(ideal body weight) articles in PubMed
- Leucine and valine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens from 21 to 42 days of age. [Journal Article]
- Poult Sci 2016 Sep 23PS
- The objective of this study was to determine the requirements and interactions between the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu and Val levels in low-protein diets, and their effects on performanc...
The objective of this study was to determine the requirements and interactions between the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu and Val levels in low-protein diets, and their effects on performance, serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch. A total of 1,500 21-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments with 3 replicates of 20 birds each. Treatments consisted of 5 SID Leu levels (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, or 1.8%) and 5 SID Val levels (0.52, 0.67, 0.82, 0.97, or 1.12%). At 42 d of age, there was interaction (P < 0.05) between the SID levels of Leu and Val on feed intake and weight gain. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of Leu and Val levels on feed conversion, with minimal point estimated at the levels of 1.19 and 0.86%, respectively. Dietary Leu supplementation reduced linearly (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of triglycerides and β-hydroxybutyrate. Dietary Leu increased (P ≤ 0.05) the fiber diameters of the pectoralis major muscle and breast yield at the levels of 1.24 and 1.13%, respectively, while the thigh yield was improved with the level of 0.71% Val. Abdominal fat decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of dietary Leu and Val. The SID Leu and Val levels needed to optimize weight gain and feed conversion in low-CP diets for broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch were estimated at 1.15 and 0.86%, and 1.19 and 0.86%, respectively. The supplementation of Leu and Val can reduce the abdominal fat deposition in birds fed low-CP diets during the grower phase. Leu and Val interactions can influence the performance but not the serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broilers fed low-protein diets. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the dietary Leu content to estimate the ideal level of Val in low-CP diets for optimum broiler performance.
- Nutrition in intensive care in adults review of the literature and development of evidence based feeding protocols. [Journal Article]
- J Pak Med Assoc 2016; 66(9):1154-1164JP
- The subject of nutrition in intensive care is broad.Thenutrition support therapy plays a crucial role in the management of critically ill patients. This review was carried out to address the existing...
The subject of nutrition in intensive care is broad.Thenutrition support therapy plays a crucial role in the management of critically ill patients. This review was carried out to address the existing controversies and to recognise the current practice guidelines for the management of nutrition in intensive care units (ICUs) in adults. A PubMed search was carried out for clinical trials addressing the current nutrition practice in ICUs, recommendations for calculating energy requirements and efficacy of an algorithmic approach to nutritional delivery in an ICU setting. Algorithms were developed and modified for the practice of nutrition in an adult ICU in a quaternary care hospital in Pakistan.
- Estimation of optimal ratios of digestible phenylalanine + tyrosine, histidine, and leucine to digestible lysine for performance and breast yield in broilers. [Journal Article]
- Poult Sci 2016 Sep 19PS
- Three experiments were carried out to estimate the optimal ratios of digestible phenylalanine + tyrosine (Phe + Tyr), histidine (His), and leucine (Leu) relative to digestible lysine (Lys) for perfor...
Three experiments were carried out to estimate the optimal ratios of digestible phenylalanine + tyrosine (Phe + Tyr), histidine (His), and leucine (Leu) relative to digestible lysine (Lys) for performance and carcass criteria of Cobb-500 broilers from 8 to 17 d of age. In each experiment, 160 male chicks were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with eight replicate pens, each receiving five dietary treatments. A common, semi-purified basal diet was formulated to meet all dietary recommendations except for those of the tested amino acids (i.e., Phe + Tyr, His, and Leu). Growth performance and carcass characteristics data were analyzed using various requirement-estimation models, including 95% of the quadratic regression, linear response plateau (LRP; i.e., stepwise regression), LRP-to-quadratic regression ratio; and quadratic broken line (QBL). Graded digestible Phe + Tyr ratios elicited a quadratic response (P < 0.05) in body weight gain and linear responses (P < 0.05) in breast and breast fillet weights. Linear effects (P < 0.05) were also observed when graded ratios of digestible His were fed for feed intake and weight gain, and quadratic responses (P < 0.05) were noted for feed conversion ratio and breast and breast fillet weights and yields. Graded Leu ratios elicited quadratic responses (P < 0.05) in feed intake, weight gain, and breast and breast fillet weight and yield. Based on growth and carcass parameters, the estimated ideal digestible ratios of Phe + Tyr, His, and Leu relative to digestible Lys were 112, 38, and 104%, respectively, for broiler chicks raised from 8 to 17 d of age.
- SSA 02-4 DISPARITIES IN HYPERTENSION MANAGEMENT OF CKD IN SOUTH ASIA. [Journal Article]
- J Hypertens 2016; 34 Suppl 1:e2-3JH
- Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transp...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.Accoriding to successive estimates of the World Health Organization, countries in South Asia have been experiencing a progressive rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) one facet of which is CKD. About 1 in 5 adults older aged 30 years suffer from CKD South Asia. Although national level estimates are not available, a recent meta-analysis indicated prevalence of CKD is 7.7% in South Asia based on eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m. However, evidence to inform CKD prevention and management programs is scarce.Hypertension and diabetes are the most important risk factors for CKD in South Asia: 1 in 3 adults has hypertension. In addition, more than 70 million people had diabetes in 2010, and this number is expected to rise to 100 million by 2030. Both high blood pressure and diabetes are common even during chilldhood. The age of onset of CKD is also younger in South Asians than noted in studies in Western populations. This is unsurprising as low birth weight and prematurity, both in part due to maternal malnutrition are common in India, and predispose to insulin resistance and CKD. Rates of progression of CKD to ESRD have been shown to be faster in people of South Asian origin than white counterparts. However, less than 10% with ESRD are able to afford RRT (annual cost US $5000) in India. The impact of lives lost due to ESRD or premature CVD are far more grave in India where majority of the population lives in conditions of poverty (Fortunately, adverse complications of CKD can be prevented by prompt detection and early institution of therapy. Healthy lifestyle (maintaining ideal body weight, physical activity, healthy diet, and smoking cessation) and pharmaceutical interventions including maintaining blood pressure control preferably with blockers of renin angiotensin system (RAS) to reduce proteinuria, and glycemic control, and reduce the risk of atherosclerotic events with lipid lowering are important for prevention of CVD and delaying progression to ESRD. However, despite the publication of evidence-based guidelines on management of CKD, serious deficiencies in provider knowledge and practices regarding management of hypertension and CKD have been identified. Thus, CKD awareness rates are abysmally poor (6 and 10%) in the general and high risk population with CKD, respectively, in South Asia. Moreover, evidence of effective community based program to prevent and manage CKD has been lacking.The Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation Trial assessed the effects of a combined public health intervention on the kidney health of hypertensive adults in Pakistan's general population. The intervention included training of community health workers on aspects of a healthy lifestyle (such as improving diet, stopping smoking, increasing physical activity, and taking prescribed blood pressure-lowering medications) and training of community general practitioners (GP) on the updated guidelines related to managing hypertension.The combined home health education (HHE) plus trained GP intervention was beneficial in preserving kidney function over 7 years among adults with hypertension in communities in Karachi. These findings highlight the importance of scaling-up simple strategies for renal risk reduction in LMICs. Efforts are needed for integrate CKD prevention and management program within the broader NCD policy framework in South Asia.
- NutritionDay ICU: A 7 year worldwide prevalence study of nutrition practice in intensive care. [Journal Article]
- Clin Nutr 2016 Aug 9CN
- CONCLUSIONS: This very large collaborative cohort study shows that most of the patients are underfed during according to actual recommendations their ICU stay. Prescribed calories appear to be ordered regardless to the ideal weight of the patient. Nutritional support is slow to start and never reaches the recommended targets. Parenteral nutrition prescription is increasing during the ICU stay but reaching only 20% of the population studied if ICU stay is one week or longer. The nutritional support worldwide does not seem to be guided by weight or disease but more to be standardized and limited to a certain level of calories. These observations are showing the poor observance to guidelines.
- Psychometric properties and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4) with a sample of Japanese adolescent girls. [Journal Article]
- Body Image 2016 Sep 13; 19:89-97BI
- The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4) is a 22-item five-factor measure that assesses thin- and muscular-ideal internalization as well as appearance-related pressure...
The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4) is a 22-item five-factor measure that assesses thin- and muscular-ideal internalization as well as appearance-related pressures from peers, family, and media. The scale has been validated in Western cultures, but has not yet been examined in Eastern samples. Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the SATAQ-4 among 946 Japanese adolescent girls. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the SATAQ-4 indicated that the five-factor structure was largely replicated with the exception of two cross-loading items. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit for the full 22-item and reduced 20-item versions of the measure. SATAQ-4 subscales exhibited good internal consistency and were correlated in the expected direction with experiences of appearance teasing, strategies to lose and/or gain weight, and drive for muscularity. Overall, results support the reliability and validity of the SATAQ-4 among Japanese adolescent girls.
- Performance analysis in field hockey goalkeeping during penalty corners: a case study. [Journal Article]
- J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2016 Sep 8JS
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case study confirm that the principal aim of the goalkeepers during the preparation phase of defending penalty corners is to arrive in the best position of readiness within the available time frame of about 1.5 s. They ran out from the goal line about 1.5 m, not reaching an ideal better distance (≈ 4m), for tactical reasons, concerning the possible interventions of other attackers arriving close to the posts, to enlarge the goalmouth.
- Shea Nut Oil Triterpene Concentrate Attenuates Knee Osteoarthritis Development in Rats: Evidence from Knee Joint Histology. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(9):e0162022Plos
- CONCLUSIONS: SheaFlex75 relieves the symptoms of OA and protects cartilage from degeneration. SheaFlex75 thus has the potential to be an ideal nutraceutical supplement for joint protection, particularly for injured knee joints.
- Psychological and behavioural characteristics of females with anorexia nervosa in Singapore. [Journal Article]
- Eat Weight Disord 2016 Aug 31EW
- CONCLUSIONS: The observed pattern of general similarity of presentation between Western data and Singaporean data, together with the finding that no protective benefit of orientation to Asian culture was observed, suggests that it may be appropriate to directly apply evidence-based Western models of intervention to the treatment of anorexia nervosa in Singapore.
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- Theophylline: a review of population pharmacokinetic analyses. [Review]
- J Clin Pharm Ther 2016 Aug 31JC
- CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen articles were included in this review. Among them, 11 were conducted on paediatric patients, and five were conducted on adults. A one-compartment model with first-order elimination was employed in most of the included articles. A nonlinear mixed effect modelling approach (NONMEM) was the most commonly used software to develop a population pharmacokinetic model. Body weight and age (post-conceptional age and post-natal age) were the most important factors associated with the clearance (CL) of theophylline in paediatric patients. Body weight (ideal body weight and lean body mass), age and smoking status were most frequently used to estimate the CL of theophylline in adults. The median (range) estimate values of CL for paediatric and adult patients were 0·062 (0·0056-0·0949) L/h/kg and 0·053 (0·0493-0·0517) L/h/kg, respectively. The median values of the interindividual variability of CL were 33·5% in adults and 25·8% in paediatric patients. The mean values of the residual variability were 21% in paediatric patients and 14·3% in adults.This review concludes that body weight and age were the most important factors associated with the clearance of theophylline in paediatric patients. Body weight, age and smoking were most frequently used to estimate the clearance of theophylline in adults. Future studies are warranted to detect the influence of new factors, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 gene polymorphisms, on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline because some pharmacokinetic variability was not fully explained.