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ideal body weight [keywords]
- Assessing the factor structure of the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) in an overweight and obese Croatian non-clinical sample. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eat Weight Disord 2014 Nov 18.
The study objectives are to investigate the psychometric properties of the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT-A) in a general sample of overweight and obese persons in Croatia, to evaluate structure differences between men and women and to examine the relationship with other measures of body dissatisfaction as well as with objective body mass measure.This study included 320 adults (156 women and 164 men; aged between 20 and 71) with BMIs ranging from 24 to 48.83 kg/m(2).The analysis confirmed a structural one-factor model for BUT-A. The one-factor model fits the data equally as well as the more complex five-factor model did and should be considered a more robust, parsimonious and adequate model. Female participants showed higher results (higher body uneasiness), but the importance of items is roughly comparable between genders. The BUT-A score significantly contributes to the prediction of general body dissatisfaction, even after gender and BMI are controlled. The multifaceted nature of the BUT-A might explain the relatively low measure of general body dissatisfaction in this sample. Congruent with previous studies, obese subjects expressed dissatisfaction with their body on the figure rating scale by selecting the ideal figure two units thinner than their current body figure. In overweight and obese men, body dissatisfaction is lower than in women.The BUT-A can be a reliable one-dimensional tool for the assessment of body uneasiness in a wide range of samples, including obese individuals.
- [Insulin requirement profiles and related factors of type 2 diabetics with insulin pump therapy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Aug 19; 94(31):2417-21.
To explore the insulin requirement profiles and analyze the related factors of type 2 diabetics on insulin pump therapy.A total of 296 patients were admitted to hospital for 1-2 weeks of insulin pump therapy and received a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg ideal body weight per day. Insulin infusion was adjusted to achieve normoglycemia. It was defined as fasting capillary blood glucose of no more than 7.0 mmol/L and capillary blood glucose at 2 hours after each of three meals of no more than 10.0 mmol/L. After goal-reaching for 3 days, the insulin requirement profiles and related factors were analyzed.The average time of achieving normoglycemia was (5.1 ± 2.9) days. The total daily insulin dose per kilogram was (0.80 ± 0.27) U/kg and the ratio of total basal insulin dose to total bolus insulin dose 40%: 60%. Patients with central obesity needed a higher ratio of total basal insulin dose to total daily insulin dose (P < 0.05). Associations existed between the ratio of total basal insulin dose to total daily insulin dose and disease duration, waist circumference and ratio of 2 hour-postprandial C-peptide to fasting C-peptide (r = 0.169, 0.143, -0.107, all P < 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that waist circumference, disease duration and ratio of 2 hour-postprandial C-peptide to fasting C-peptide were independently related with the ratio of total basal insulin dose to total daily insulin dose. Also waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were independently associated with total daily insulin dose per kilogram.The ratio of total basal insulin dose to total bolus insulin dose is 40%: 60% in Chinese type 2 diabetics with insulin pump therapy. And it is associated with central obesity level and β-cell function. Parameters indicating glycemic control and central obesity should be taken into consideration for total insulin requirements.
- Actual versus ideal body weight for acute kidney injury diagnosis and classification in critically Ill patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Nephrol 2014; 15(1):176.
In the current acute kidney injury (AKI) definition, the urine output (UO) criterion does not specify which body weights (BW), i.e. actual (ABW) versus ideal (IBW), should be used to diagnose and stage AKI, leading to heterogeneity across research studies.This is a single center, retrospective, observational study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. All adult patients who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at our institution for a minimum of 6 continuous hours between January and March 2010 and had a urinary catheter for hourly urine output monitoring were eligible for this study. Patients' AKI stages, based on UO criterion, were assessed by calculating each milliliter of urine per kilogram per hour, using ABW versus IBW.A total of 493 ICU patients were included in the analysis. The median ABW and IBW were 82 (IQR 68-96) and 70 (IQR 60-77) kg, respectively. Using the IBW criterion, 154 patients (31.2%) were diagnosed with AKI, while 204 (41.4%) were diagnosed using the ABW measurement (P-value < .01). Patients who had AKI regardless of BW type had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.76 (95% CI 1.05-2.95) for 90-day mortality, whereas patients who had AKI according to ABW but not IBW had no significant increase in the risk of 90-day mortality, adjusted OR 0.76; (95% CI 0.25-1.91), compared to patients who had no AKI.Using ABW to diagnose and stage AKI by UO criterion is more sensitive and less specific than IBW. Based on the application of the definition, different BW types could be utilized.
- Secular trends in BMI and the prevalence of obesity in young Polish males from 1965 to 2010. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Public Health 2014 Nov 12.
Obesity is a serious public health problem, the prevalence of which is increasing dramatically all over the world. The aim of this study was to examine trends in body mass index (BMI) and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals among 19-year-old Polish males reporting for mandatory military fitness exams from 1965 to 2010.Height, weight and BMI [weight (kg)/height (m(2))] in five 10% nationwide random samples of 19-year-old conscripts examined in 1965, 1986, 1995, 2001 and 2010 were analysed.From 1965 to 2010, mean BMI in 19-year-old Polish males increased from 21.7 to 22.9. The rate of change was not uniform, with a rapid increase in mean BMI from 1995 to 2010. Beginning in 1965, the proportion of men with a BMI over 25 has been steadily increasing from one decade to the next, and was four times higher in 2010 than it was in 1965. The rate of increase per decade was twice as high from 2001 to 2010 than it was from 1995 to 2001. In 2010, only 70.8% of young men were of ideal weight.Increase in obesity can be attributed to the social and economic changes brought about by the transformation of the country from a communist to a free-market economy in 1989. The challenges of the obesity epidemic for public health services and its impact on morbidity and life expectancy are also discussed.
- Comparability of Weight Loss Reporting After Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy Using BOLD Data 2008-2011. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Obes Surg 2014 Nov 14.
Weight loss after bariatric surgery is commonly reported as either a percentage of initial body weight (%IBW) or 100 % minus %IBW which is a percentage of total weight loss (%TWL). These are basically equivalent expressions. Weight loss is also reported as %EWL or as a percentage of excess body mass index loss (%EBMIL). These last two expressions incorporate the concepts of ideal body weight and BMI = 25 as reference points. More straightforward but less commonly used is absolute weight loss. This study compares these various measures using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD).BOLD data, 2008-2011, was accessed for outcomes on 239,659 gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) patients with approval of the Surgical Review Corporation. The outcome data was converted into %TWL, %EWL, and %EBMIL. %EBMIL was varied by changing the reference BMI from 1 to 25 kg/m(2). The post operation data was analyzed for both procedures. Variation coefficients (VC) were compared using different measurements on the same data pool. We assumed that the lesser the variation, the more reliable the measure is, and therefore, we made use of the VC to compare the different reporting methods.There were 164,247 patients who remained after removal of errors and missing data. Demographics are as follows: 78.1 % female, 73.1 % white, 12.5 % black, 8.71 % Hispanic, 81.6 % GB, 18.4 % SG, mean age of 44.8 years, height of 167.0 cm, weight of 132.0 kg, and BMI of 47.1 kg/m(2). GB patients had 26.8 %TWL at 6 months (VC = 21.5) and 34.2 %TWL at 12 months (VC = 27.0). %EWL was 54.7 at 6 months (VC = 27.3) and 69.4 at 12 months (VC = 30.9). Varying the reference BMI for %EBMIL showed the lowest VC to be 0-2 kg/m(2) for GB up to 12 months post operation. SG patients had 24.0 %TWL at 6 months (VC = 25.4) and 29.5 at 12 months (VC = 30.5). %EWL was 50.0 % at 6 months (VC = 31.4) and 60.2 % at 12 months (VC = 34.5). Varying the reference BMI for %EBMIL showed that the lowest VC occurred when the reference weight was chosen as 0 kg/m(2) for both GB and SG. %TWL or, equivalently, %IBW had the lowest variation coefficient and therefore is the more accurate measure of weight loss following bariatric surgery.For ease and accuracy of comparison, the percentage of initial body weight or percentage of total weight loss should be used for the expression of weight loss after surgery.
- The Rac Inhibitor EHop-016 Inhibits Mammary Tumor Growth and Metastasis in a Nude Mouse Model. [Journal Article]
- Transl Oncol 2014 Oct; 7(5):546-55.
Metastatic disease still lacks effective treatments, and remains the primary cause of cancer mortality. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop better strategies to inhibit metastatic cancer. The Rho family GTPase Rac is an ideal target for anti-metastatic cancer therapy, because Rac is a key molecular switch that is activated by a myriad of cell surface receptors to promote cancer cell migration/invasion and survival. Previously, we reported the design and development of EHop-016, a small molecule compound, which inhibits Rac activity of metastatic cancer cells with an IC50 of 1 μM. EHop-016 also inhibits the activity of the Rac downstream effector p21-activated kinase (PAK), lamellipodia extension, and cell migration in metastatic cancer cells. Herein, we tested the efficacy of EHop-016 in a nude mouse model of experimental metastasis, where EHop-016 administration at 25 mg/kg body weight (BW) significantly reduced mammary fat pad tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. As quantified by UPLC MS/MS, EHop-016 was detectable in the plasma of nude mice at 17 to 23 ng/ml levels at 12 h following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 10 to 25 mg/kg BW EHop-016. The EHop-016 mediated inhibition of angiogenesis In Vivo was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of excised tumors and by In Vitro tube formation assays of endothelial cells. Moreover, EHop-016 affected cell viability by down-regulating Akt and Jun kinase activities and c-Myc and Cyclin D expression, as well as increasing caspase 3/7 activities in metastatic cancer cells. In conclusion, EHop-016 has potential as an anticancer compound to block cancer progression via multiple Rac-directed mechanisms.
- Step-by-step clinical management of one-lung ventilation: Continuing Professional Development. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Can J Anaesth 2014 Dec; 61(12):1103-1121.
The purpose of this Continuing Professional Development Module is to review the issues pertinent to one-lung ventilation (OLV) and to propose a management strategy for ventilation before, during, and after lung isolation.The need for optimal lung isolation has increased with the advent of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, as surgical exposure is critical for successful surgery. Continuous positive airway pressure applied to the operative lung or intermittent two-lung ventilation should therefore be avoided if possible. Optimal management of OLV should provide adequate oxygenation and also prevent acute lung injury (ALI), the leading cause of death following lung resection. Research conducted in the last decade suggests implementing a protective ventilation strategy during OLV that consists of small tidal volumes based on ideal body weight, routine use of positive end-expiratory pressure, low inspired oxygen fraction, with low peak and plateau airway pressures. High respiratory rates to compensate for low tidal volumes may predispose to significant air trapping during OLV, so permissive hypercapnea is routinely employed. The management of OLV extends into the period of two-lung ventilation, as the period prior to OLV impacts lung collapse, and both the time before and after OLV influence the extent of ALI. Lung re-expansion at the conclusion of OLV is an important component of ensuring adequate ventilation and oxygenation postoperatively but may be harmful to the lung.Optimal perioperative care of the thoracic patient includes a protective ventilation strategy from intubation to extubation and into the immediate postoperative period. Anesthetic goals include the prevention of perioperative hypoxemia and postoperative ALI.
- Changes in Obesity Between Fifth and Tenth Grades: A Longitudinal Study in Three Metropolitan Areas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatrics 2014 Nov 10.
Despite epidemic childhood obesity levels, we know little about how BMI changes from preadolescence to adolescence and what factors influence changes.We studied 3961 randomly selected public school students and 1 parent per student in 3 US metropolitan areas in fifth and again in tenth grades. In each grade, we measured child and parent height/weight and calculated BMI category. We examined whether baseline sociodemographic characteristics, child health-related factors, and parental obesity were significantly associated with exit from and entry into obesity from fifth to tenth grade.Fifth- and tenth-graders were 1%/2% underweight, 53%/60% normal weight, 19%/18% overweight, and 26%/20% obese, respectively. Among obese tenth-graders, 83% had been obese as fifth-graders and 13% had been overweight. Sixty-five percent of obese fifth-graders remained obese as tenth-graders, and 23% transitioned to overweight. Multivariately, obese fifth-graders who perceived themselves to be much heavier than ideal (P = .01) and those who had lower household education (P = .006) were less likely to exit obesity; by contrast, overweight fifth-graders were more likely to become obese if they had an obese parent (P < .001) or watched more television (P = .02).Obese fifth-graders face challenges in reducing obesity, especially when they lack advantages associated with higher socioeconomic status or when they have a negative body image. Clinicians and others should educate parents on the importance of preventing obesity very early in development. Children who are not yet obese by fifth grade but who have an obese parent or who watch considerable television might benefit from monitoring, as might children who have negative body images.
- Autonomous-related self, eating attitude and body satisfaction in young females. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eat Weight Disord 2014 Nov 11.
This research aimed to investigate the relationship between the self, eating attitudes, and body satisfaction within the framework of the autonomous-related self model, in which the healthy functioning self is described as "autonomous" and "related."Female university students (n = 314) with a mean age of 19 (SD = 1.18) were included in the research. The mean body mass index (BMI) of participants was 20.77 (SD = 2.77, range = 15.57-33.06). Participants completed a demographics questionnaire, the Autonomy-Relatedness Scales, Eating Attitudes Test, Body Cathexis Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory.Lower autonomy-relatedness (β = -0.13, p < 0.05) predicted more problematic eating attitudes, but autonomy-relatedness itself was not a significant predictor of body satisfaction in young females. Ideal weight scores (β = -0.19, p < 0.01) negatively predicted a disturbance in eating attitudes, whereas depression scores (β = 0.12, p < 0.05) positively predicted a disturbance. Although none of the self-constructs (autonomy, relatedness, autonomy-relatedness) were significant predictors of body satisfaction, BMI (β = -0.20, p < 0.001), and depressive symptoms (β = -0.28, p < 0.001) negatively predicted body satisfaction, whereas ideal weight scores (β = 0.14, p < 0.01) positively predicted body satisfaction.The Autonomous-Related Self was a meaningful measure of associations between the self and eating psychopathology, but not of the relationship between the self and body satisfaction. It was also important to evaluate objective (e.g., BMI) and subjective (e.g., ideal weight) indicators of weight to better understand the nature of eating patterns and body satisfaction. Future research on autonomy-relatedness and other psychopathology is recommended.
- Metformin promotes irisin release from murine skeletal muscle independently of AMPK activation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2014 Nov 10.
Irisin, a novel myocyte-secreted hormone mediating beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism, is supposed to be an ideal therapeutic target for metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Here, we investigated the potential effects of metformin and glibenclamide, two anti-diabetic medicines, on irisin release in mouse.Wild-type and diabetic obese db/db mice were administrated with metformin and glibenclamide for 2 weeks, and cultured C2C12 myotubes were treated by metformin. Expression of irisin precursor FNDC5 was measured and blood irisin concentration was detected. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was blocked by chemical inhibitor Compound C or knocking down with specific siRNA.The mRNA and protein expression of FNDC5 in skeletal muscle and blood irisin concentrations were lower in diabetic db/db mice than those in WT mice. Metformin and glibenclamide decreased blood glucose in db/db mice. Metformin, but not glibenclamide, increased intramuscular FNDC5 mRNA/protein expression and blood irisin levels. Additionally, the reductions of blood glucose and body weight in metformin-treated db/db mice were positively associated with blood irisin concentrations. In C2C12 myotubes, metformin upregulated intracellular FDNC5 mRNA/protein expression and promoted irisin release. Although metformin activated AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle cells, disrupting of AMPK signaling by chemical inhibitor or siRNA-mediated knockdown did not abolish the promoting effect of metformin on irisin release.Metformin promotes irisin release from murine skeletal muscle into blood, independently of AMPK pathway activation. Our results suggest that stimulation of irisin may be a novel molecular mechanism of metformin which is widely used for treatment of metabolic disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.