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- Open and Disturbed Habitats Support Higher Diversity of Syrphidae (Diptera)? A Case Study During Three Yr of Sampling in a Fragment of Araucaria Forest in Southern Brazil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Insect Sci 2014; 14(1)
The diversity of hoverflies in five different habitats of the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil, from September 1999 to August 2002 was studied. These five areas had been exposed to various types of anthropogenic disturbance at different times, which resulted in different stages of plant succession. In total, 2,841 specimens of 151 species of Syrphidae were collected using malaise traps. The highest species richness and abundance were found at the edge of the forest (Forest Edge), whereas the lowest was found in the most conserved areas. Evenness values increased along the succession gradient. The accumulation curve of new occurrences of syrphid species nearly approached an asymptote starting on the third month of the third year. Estimates of syrphid species richness using different methods indicated that between 155 and 288 species are found in the study area, according the Michaelis-Menten and the Chao2 estimators, respectively. The richness and abundance of representatives of the subfamily Syrphinae were higher in more open areas, where herbaceous plants predominate. Nineteen hoverfly species can be considered as environmental indicators, as they were collected exclusively or mainly in one of the defined habitat types. The degree of opening of the vegetation seems to be the factor determining the distribution of Syrphidae species, a conclusion based on the finding that grassy clearings in Araucaria Forests had more species. Hence, we conclude that, to become established, Syrphidae communities need conserved mosaic landscapes.
- Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated factors among the Chinese population in Taian, China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Nephrol 2014 Dec 21; 15(1):205.
This study was designed to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated risk factors among the Chinese population in Taian, China.A primary care-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Taian, China, from September to December 2012. Participants selected by a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and other clinical indices. Factors associated with CKD were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.A total of 14,399 subjects were enrolled in this study. The rates of hematuria, albuminuria and reduced eGFR were 4.20%, 5.25% and 1.89%, respectively. Approximately 9.49% (95% CI: 8.93%-10.85%) of the participants had at least one indicator of CKD, with an awareness of 1.4%. Univariate analyses showed that greater age, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; higher levels of serum creatinine, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and lower eGFR were associated with CKD (p < 0.05 each). Multivariate analysis showed that age, female gender, educational level, smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, and history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and hyperuricemia were independent risk factors for CKD.The prevalence of CKD in the primary care population of Taian, China, is high, although awareness is quite low. Health education and policies to prevent CKD are urgently needed among this population.
- The effect of cane length and step height on muscle strength and body balance of elderly people in a stairway environment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Physiol Anthropol 2014 Dec 21; 33(1):36.
It has been reported that 75% of stairway accidents occur while descending stairs. Using a cane can help to prevent older people and those with limited mobility from falling. However, studies have shown that two-thirds of older cane users use a cane that is longer than the recommended length, which may cause unnecessary muscular loads. This study aims to assess balance and muscular load in older people descending different height steps with different cane lengths.Nine participants (5 males and 4 females) aged over 65 years participated in this study. Cane length and stair height were independent variables. Electromyography signals were recorded from the biceps brachii of the arm that usually held the cane and from both gastrocnemius muscles. In addition, the center of pressure (CoP) was assessed as an indicator of balance in older people descending a step.Descending from higher steps resulted in the use of greater arm and leg strength at the time of first foot contact. However, cane length did not affect any of the root mean square values. In addition, the CoP Stabilometric Parameters showed that mean distance, antero-posterior mean distance, total excursions, antero-posterior total excursions, mean velocity, and antero-posterior mean velocity were significantly affected by step height, but not by cane length.If cane length is within the currently suggested range, then it has little effect on the force load on the arm and legs when descending a step. Step height has a greater effect than cane length on the strategies used by older people to maintain stability.
- Chloroquine potentiates temozolomide cytotoxicity by inhibiting mitochondrial autophagy in glioma cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurooncol 2014 Dec 21.
Mitochondrial autophagy eliminates damaged mitochondria and decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS). The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) potentiates temozolomide (TMZ) cytotoxicity in glioma cells, but it is not known whether CQ does this by inhibiting mitochondrial autophagy. The effects of CQ and TMZ on MitoSOX Red fluorescence, a mitochondrial ROS indicator, and cell death were examined in rat C6 glioma cells. Mitochondrial autophagy was monitored by the colocalization of MitoTracker Red fluorescence and EGFP-LC3 dots. Mitochondrial content was measured by MitoTracker Green fluorescence and immunoblotting for a mitochondrial protein. Finally, CQ's effects on tumor cells derived from a glioblastoma patient and human U87-MG glioblastoma cells were assessed. TMZ (100-1,000 μM) alone did not affect mitochondrial ROS or cell death in C6 cells, but when administered with CQ (10 μM), it increased mitochondrial ROS and cell death. Antioxidants significantly suppressed the CQ-augmented cell death in TMZ-treated cells, indicating that mitochondrial ROS were involved in this cell death. TMZ treatment reduced MitoTracker Green fluorescence and mitochondrial protein levels, and these effects were inhibited by CQ. TMZ also increased the colocalization of EGFP-LC3 dots with mitochondria, and CQ enhanced this effect. CQ potentiated TMZ-induced cytotoxicity in patient-derived glioblastoma cells as well as human U87-MG glioblastoma cells. These results suggest that CQ increases cellular ROS and augments TMZ cytotoxicity in glioma cells by inhibiting mitochondrial autophagy.
- The microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads in Turkey: A focus on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Food Microbiol 2014 Nov 29.:79-83.
The microbiological safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods is of special concern as they are not exposed to further processing before consumption. In the present study, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 15(6%) and 21(8%) samples respectively out of 261 RTE foods commercialized in Turkey. Escherichia coli was present in 10(4%) samples analyzed. Psychrotrophic aerobic populations >6logCFU/g were found in 36 (14%) of the samples, while total coliforms were detected in 155 (59%) of samples analyzed. All of the Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes isolates tested, exhibited resistance to one or more antimicrobial agents used. For Salmonella spp. isolates, resistance to penicillin (69%), erythromycin (38%), gentamicin (36%), tetracycline (36%) neomycin (33%), ampicillin (33%), amikacin (33%), vancomycin (33%), streptomycin (29%) cefotaxime (9%) and oxacillin (9%) was observed. For L. monocytogenes isolates, resistance to erythromycin (23%) and cephalothin (20%) was evident. The presence of pathogens and the relatively high resistance among the bacteria tested in RTE foods could pose public health and therapeutic problems in consumers. These results indicate the need of implementing hygienic rules in the production chain of RTE foods to ensure microbiological safety and to improve shelf life.
- Altered spontaneous neuronal activity in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder patients before and after a 12-week paroxetine treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Dec 4.:257-264.
Abnormal functional brain activity has been revealed in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in recent years, while the recovery neuromechanism of PTSD has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the altered spontaneous brain activity in treatment-naïve chronic PTSD patients before and after 12 weeks׳ treatment with paroxetine.Twenty-one earthquake-related PTSD patients and seventeen traumatized controls underwent a resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) scan at baseline. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was calculated and compared between PTSD patients and controls. Then, the PTSD group completed 12 weeks of treatment with paroxetine, and Rs-fMRI was repeated to compare with the baseline. Lastly, correlation analyses of ALFF values within altered brain areas were conducted.Hyperactive function of visual cortex was observed in PTSD patients before and after treatment. After treatment, significantly increased ALFF values were observed in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), while decreased ALFF values were found in the precuneus. Interestingly, a negative correlation between the mean ALFF values of OFC and those of precuneus and visual cortex was only observed in controls, but not in PTSD patients pre- or post-treatment.A corresponding control condition was absent in this study.The findings showed that manipulating regional spontaneous activity of precuneus and OFC could be a potential prognostic indicator of PTSD. However, hyperactive function of visual cortex and disrupted connections between OFC, precuneus and visual cortex did not reverse after treatment, which could be a potential target for further treatment.
- Self-rated health amongst male and female employees in Sweden: a nationally representative study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2014 Dec 21.
Self-rated health (SRH) is a well-established measure within social epidemiology. However, most studies on SRH tend to be amongst the general population, where SRH has been found to be lower in women than in men. Few studies have specifically investigated patterns of SRH just within an employed population. The purpose of this study was to (1) investigate whether there are gender differences in reporting suboptimal SRH in an employed Swedish population and (2) study whether these differences could be explained by socio-economic, work-, health- and/or lifestyle-related factors.This study is cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2008 wave of Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, a nationally representative cohort of the Swedish working population. This study includes the responses of 9,756 employed individuals. Logistic regression analyses were performed.After adjusting for age, income and working hours (full vs. part time), men had significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH than women OR 1.38 (95 % CI 1.22-1.55). With stepwise inclusion of health factors such as long-standing disease, sleep quality and fatigue, the OR for men increased to 1.65 (95 % CI 1.44-1.89). Gender differences in reporting suboptimal SRH were attenuated to 1.29 (95 % CI 1.11-1.51) with the inclusion of lifestyle factors. However, they remained significant after inclusion of all explanatory variables.In contrast to findings in general population studies, our results show that men in employment have higher odds of suboptimal SRH than their female counterparts. As SRH is an important indicator of health with a strong association with mortality, an excess risk of suboptimal SRH amongst employed men shows that more attention should be paid to men's health in the workplace.
- Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and colorectal cancer: a case-control study. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Nutr 2015 Jan; 101(1):192-201.
Unlike experimental results, epidemiologic studies that used dietary questionnaires were not convincing as regards the relations between dietary fatty acids (FAs) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The FA composition of adipose tissue, which is considered to be an indicator of dietary intake over 2-3 y because of the slow turnover rate, appears promising but has so far been rarely used to explore the relation between CRC and exogenous or endogenously produced FAs.In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate associations between risk of CRC and the FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and product-to-precursor ratios as indexes of enzymatic activities.From 2008 to 2011, we recruited 203 cases with newly diagnosed CRC and elective surgery with a curative intent and 223 control subjects with planned abdominal surgery for benign disease and no history of CRC or polyp resection. During surgery, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were optimally collected, stored, and analyzed by using high-performance gas chromatography. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate ORs for CRC in relation to individual FAs divided into tertiles according to the FA distribution in controls.After adjustment, significant positive associations with CRC risk were observed in highest compared with lowest tertiles of 16:1n-9 (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.00, 3.06; P-trend = 0.045), 20:3n-6 (OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.17; P-trend = 0.038), 22:5n-3 (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.12; P-trend = 0.023), and the ratio of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-3 (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.98; P-trend = 0.001). Significant inverse associations were observed for 18:3n-3 (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.81; P-trend = 0.007). Several product-to-precursor ratios showed significant differences between cases and controls in particular ratios that reflected elongase 2/5 activity.CRC patients presented higher concentrations of some FAs but lower concentrations of α-linolenic acid in their subcutaneous adipose tissue than did controls. These results may reflect both dietary patterns and altered FA metabolism but require mechanistic explorations. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01966081.
- Psychological aspects of eating behavior as predictors of 10-y weight changes after surgical and conventional treatment of severe obesity: results from the Swedish Obese Subjects intervention study. [Journal Article]
- Am J Clin Nutr 2015 Jan; 101(1):16-24.
There is a need for a better understanding of the factors that influence long-term weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.We examined whether pretreatment and posttreatment levels of cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger and 1-y changes in these eating behaviors predict short- and long-term weight changes after surgical and conventional treatments of severe obesity.Participants were from an ongoing, matched (nonrandomized) prospective intervention trial of the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. The current analyses included 2010 obese subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 1916 contemporaneously matched obese controls who received conventional treatment. Physical measurements (e.g., weight and height) and questionnaires (e.g., Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were completed before the intervention and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after the start of the treatment. Structural equation modeling was used as the main analytic strategy.The surgery group lost more weight and reported greater decreases in disinhibition and hunger at 1- and 10-y follow-ups (all P < 0.001 in both sexes) than the control group did. Pretreatment eating behaviors were unrelated to subsequent weight changes in surgically treated patients. However, patients who had lower levels of 6-mo and 1-y disinhibition and hunger (β = 0.13-0.29, P < 0.01 in men; β = 0.11-0.28, P < 0.001 in women) and experienced larger 1-y decreases in these behaviors (β = 0.31-0.48, P < 0.001 in men; β = 0.24-0.51, P < 0.001 in women) lost more weight 2, 6, and 10 y after surgery. In control patients, larger 1-y increases in cognitive restraint predicted a greater 2-y weight loss in both sexes.A higher tendency to eat in response to various internal and external cues shortly after surgery predicted less-successful short- and long-term weight outcomes, making postoperative susceptibility for uncontrolled eating an important indicator of targeted interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01479452.
- Protein Requirements of Healthy Pregnant Women during Early and Late Gestation Are Higher than Current Recommendations. [Journal Article]
- J Nutr 2015 Jan; 145(1):73-8.
Adequate maternal dietary protein intake is necessary for healthy pregnancy. However, current protein intake recommendations for healthy pregnant women are based on factorial calculations of nitrogen balance data derived from nonpregnant adults. Thus, an estimate of protein requirements based on pregnancy-specific data is needed.The objective of this study was to determine protein requirements of healthy pregnant women at 11-20 (early) and 31-38 (late) wk of gestation through use of the indicator amino acid oxidation method.Twenty-nine healthy women (24-37 y) each randomly received a different test protein intake (range: 0.22-2.56 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) during each study day in early (n = 35 observations in 17 women) and late (n = 43 observations in 19 women) gestation; 7 women participated in both early and late gestation studies. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 × resting energy expenditure. Protein was given as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on egg protein composition, except phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained constant across intakes. Protein requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation rate of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 (F(13)CO2). Breath and urine samples were collected at baseline and isotopic steady state. Linear regression crossover analysis identified a breakpoint (requirement) at minimal F(13)CO2 in response to different protein intakes.The estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein in early and late gestation was determined to be 1.22 (R(2) = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.66 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) and 1.52 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) (R(2) = 0.63; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.77 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), respectively.These estimates are considerably higher than the EAR of 0.88 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) currently recommended by the Dietary Reference Intakes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to directly estimate gestational stage-specific protein requirements in healthy pregnant women and suggests that current recommendations based on factorial calculations underestimate requirements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01784198.