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ideal body weight [keywords]
- Effects of water restriction on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and organ weights of naked neck and ovambo chickens of southern Africa. [Journal Article]
- Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2014 Jul; 27(7):974-80.
In semi-arid areas of Southern Africa, dehydration can compromise the performance and welfare of local chickens, particularly during the growing period when confinement is curtailed and birds are left to scavenge for feed and water. The effect of water restriction on the growth performance was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens that are predominant in Southern Africa. A total of 54 eight-wk-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of 641±10 g/bird were randomly assigned to three water intake treatments, each having six birds for 8 wk. The water restriction treatments were ad libitum, 70% of ad libitum and 40% of ad libitum intake. Nine experimental pens with a floor space of 3.3 m(2) per strain were used. The pens were housed in an open-sided house with cement floor deep littered with a 20 cm layer of untreated wood shavings. Feed was provided ad libitum. Average daily water intake (ADWI), BW at 16 weeks of age (FBW), ADG, ADFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and water to feed ratios (WFR) were determined. Ovambo chickens had superior (p<0.05) FBW, ADG and ADWI than NNK chickens. Body weight of birds at 16 weeks of age, ADG, ADFI, ADWI, and WFR declined progressively (p<0.05) with increasing severity of water restriction while FCR values increased (p<0.05) as the severity of water restriction increased. Naked Neck chickens had better FCR at the 40% of ad libitum water intake level than Ovambo chickens. The dressing percentage per bird was higher in water restricted birds than those on ad libitum water consumption, irrespective of strain. Heart weight was significantly lower in birds on 40% of ad libitum water intake than those on ad libitum and 70% of ad libitum water intake, respectively. In conclusion, NNK chickens performed better than OVB chickens under conditions of water restriction and would be ideal to raise for meat and egg production in locations where water shortages are a major challenge.
- Estimation of the optimal ratio of standardized ileal digestible threonine to lysine for finishing barrows fed low crude protein diets. [Journal Article]
- Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2013 Aug; 26(8):1172-80.
Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirement and the ideal SID threonine (Thr) to Lys ratio for finishing barrows. In Exp. 1, 120 barrows with an average body weight of 72.8±3.6 kg were allotted to one of six dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design conducted for 35 d. Each diet was fed to five pens of pigs containing four barrows. A normal crude protein (CP) diet providing 15.3% CP and 0.71% SID Lys and five low CP diets providing 12% CP with SID Lys concentrations of 0.51, 0.61, 0.71, 0.81 and 0.91% were formulated. Increasing the SID Lys content of the diet resulted in an increase in weight gain (linear effect p = 0.04 and quadratic effect p = 0.08) and an improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linear effect p = 0.02 and quadratic effect p = 0.02). For weight gain and FCR, the estimated SID Lys requirement of finishing barrows were 0.71 and 0.71% (linear broken-line analysis), 0.79 and 0.78% (quadratic analysis), respectively. Exp. 2 was a 26 d dose-response study using SID Thr to Lys ratios of 0.56, 0.61, 0.67, 0.72 and 0.77. A total of 138 barrows weighing 72.5±4.4 kg were randomly allotted to receive one of the five diets. All diets were formulated to contain 0.61% SID Lys (10.5% CP), which is slightly lower than the pig's requirement. Weight gain was quadratically (p = 0.03) affected by SID Thr to Lys ratio while FCR was linearly improved (p = 0.02). The SID Thr to Lys ratios for maximal weight gain and minimal FCR and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) were 0.67, 0.71 and 0.64 using a linear broken-line model and 0.68, 0.78 and 0.70 using a quadratic model, respectively. Based on the estimates obtained from the broken-line and quadratic analysis, we concluded that the dietary SID Lys requirement for both maximum weight gain and minimum FCR was 0.75%, and an optimum SID Thr to Lys ratio was 0.68 to maximize weight gain, 0.75 to optimize FCR and 0.67 to minimize SUN for finishing barrows.
- Phenytoin toxicity in patients with traumatic brain injury. [Journal Article]
- Neurol India 2014 May-Jun; 62(3):285-9.
Background:We observed that in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who did not improve as expected, serum levels of phenytoin were in the toxic range and that their sensorium improved with modification of the dose. This led us to study the usage of phenytoin in patients with TBI.
Aims:To determine the prevalence of phenytoin toxicity in TBI patients and to study the suitability of using ideal body weight (IBW) to guide phenytoin dosing. Setting and
Design:Neurotrauma unit of a tertiary care centre in India. Prospective data collection from an already established protocol of drug level monitoring. Materials and
Methods:The study cohort included 100 consecutive adult patients with mild or moderate TBI who were administered phenytoin based on IBW. Trough serum phenytoin and albumin levels were measured on day 4 after administration of the loading dose and actual body weight obtained when it was possible. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square was used for comparing categorical variables, student's t-test for continuous variables and multivariate regression analysis to obtain independent risk factors.
Results:Clinical toxicity was observed in 15% of patients and biochemical toxicity in 36%, with a significant association between the two (P < 0.01). Using multivariate analysis, abdominal girth ≤75 cm (P = 0.07), neck circumference ≤34 cm (P = 0.025) and IV dose proportion ≥80% (P = 0.003) were independent risk factors for biochemical toxicity. The plot between actual weight and IBW showed that toxicity occurred when IBW was higher than actual weight.
Conclusion:The prevalence of biochemical phenytoin toxicity was high, with independent risk factors being a higher proportion of IV administration and overestimation of weight by IBW. Clinical suspicion of phenytoin toxicity was a good predictor of biochemical toxicity.
- A high-fiber, low-fat diet improves periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects: a pilot study. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Res 2014 Jun; 34(6):491-8.
Periodontal disease is related to aging, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and systemic inflammation. However, there remains limited evidence about causality from intervention studies. An effective diet for prevention of periodontal disease has not been well established. The current study was an intervention study examining the effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet on periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects. Forty-seven volunteers were interviewed for recruitment into the study. Twenty-one volunteers with a body mass index of at least 25.0 kg/m(2) or with impaired glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. After a 2- to 3-week run-in period, subjects were provided with a test meal consisting of high fiber and low fat (30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight) 3 times a day for 8 weeks and followed by a regular diet for 24 weeks. Four hundred twenty-five teeth from 17 subjects were analyzed. Periodontal disease markers assessed as probing depth (2.28 vs 2.21 vs 2.13 mm; P < .0001), clinical attachment loss (6.11 vs 6.06 vs 5.98 mm; P < .0001), and bleeding on probing (16.2 vs 13.2 vs 14.6 %; P = .005) showed significant reductions after the test-meal period, and these improvements persisted until the follow-up period. Body weight (P < .0001), HbA1c (P < .0001), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = .038) levels showed improvement after the test-meal period; they returned to baseline levels after the follow-up period. In conclusion, treatment with a high-fiber, low-fat diet for 8 weeks effectively improved periodontal disease markers as well as metabolic profiles, at least in part, by effects other than the reduction of total energy intake.
- Comparison of 3 body size descriptors in critically ill obese children and adolescents: implications for medication dosing. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2014 Apr; 19(2):103-10.
To compare 3 methods of weight determination for medication dose calculations in obese children and to discuss feasibility for use in routine care.This was a patient safety and quality improvement study evaluating patients (2-19 years old) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit during a 13-month period (July 2010-July 2011). Patients identified as obese (≥95th percentile body mass index [BMI] for age), including severely obese (≥99th percentile BMI for age), were included in the weight method comparison portion of this study. Lean body mass estimations, using equations derived by the Peters and Foster methods, were compared to ideal body weight estimates by using the BMI method. Absolute differences between values generated by the 3 methods, intraclass correlation (ICC), and Bland-Altman plots were calculated.A total of 1369 patients met initial criteria; 176 met criteria for the dosing weight comparison (age ± SD = 9.28 ± 5 years; actual weight ± SD = 55.5 ± 33.9 kg; 46% female). Sixty were severely obese and 116 were obese. Mean ICC between methods was 0.968 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.959, 0.975). The Peters method estimated higher weights than the Foster or BMI method. Bland-Altman plots illustrated good agreement between methods in children with weight below 50 kg, but decreased agreement above 50 kg, which was influenced by sex.All methods demonstrated strong correlation and acceptable agreement in children below 50 kg. Systematic biases were identified in children above 50 kg where variance was higher. The BMI method was least complex to calculate and the most feasible method for daily use.
- Effects of a Prototype Internet Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Health Psychol 2014 Jul 14.
Objective: A group-based eating disorder prevention program wherein young women explore the costs of pursuing the thin ideal reduces eating disorder risk factors and symptoms. However, it can be challenging to identify school clinicians to effectively deliver the intervention. The present study compares the effects of a new Internet-based version of this prevention program, which could facilitate dissemination, to the group-based program and to educational video and educational brochure control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: Female college students with body dissatisfaction (n = 107; M age = 21.6, SD = 6.6) were randomized to these 4 conditions. Results: Internet participants showed reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms relative to the 2 control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M -d = .34 and .17, respectively), but the effects were smaller than parallel comparisons for the group participants (M -d = .48 and .43, respectively). Yet the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects relative to the 2 control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M -d = .80 and .73, respectively), which were larger than the parallel effects for the group intervention (M -d = .19 and .47, respectively). Conclusions: Although the effects for the Internet versus group intervention were similar at posttest, results suggest that the effects faded more quickly for the Internet intervention. However, the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects, implying that it might be useful for simultaneously preventing eating disordered behavior and unhealthy weight gain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
- A Short Bowel (Small Intestine = 40 cm), No Ileocecal Valve, and Colonic Inertia Patient Works Well with Oral Intake Alone without Parenteral Nutrition. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Surg 2014.:387307.
We present a 50-year-old male who suffered from ischemic bowel disease, having undergone massive resection of small intestine and ileocecal valve. He had to cope with 40 cm proximal jejunum and 70 cm distal colon remaining. In the postoperative period parenteral nutrition (PN) was used immediately for nutrition support and electrolyte imbalance correction. We gave him home PN as regular recommendation for the short bowel status after discharge from hospital. This patient has tolerated regular oral intake 2 months later and did not develop significant short bowel syndrome. There were several episodes of venous access infection which troubled this patient and admitted him for treatment during home PN. Therefore, we changed home PN to cyclic tapering pattern. The patient could maintain his nutrition and hydration with oral intake alone after tapering home PN 15 months later. He has survived more than one year without PN support and still maintained 80% ideal body weight with average albumin of 3.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL. Although patient was hospitalized every two months to supplement nutrients, however, this has greatly improved the quality of life.
- Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Rosuvastatin and Olmesartan: A Randomized, Open-Label, 3-Period, Multiple-Dose Crossover Study in Healthy Korean Male Subjects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Ther 2014 Jul 10.
Rosuvastatin has been widely used in combination with olmesartan for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. With no information currently available on the interaction between the 2 drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the influence of rosuvastatin on olmesartan and vice versa when the 2 drugs were coadministered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet and the associated drug-drug interaction in healthy Korean male volunteers.This was a randomized, open-label, 3-period, multiple-dose crossover study. Eligible subjects were aged 20 to 50 years and within 20% of their ideal body weight. After being randomly assigned to 6 groups of equal number, subjects received each of the following 3 formulations once a day for 7 consecutive days with an 8-day washout period between the formulations: rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet, olmesartan 40-mg tablet, and coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for rosuvastatin, its active metabolite (N-desmethyl rosuvastatin), and olmesartan. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations.Among the 36 enrolled subjects, 34 completed the study (mean [range] age, 28.6 [23-49] y; mean [range] weight, 66.4 [52.2-78.7] kg). The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters for the coadministration of the 2 drugs to the mono-administration of each drug were 85.14% to 96.08% for AUCτ and 81.41% to 97.48% for Css,max for rosuvastatin, and 77.55% to 89.48% for AUCτ and 75.62% to 90.12% for Css,max for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin; those values were 95.61% to 102.57% for AUCτ and 91.73% to 102.98% for Css,max for olmesartan. Dizziness was the most frequently noted adverse drug reaction, occurring in 1 subject receiving mono-administration of rosuvastatin, 1 subject receiving mono-administration of olmesartan, and 4 subjects receiving coadministration of rosuvastatin and olmesartan. All the adverse events were expected, and there was no significant difference in the incidence between the 2 formulations.This study suggests that rosuvastatin and olmesartan did not significantly influence each other's pharmacokinetics when coadministered. Although the pharmacokinetics of N-desmethyl rosuvastatin were influenced by olmesartan, such interactions were considered clinically insignificant. All 3 formulations were well tolerated, and no serious adverse events or drug reactions were noted.
- Menstruation disorders in adolescents with eating disorders ? target body mass index percentiles for their resolution. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2014 Apr; 12(2):175-180.
Objective To analyse the progression of body mass index in eating disorders and to determine the percentile for establishment and resolution of the disease. Methods A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Review of clinical files of adolescents with eating disorders. Results Of the 62 female adolescents studied with eating disorders, 51 presented with eating disorder not otherwise specified, 10 anorexia nervosa, and 1 bulimia nervosa. Twenty-one of these adolescents had menstrual disorders; in that, 14 secondary amenorrhea and 7 menstrual irregularities (6 eating disorder not otherwise specified, and 1 bulimia nervosa). In average, in anorectic adolescents, the initial body mass index was in 75th percentile; secondary amenorrhea was established 1 month after onset of the disease; minimum weight was 76.6% of ideal body mass index (at 4th percentile) at 10.2 months of disease; and resolution of amenorrhea occurred at 24 months, with average weight recovery of 93.4% of the ideal. In eating disorder not otherwise specified with menstrual disorder (n=10), the mean initial body mass index was at 85th percentile; minimal weight was in average 97.7% of the ideal value (minimum body mass index was in 52nd percentile) at 14.9 months of disease; body mass index stabilization occured at 1.6 year of disease; and mean body mass index was in 73rd percentile. Considering eating disorder not otherwise specified with secondary amenorrhea (n=4); secondary amenorrhea occurred at 4 months, with resolution at 12 months of disease (mean 65th percentile body mass index). Conclusion One-third of the eating disorder group had menstrual disorder - two-thirds presented with amenorrhea. This study indicated that for the resolution of their menstrual disturbance the body mass index percentiles to be achieved by female adolescents with eating disorders was 25-50 in anorexia nervosa, and 50-75, in eating disorder not otherwise specified.
- The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Global Health 2014 Jul 7; 10(1):57.
Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos' cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin's stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants' BMI category and self-perception of weight.Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A convenience sample of self-identified Latinos, >=18 years old, living in Baltimore was recruited from a community-based organization. Data for each country represented in the sample were obtained from the WHO Demographic and Health Surveys and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Each country was scored for its stage in the nutrition transition using a six-point scoring system. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and the predictors. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether a country's stage in the nutrition transition increased one's odds of having an obese BMI score (>=30 kg/cm2) and perceiving one's weight as overweight, while controlling for socio-demographic variables.The sample (n = 149) consisted of immigrants from 12 Latin American countries. Participants lived in the US for x=10.24 years. About 40% of the sample had BMI >=30 kg/m2 (obese). The longer Latina immigrants' lived in the US, the less likely their country of origin's nutrition transition score would increase their odds of having a BMI >=30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.97 p < 0.04). The higher the country of origin's nutrition transition score, the more likely BMI influenced Latino immigrants' perception of their weight as above normal (OR = 1.06, p < 0.04). The effect of the nutrition transition score had a stronger effect on females than males.These results suggest that country of origin's nutrition transition score and gender affect Latino immigrants' objective and subjective measures of weight. Future investigation should investigate the relationship between gender and the nutrition transition in Latin American and how the nutrition transition globalizes obesity and weight consciousness.