overall, males selected larger IBS compared to females. Interaction analyses indicated that the relationship between ethnic IBS and attitude toward that IBS varied as a function of ethnicity, such that Native Hawaiians who selected a larger ethnic IBS held less favorable attitudes toward that IBS. The discrepancy between Native Hawaiians' selection of larger ethnic IBS as ideal and their less positive attitude toward that selection warrants more investigation. However, it does suggest that Native Hawaiians, on a personal level, do not prefer larger body sizes, which contradicts their perceptions of social norms. These findings have important implications for obesity interventions among Native Hawaiians.
- African american male and female student perceptions of pulvers body images: implications for obesity, health care, and prevention. [Journal Article]
- J Health Care Poor Underserved 2014; 25(3):1328-40.
Differences in male and female perception response to the Pulvers Body Image Scale (PBIS) were examined among 356 freshmen African American students attending an urban historically Black college/university (HBCU). Participants completed a questionnaire identifying images that best represented their current, healthy, and ideal body image. Compared with males, more females selected the normal body image as their ideal (63.3% vs. 15.3%) and healthy body shape (59.3% vs. 15.3%) (p<.001). Compared with females, more males selected the overweight body image as their ideal (44.6% vs. 30.2%) and healthy body shape (52.2% vs. 36.2%) (p<.01). Similarly, more males selected the obese body image as their ideal (40.1% vs. 6.5%) and healthy body shape (32.5% vs. 4.5%) compared with females (p<.001). Male freshmen at an HBCU perceive a larger body image as healthy and ideal more often than their female counterparts, thereby increasing the potential for their weight-related health risks.
- Weight gain following breast cancer diagnosis: Implication and proposed mechanisms. [REVIEW]
- World J Clin Oncol 2014 Aug 10; 5(3):272-282.
Weight gain occurs in the majority of women following breast cancer treatment. An overview of studies describing weight gain amongst women treated with early to modern chemotherapy regimens is included. Populations at higher risk include women who are younger, closer to ideal body weight and who have been treated with chemotherapy. Weight gain ranges between 1 to 5 kg, and may be associated with change in body composition with gain in fat mass and loss in lean body mass. Women are unlikely to return to pre-diagnosis weight. Possible mechanisms including inactivity and metabolic changes are explored. Potential interventions are reviewed including exercise, dietary changes and pharmacologic agents. Although breast cancer prognosis does not appear to be significantly impacted, weight gain has negative consequences on quality of life and overall health. Future studies should explore change in body composition, metabolism and insulin resistance. Avoiding weight gain in breast cancer survivors following initial diagnosis and treatment should be encouraged.
- Relative sensitivity and specificity of 10-2 visual fields, multifocal electroretinography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in detecting hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine retinopathy. [Journal Article]
- Clin Ophthalmol 2014.:1389-99.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity and specificity of 10-2 visual fields (10-2 VFs), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in detecting hydroxychloroquine retinopathy.A total of 121 patients taking hydroxychloroquine (n=119) or chloroquine (n=2) with 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT tests were retrospectively reviewed. Rates of test abnormality were determined.Retinopathy was present in 14 and absent in 107. Eleven of 14 (78.6%) patients with retinopathy were overdosed. Twelve (85.7%) had cumulative dosing greater than 1,000 g. The sensitivities of 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT in detecting retinopathy were 85.7%, 92.9%, and 78.6%, respectively. The specificities of 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT in detecting retinopathy were 92.5%, 86.9%, and 98.1%, respectively. Positive predictive values of 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT in detecting retinopathy were less than 30% for all estimates of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy prevalence. Negative predictive values were >99% for all tests.Based on published estimates of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy prevalence, all three tests are most reliable when negative, allowing confident exclusion of retinopathy in patients taking ≤6.5 mg/kg/day. Each test is less useful in allowing a confident diagnosis of retinopathy when positive, especially in patients taking ≤6.5 mg/kg/day.
- Nasal high-flow oxygen therapy in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure: effect on functional and subjective respiratory parameters compared to conventional oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation (NIV). [Journal Article]
- BMC Anesthesiol 2014.:66.
Aim of the study was to compare the short-term effects of oxygen therapy via a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on functional and subjective respiratory parameters in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure in comparison to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and standard treatment via a Venturi mask.Fourteen patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure were treated with HFNC (FiO2 0.6, gas flow 55 l/min), NIV (FiO2 0.6, PEEP 5 cm H2O Hg, tidal volume 6-8 ml/kg ideal body weight,) and Venturi mask (FiO2 0.6, oxygen flow 15 l/min,) in a randomized order for 30 min each. Data collection included objective respiratory and circulatory parameters as well as a subjective rating of dyspnea and discomfort by the patients on a 10-point scale. In a final interview, all three methods were comparatively evaluated by each patient using a scale from 1 (=very good) to 6 (=failed) and the patients were asked to choose one method for further treatment.PaO2 was highest under NIV (129 ± 38 mmHg) compared to HFNC (101 ± 34 mmHg, p <0.01 vs. NIV) and VM (85 ± 21 mmHg, p <0.001 vs. NIV, p <0.01 vs. HFNC, ANOVA). All other functional parameters showed no relevant differences. In contrast, dyspnea was significantly better using a HFNC (2.9 ± 2.1, 10-point Borg scale) compared to NIV (5.0 ± 3.3, p <0.05), whereas dyspnea rating under HFNC and VM (3.3 ± 2.3) was not significantly different. A similar pattern was found when patients rated their overall discomfort on the 10 point scale: HFNC 2.7 ± 1.8, VM 3.1 ± 2.8 (ns vs. HFNC), NIV 5.4 ± 3.1 (p <0.05 vs. HFNC). In the final evaluation patients gave the best ratings to HFNC 2.3 ± 1.4, followed by VM 3.2 ± 1.7 (ns vs. HFNC) and NIV 4.5 ± 1.7 (p <0.01 vs. HFNC and p <0.05 vs. VM). For further treatment 10 patients chose HFNC, three VM and one NIV.In hypoxic respiratory failure HFNC offers a good balance between oxygenation and comfort compared to NIV and Venturi mask and seems to be well tolerated by patients.GERMAN CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTER: DRKS00005132.
- Dan-gua Fang () improves glycolipid metabolic disorders by promoting hepatic adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase expression in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chin J Integr Med 2014 Aug 7.
To investigate the effect of Dan-gua Fang () on adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) α expression in liver and subsequent improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism.Forty 13-week-old diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were randomly divided into model, Dan-gua Fang, metformin and simvastatin groups (n=10 for each), and fed high-fat diet ad libitum. Ten Wistar rats were used as normal group and fed normal diet. After 24 weeks, liver expression of AMPKα mRNA was assessed by real-time PCR. AMPKα and phospho-AMPKα protein expression in liver was evaluated by Western blot. Liver histomorphology was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin staining, and blood glucose (BG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), food intake and body weight recorded.Similar AMPKα mRNA levels were found in the Dan-gua Fang group and normal group, slightly higher than the values obtained for the remaining groups (P<0.05). AMPKα protein expression in the Dan-gua Fang group animals was similar to other diabetic rats, whereas phospho-AMPKα (Thr-172) protein levels were markedly higher than in the metformin group and simvastatin group (P<0.05), respectively. However, phosphor-AMPKα/AMPKα ratios were similar in all groups. Dan-gua Fang reduced fasting blood glucose with similar strength to metformin, and was superior in reducing cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as improving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with simvastatin and metformin. Dan-gua Fang decreases plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly.Dan-gua Fang, while treating phlegm-stasis, could decrease BG and lipid in type 2 diabetic GK rats fed with high-fat diet, and effectively protect liver histomorphology and function. This may be partly explained by increased AMPK expression in liver. Therefore, Dan-gua Fang might be an ideal drug for comprehensive intervention for glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
- Etomidate can be dosed according to ideal body weight in morbidly obese patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Anaesthesiol 2014 Aug 6.
- [Cardiovascular risk factor assessment in a rural Brazilian population]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Cad Saude Publica 2014 Jun; 30(6):1183-94.
This cross-sectional study assessed cardiovascular health in 863 adults in rural communities in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, focusing on seven factors, four of which behavioral (diet, physical activity, smoking, and body weight) and three biological (total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and arterial pressure), classified as ideal, intermediate, or poor. Men showed better results in behavioral factors (p = 0.01), with more men displaying 2 or 3 factors at ideal levels (48.5 and 25.8%, respectively), when compared to women (44.2 and 19.8%, respectively) (p = 0.01). Women presented more biological factors at ideal levels (19.1%) when compared to men (7.9%) (p < 0.001). Only three participants (0.4%) showed all seven factors at ideal levels. Prevalence of ideal indices was very low, showing the need for strategies to improve cardiovascular health in this population.