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ideal body weight [keywords]
- African american male and female student perceptions of pulvers body images: implications for obesity, health care, and prevention. [Journal Article]
- J Health Care Poor Underserved 2014; 25(3):1328-40.
Differences in male and female perception response to the Pulvers Body Image Scale (PBIS) were examined among 356 freshmen African American students attending an urban historically Black college/university (HBCU). Participants completed a questionnaire identifying images that best represented their current, healthy, and ideal body image. Compared with males, more females selected the normal body image as their ideal (63.3% vs. 15.3%) and healthy body shape (59.3% vs. 15.3%) (p<.001). Compared with females, more males selected the overweight body image as their ideal (44.6% vs. 30.2%) and healthy body shape (52.2% vs. 36.2%) (p<.01). Similarly, more males selected the obese body image as their ideal (40.1% vs. 6.5%) and healthy body shape (32.5% vs. 4.5%) compared with females (p<.001). Male freshmen at an HBCU perceive a larger body image as healthy and ideal more often than their female counterparts, thereby increasing the potential for their weight-related health risks.
- Weight gain following breast cancer diagnosis: Implication and proposed mechanisms. [REVIEW]
- World J Clin Oncol 2014 Aug 10; 5(3):272-282.
Weight gain occurs in the majority of women following breast cancer treatment. An overview of studies describing weight gain amongst women treated with early to modern chemotherapy regimens is included. Populations at higher risk include women who are younger, closer to ideal body weight and who have been treated with chemotherapy. Weight gain ranges between 1 to 5 kg, and may be associated with change in body composition with gain in fat mass and loss in lean body mass. Women are unlikely to return to pre-diagnosis weight. Possible mechanisms including inactivity and metabolic changes are explored. Potential interventions are reviewed including exercise, dietary changes and pharmacologic agents. Although breast cancer prognosis does not appear to be significantly impacted, weight gain has negative consequences on quality of life and overall health. Future studies should explore change in body composition, metabolism and insulin resistance. Avoiding weight gain in breast cancer survivors following initial diagnosis and treatment should be encouraged.
- Relative sensitivity and specificity of 10-2 visual fields, multifocal electroretinography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in detecting hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine retinopathy. [Journal Article]
- Clin Ophthalmol 2014.:1389-99.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity and specificity of 10-2 visual fields (10-2 VFs), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in detecting hydroxychloroquine retinopathy.A total of 121 patients taking hydroxychloroquine (n=119) or chloroquine (n=2) with 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT tests were retrospectively reviewed. Rates of test abnormality were determined.Retinopathy was present in 14 and absent in 107. Eleven of 14 (78.6%) patients with retinopathy were overdosed. Twelve (85.7%) had cumulative dosing greater than 1,000 g. The sensitivities of 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT in detecting retinopathy were 85.7%, 92.9%, and 78.6%, respectively. The specificities of 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT in detecting retinopathy were 92.5%, 86.9%, and 98.1%, respectively. Positive predictive values of 10-2 VF, mfERG, and SD-OCT in detecting retinopathy were less than 30% for all estimates of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy prevalence. Negative predictive values were >99% for all tests.Based on published estimates of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy prevalence, all three tests are most reliable when negative, allowing confident exclusion of retinopathy in patients taking ≤6.5 mg/kg/day. Each test is less useful in allowing a confident diagnosis of retinopathy when positive, especially in patients taking ≤6.5 mg/kg/day.
- Nasal high-flow oxygen therapy in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure: effect on functional and subjective respiratory parameters compared to conventional oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation (NIV). [Journal Article]
- BMC Anesthesiol 2014.:66.
Aim of the study was to compare the short-term effects of oxygen therapy via a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on functional and subjective respiratory parameters in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure in comparison to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and standard treatment via a Venturi mask.Fourteen patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure were treated with HFNC (FiO2 0.6, gas flow 55 l/min), NIV (FiO2 0.6, PEEP 5 cm H2O Hg, tidal volume 6-8 ml/kg ideal body weight,) and Venturi mask (FiO2 0.6, oxygen flow 15 l/min,) in a randomized order for 30 min each. Data collection included objective respiratory and circulatory parameters as well as a subjective rating of dyspnea and discomfort by the patients on a 10-point scale. In a final interview, all three methods were comparatively evaluated by each patient using a scale from 1 (=very good) to 6 (=failed) and the patients were asked to choose one method for further treatment.PaO2 was highest under NIV (129 ± 38 mmHg) compared to HFNC (101 ± 34 mmHg, p <0.01 vs. NIV) and VM (85 ± 21 mmHg, p <0.001 vs. NIV, p <0.01 vs. HFNC, ANOVA). All other functional parameters showed no relevant differences. In contrast, dyspnea was significantly better using a HFNC (2.9 ± 2.1, 10-point Borg scale) compared to NIV (5.0 ± 3.3, p <0.05), whereas dyspnea rating under HFNC and VM (3.3 ± 2.3) was not significantly different. A similar pattern was found when patients rated their overall discomfort on the 10 point scale: HFNC 2.7 ± 1.8, VM 3.1 ± 2.8 (ns vs. HFNC), NIV 5.4 ± 3.1 (p <0.05 vs. HFNC). In the final evaluation patients gave the best ratings to HFNC 2.3 ± 1.4, followed by VM 3.2 ± 1.7 (ns vs. HFNC) and NIV 4.5 ± 1.7 (p <0.01 vs. HFNC and p <0.05 vs. VM). For further treatment 10 patients chose HFNC, three VM and one NIV.In hypoxic respiratory failure HFNC offers a good balance between oxygenation and comfort compared to NIV and Venturi mask and seems to be well tolerated by patients.GERMAN CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTER: DRKS00005132.
- Dan-gua Fang () improves glycolipid metabolic disorders by promoting hepatic adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase expression in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chin J Integr Med 2014 Aug 7.
To investigate the effect of Dan-gua Fang () on adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) α expression in liver and subsequent improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism.Forty 13-week-old diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were randomly divided into model, Dan-gua Fang, metformin and simvastatin groups (n=10 for each), and fed high-fat diet ad libitum. Ten Wistar rats were used as normal group and fed normal diet. After 24 weeks, liver expression of AMPKα mRNA was assessed by real-time PCR. AMPKα and phospho-AMPKα protein expression in liver was evaluated by Western blot. Liver histomorphology was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin staining, and blood glucose (BG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), food intake and body weight recorded.Similar AMPKα mRNA levels were found in the Dan-gua Fang group and normal group, slightly higher than the values obtained for the remaining groups (P<0.05). AMPKα protein expression in the Dan-gua Fang group animals was similar to other diabetic rats, whereas phospho-AMPKα (Thr-172) protein levels were markedly higher than in the metformin group and simvastatin group (P<0.05), respectively. However, phosphor-AMPKα/AMPKα ratios were similar in all groups. Dan-gua Fang reduced fasting blood glucose with similar strength to metformin, and was superior in reducing cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as improving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with simvastatin and metformin. Dan-gua Fang decreases plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly.Dan-gua Fang, while treating phlegm-stasis, could decrease BG and lipid in type 2 diabetic GK rats fed with high-fat diet, and effectively protect liver histomorphology and function. This may be partly explained by increased AMPK expression in liver. Therefore, Dan-gua Fang might be an ideal drug for comprehensive intervention for glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
- Etomidate can be dosed according to ideal body weight in morbidly obese patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Anaesthesiol 2014 Aug 6.
- [Cardiovascular risk factor assessment in a rural Brazilian population]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Cad Saude Publica 2014 Jun; 30(6):1183-94.
This cross-sectional study assessed cardiovascular health in 863 adults in rural communities in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, focusing on seven factors, four of which behavioral (diet, physical activity, smoking, and body weight) and three biological (total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and arterial pressure), classified as ideal, intermediate, or poor. Men showed better results in behavioral factors (p = 0.01), with more men displaying 2 or 3 factors at ideal levels (48.5 and 25.8%, respectively), when compared to women (44.2 and 19.8%, respectively) (p = 0.01). Women presented more biological factors at ideal levels (19.1%) when compared to men (7.9%) (p < 0.001). Only three participants (0.4%) showed all seven factors at ideal levels. Prevalence of ideal indices was very low, showing the need for strategies to improve cardiovascular health in this population.
- The impact of different algorithms for ideal body weight on screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in women. [Journal Article]
- Clin Ophthalmol 2014.:1401-7.
To determine how algorithms for ideal body weight (IBW) affect hydroxychloroquine dosing in women.This was a retrospective study of 520 patients screened for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Charts were reviewed for sex, height, weight, and daily dose. The outcome measures were ranges of IBW across algorithms; rates of potentially toxic dosing; height thresholds below which 400 mg/d dosing is potentially toxic; and rates for which actual body weight (ABW) was less than IBW.Women made up 474 (91%) of the patients. The IBWs for a height varied from 30-34 pounds (13.6-15.5 kg) across algorithms. The threshold heights below which toxic dosing occurred varied from 62-70 inches (157.5-177.8 cm). Different algorithms placed 16%-98% of women in the toxic dosing range. The proportion for whom dosing should have been based on ABW rather than IBW ranged from 5%-31% across algorithms.Although hydroxychloroquine dosing should be based on the lesser of ABW and IBW, there is no consensus about the definition of IBW. The Michaelides algorithm is associated with the most frequent need to adjust dosing; the Metropolitan Life Insurance, large frame, mean value table with the least frequent need. No evidence indicates that one algorithm is superior to others.
- Association between control to target blood pressures and healthy lifestyle factors among Japanese hypertensive patients: Longitudinal data analysis from Fukushima Research of Hypertension (FRESH). [Journal Article]
- Obes Res Clin Pract 2014 Jul-Aug; 8(4):e364-73.
To determine success rates in controlling target blood pressures longitudinally by measuring several factors, including lifestyle characteristics associated with uncontrolled blood pressures for target treatment goals.This prospective observational cohort study (September 2008-September 2010) collected information on blood pressure control status and healthy lifestyle factors listed in Breslow's seven health practices through medical records and self-administered questionnaires from 884 of the 1264 Japanese hypertensive patients initially registered in the FRESH study. Multivariate analysis adjusted for associated factors was performed to estimate the association between lifestyle change and "uncontrolled blood pressures" at the final follow-up survey.Median age and proportion of men were 73 years and 39.1%, respectively. All survey failure rates were 37.6% among non-elderly patients (<65 years of age) without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease, and 35.0% among patients with these diseases or myocardial infarction. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle was a protective factor against uncontrolled blood pressures in multivariate analysis. Obesity and smoking status were associated with uncontrolled blood pressures, and exercise frequency was borderline significance. The number of participants with healthy responses for these factors remained relatively low during follow up.Our study revealed low rates of controlled blood pressures, especially in non-elderly patients without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease, and patients with these diseases or myocardial infarction. Our data indicate the need to maintain a healthy lifestyle, in particular, ideal body weight and adequate exercise frequency, for better hypertension management according to treatment guidelines.
- Ethnic identity, thin-ideal internalization, and eating pathology in ethnically diverse college women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Body Image 2014 Jul 28; 11(4):438-445.
Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women.