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ideal body weight [keywords]
- GC-MS analysis of Cocus nucifera flower extract and its effects on heterogeneous symptoms of polycystic ovarian disease in female Wistar rats. [Journal Article]
- Chin J Nat Med 2014 Sep; 12(9):677-84.
To evaluate the effect of Cocus nucifera L. flowers in reducing the major multiple symptoms of letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) in female rats.Female, virgin Wistar rats were treated with letrozole (1 mg/kg body wt) to induce PCOD, and after 21 days of induction rats were administered orally with 100 and 200 mg·kg(-1) of Cocus nucifera flower aqueous extract, respectively. Estrus cycle and blood sugar were monitored once a week throughout the study. After scarification, various biochemical parameters, such as antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH)) of the uterus homogenate, lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides (TG)) of the serum were determined. Weights of the uterus and ovaries were separately monitored. The characteristics of changes in the ovary were evaluated by histopathological studies.GC-MS analysis of the aqueous extract showed the presence of volatile and pharmacologically active phytoconstituents. C. nucifera flower extract-treated groups showed estrus cyclicity and increased uterus weight which indicates the estrogenic effect. The improved blood sugar level, ideal lipid profile, good antioxidant status, and histopathology results revealed the recovery from poly cystic ovaries.The results indicate that C. nucifera flower is a potential medicine for the treatment of PCOD and this study supports the traditional uses of C. nucifera flower.
- Treatment of bowel in experimental gastroschisis with a nitric oxide donor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014 Sep 25.
To reduce the harmful effect of bowel exposure to amniotic fluid in gastroschisis, we used the nitric (NO) oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in an animal model of gastroschisis and assessed the ideal concentration for treatment of changes in bowel.Gastroschisis was surgically induced in rat fetuses on day 18.5 of gestation. The fetuses were divided into five groups (n=12 animals/group): control (C), gastroschisis (G), gastroschisis + GSNO 5 μM (GNO1), gastroschisis + GSNO 0.5 μM (GNO2), gastroschisis + GSNO 0.05 μM (GNO3). On day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were collected by cesarean section. Body and intestinal weight were measured and the bowels were either fixed for histometric and immunohistochemical study or frozen for western blotting. We analyzed bowel morphometry on histological sections and expression of the nitric oxide synthase enzymes by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Data was analyzed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test when appropriate.Morphological and histometric measurements of weight, diameter, and thickness of the layers of the intestinal wall decreased with GSNO treatment, especially in the GNO3 group, when compared with the G group (p<0.05). The expression of nNOS, eNOS and iNOS decreased mainly in GNO3 group compared to the G group (p<0.05), with no difference compared to C group (p>0.05).Fetal treatment with 0.05 μM GSNO resulted in significant improvement of bowel morphology in gastroschisis.
- Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eat Behav 2014 Sep 16; 15(4):654-657.
The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences.
- Selection of infants who potentially have congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract from a large cohort for a more thorough examination. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Nephrol 2014 Sep 26.
Although congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD), little is known about the characteristics exhibited in the infantile period by CAKUT patients who develop ESRD. Further, an efficient screening method for CAKUT diagnosis is not available currently. In the present study, we aimed to develop a method to select infants who potentially have CAKUT from a large group of infants.We retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of CAKUT patients in the infantile period. The medical records of 101 patients with CAKUT who had undergone dialysis or renal transplantation were reviewed. The data of gestational age, birth weight, oligohydramnios, poor body weight gain, asphyxia, and jaundice were recorded. We attempted to determine the ideal characteristics that could be used to select infants who potentially have CAKUT.14 % of patients were born prematurely, 18 % had low birth weight, 79 % had poor body weight gain, 18 % had asphyxia, 8 % had oligohydramnios, and 12 % had jaundice. We found that 82 % of patients had poor body weight gain or oligohydramnios among our patients and regarded these two symptoms as ideal markers for selecting those who potentially have CAKUT (specificity, 95 %; efficacy, 95 %). Further, the age of ≤7 months was the most appropriate time for the selection.For timely diagnosis of CAKUT, we recommend that ultrasound examination and the serum creatinine test be conducted for infants showing poor body weight gain or oligohydramnios at age ≤7 months.
- Anti-tumor effects of a novel small molecule targeting PCNA chromatin association in prostate cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cancer Ther 2014 Sep 24.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an essential role in DNA replication and repair. Tumor cells express high levels of PCNA, identifying it as a potentially ideal target for cancer therapy. Previously, we identified nine compounds termed PCNA inhibitors (PCNA-Is) that bind directly to PCNA, stabilize PCNA trimer structure, reduce chromatin-associated PCNA, and selectively inhibit tumor cell growth. Of these compounds, PCNA-I1 is most potent. The purposes of this study were to further investigate the effects of targeting PCNA chromatin association on DNA damage and cytotoxicity and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of PCNA-I1 against tumors in mice. Given the important roles of tumor suppressor p53 in regulating sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutics, we performed studies in two human prostate cancer cell lines differing in p53 expression: LNCaP cells (wildtype p53) and PC-3 cells (p53-null). PCNA-I1 induced DNA damage and apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells and enhanced DNA damage and apoptosis triggered by cisplatin. PCNA-I1 also induced autophagy in PC-3 cells. A short-term pretreatment with PCNA-I1 reduced colony formation by 50% in both cell lines. These data suggest that, unlike many other cytotoxic drugs, the effects of PCNA-I1 on tumor cells do not depend on expression of p53. Intravenous administrations of PCNA-I1 significantly retarded growth of LNCaP tumors of in nude mice without causing detectable effects on mouse body weight and hematology profiles. These data provide proof of concept that targeting PCNA chromatin association could be a novel and effective therapeutic approach for treatment of cancer.
- Tumour seeding as a result of intraperitoneal perforation during transurethral resection of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
The goals of transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) for urothelial carcinoma are pathological staging and the removal of all visible tumour tissue. Typically, a deep and extensive resection beyond the basement membrane, including some muscularis propria, is performed. However, this also carries a risk of perforating the bladder wall, creating the ideal circumstances to facilitate peritoneal or abdominal metastases. Small, asymptomatic bladder perforations occur frequently and are associated with gender: female, decreasing body mass index, higher tumour stage, deeper infiltration and higher resection weight. Since many of these perforations are extraperitoneal, heal spontaneously and do not elicit any significant perioperative symptoms, they remain undiagnosed. Even in cases of intraperitoneal perforation, peritoneal tumour recurrence has been rarely reported. We report on the unusual case of a 61-year-old woman who underwent TURBT for non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma that was complicated by intraperitoneal bladder perforation requiring open repair.
- Comparison of 2 Family Therapies for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Randomized Parallel Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA Psychiatry 2014 Sep 24.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious disorder with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Family-based treatment (FBT) is an evidence-based therapy for adolescent AN, but less than half of those who receive this approach recover. Hence, it is important to identify other approaches to prevent the development of the chronic form of AN for which there is no known evidence-based treatment.To compare FBT with systemic family therapy (SyFT) for the treatment of adolescent-onset AN.Research in Anorexia Nervosa (RIAN) is a 2-group (FBT and SyFT) randomized trial conducted between September 2005 and April 2012. Interviewers were blinded to the treatment condition. A total of 564 adolescents receiving care at 6 outpatient clinics experienced in the treatment of AN were screened. Of these, 262 adolescents did not meet the inclusion criteria and 138 declined to participate; hence, 164 adolescents (aged 12-18 years) of both sexes meeting the criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, AN (except for amenorrhea) were enrolled. Three participants were withdrawn from FBT and 7 were withdrawn from SyFT after serious adverse events occurred.Two manualized family therapies with 16 one-hour sessions during 9 months. Family-based therapy focuses on the facilitation of weight gain, whereas SyFT addresses general family processes.The primary outcomes were percentage of ideal body weight (IBW) and remission (≥95% of IBW). The a priori hypothesis was that FBT would result in faster weight gain early in treatment and at the end of treatment (EOT).There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups for the primary outcome, for eating disorder symptoms or comorbid psychiatric disorders at the EOT or follow-up. Remission rates included FBT, 33.1% at the EOT and 40.7% at follow-up and SyFT, 25.3% and 39.0%, respectively. Family-based therapy led to significantly faster weight gain early in treatment, significantly fewer days in the hospital, and lower treatment costs per patient in remission at the EOT (FBT, $8963; SyFT, $18 005). An exploratory moderator analysis found that SyFT led to greater weight gain than did FBT for participants with more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms.The findings of this study suggest that FBT is the preferred treatment for adolescent AN because it is not significantly different from SyFT and leads to similar outcomes at a lower cost than SyFT. Adolescents with more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms may receive more benefits with SyFT.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier NCT00610753.
- Bariatric metabolic surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rozhl Chir 2014; 94(8):404-415.
According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m2 nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008, with 10% of men and 14% of women and a total of more than half a billion adults (aged >20 years old) being classed as obese. At least 2.8 million people die each year worldwide as a result of being overweight or obese, usually from the inevitable related comorbidities. It has been reported that approximately 65% of the worlds population inhabits countries where overweight and obesity are responsible for higher mortality than underweight. The recently published Interdisciplinary European Guidelines on Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery note that despite the WHO stating that excess weight is considered the fifth leading risk for deaths worldwide, it has not yet been possible to successfully curb the obesity epidemic. Moreover, severe obesity (BMI>35 kg/m2) represents a rapidly growing segment of the epidemic in which the negative effects on health and disability are especially marked. Excess weight drastically elevates a persons risk of developing a number of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidaemia, sleep apnoea, cancer, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and other serious comorbidities. The WHO emphasises that 44% of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 23% of ischaemic heart disease and around 741% of certain cancers are attributable to overweight and obesity. In the majority of European countries, overweight and obesity are responsible for about 80% of cases of type 2 diabetes, 35% of cases of ischaemic heart disease and 55% of cases of hypertensive disease among adults. Additionally, a range of debilitating conditions such as osteoarthritis, respiratory difficulties, gallbladder disease, infertility, and psychosocial problems, among others, which lead to reduced life expectancy, quality of life and disability, are extremely costly in terms of both absence from work and use of health resources. Noteworthy, the lifespan of severely obese individuals is decreased by an estimated 5-20 years depending on gender, age, and race. Weight loss and maintenance are the obvious aims of bariatric surgery. The ideal bariatric operation should be easy and quick to perform, with minimal perioperative and long-term complications. It should result in excellent weight loss and indefinite weight maintenance in the vast majority of operated patients, necessitating minimal follow-up care, and be equally suitable for all patients, independent of individual characteristics such as compliance, age, and different degrees of overweight. It is immediately apparent that such a surgical procedure does not exist, and therefore we must carefully evaluate all the different features and characteristics of each operation and of each patient to try to select the procedure that provides the greatest probability of long-term success for a particular patient, with the best cost/benefit ratio. Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective mode of treatment for morbidly obese patients, with recent long-term studies providing evidence of a substantial reduction of mortality in bariatric surgery patients, as well as a decreased risk of developing new health-related comorbidities. Furthermore, a reduction in the use of healthcare services and therefore a reduction in direct healthcare costs was also observed. Bariatric surgery is an established and integral part of the comprehensive management of morbidly obese patients.Keywords: obesity - diabetes surgical treatment of diabetes.
- Size Misperception Among Overweight and Obese Families. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Gen Intern Med 2014 Sep 16.
Perception of body size is a key factor driving health behavior. Mothers directly influence children's nutritional and exercise behaviors. Mothers of ethnic minority groups and lower socioeconomic status are less likely to correctly identify young children as overweight or obese. Little evaluation has been done of the inverse-the child's perception of the mother's weight.To determine awareness of weight status among mother-child dyads (n = 506).Cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient pediatric dental clinic of Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.Primarily Hispanic (82.2 %) mothers (n = 253), 38.8 ± 7.5 years of age, and children (n = 253), 10.5 ± 1.4 years of age, responding to a questionnaire adapted from the validated Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.Anthropometric measures-including height, weight, and waist circumference-and awareness of self-size and size of other generation were obtained.71.4 % of obese adults and 35.1 % of overweight adults underestimated size, vs. 8.6 % of normal-weight (NW) adults (both p < 0.001). Among overweight and obese children, 86.3 % and 62.3 % underestimated their size, vs. 14.9 % NW children (both p < 0.001). Among mothers with overweight children, 80.0 % underestimated their child's weight, vs. 7.1 % of mothers with NW children (p < 0.001); 23.1 % of mothers with obese children also underestimated their child's weight (p < 0.01). Among children with obese mothers, only 13.0 % correctly classified the adult's size, vs. 76.5 % with NW mothers (p < 0.001). Among obese mothers, 20.8 % classified overweight body size as ideal, vs. 1.2 % among NW mothers (p < 0.001).Overweight/obese adults and children frequently underestimate their size. Adults misjudge overweight/obese children as being of normal weight, and children of obese mothers often underestimate the adult's size. Failure to recognize overweight/obesity status among adults and children can lead to prolonged exposure to obesity-related comorbidities.
- Race Weight: Perceptions From Elite Female Road Cyclists. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2014 Sep 5.
This study investigated the satisfaction of elite female cyclists with their body weight (BW) in the context of race performance, the magnitude of BW manipulation and the association of these variables with menstrual function.Female competitors in the Australian National Road Cycling Championships (n=32) and the Oceania Championships (n=5) completed a questionnaire to identify current BW, BW fluctuations, perceived ideal BW for performance, frequency of weight consciousness, weight loss techniques used, and menstrual regularity.All but one cyclist reported that female cyclists are 'a weight conscious population' and 54% reported having a desire to change BW at least once weekly. 62% reported that their current BW was not ideal for performance. The perceived ideal BW was (mean ± SD) 1.6 ± 1.6 kg (2.5 ± 2.5%) less than their current weight (P < 0.01) and 73% reported their career lowest BW was either 'beneficial' or 'extremely beneficial' for performance. 65% reported successfully reducing BW in the previous 12 months with a mean loss of 2.4 ± 1.0 kg (4.1 ± 1.9%). The most common weight loss technique was reduced energy intake (76%). Five cyclists (14%) had been previously diagnosed as having an eating disorder by a physician. Of the 18 athletes not using a hormonal contraceptive, 11 reported menstrual dysfunction (oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea).Elite Australian female cyclists are a weight conscious population who may not be satisfied with their body weight leading into a major competition and in some cases are frequently weight conscious.