- Impact of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements on infant and young child feeding practices at 18 months of age: results from four randomized controlled trials in Africa. [Journal Article]
- MCMatern Child Nutr 2016 Dec 2
- Optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices can help ensure nutrient adequacy and support healthy growth and development. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) have bee...
Optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices can help ensure nutrient adequacy and support healthy growth and development. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) have been proposed to help fill nutrient gaps, but little is known about the impact of provision of SQ-LNS on breastfeeding or complementary feeding practices. In the context of four coordinated randomized controlled nutrient supplementation trials in diverse sites in Africa, we compared IYCF practices at infant age 18 months (after 9-12 months of supplementation) between those receiving and not receiving SQ-LNS. Practices were assessed by caregiver recall. Continued breastfeeding ranged from 74% (Ghana site) to 97% (Burkina Faso site) and did not differ between groups in any site; prevalence of frequent breastfeeding also did not differ. In two sites (Burkina Faso and Malawi), infants receiving SQ-LNS were more likely to meet the World Health Organization recommendations for frequency of feeding (percentage point differences of 12-14%, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.005, respectively; the remaining two sites did not have data for this indicator). Most indicators of infant dietary diversity did not differ between groups in any site, but in the same two sites where frequency of feeding differed, infants receiving SQ-LNS were less likely to have low frequency of consumption of animal-source foods in the previous week (percentage point differences of 9-19% for lowest tertile, P = .02 and P = 0.04, respectively). We conclude that provision of SQ-LNS did not negatively impact self-reported IYCF practices and may have positively impacted frequency of feeding.
- Bone marrow T-cell percentage: A novel prognostic indicator in acute myeloid leukemia. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Hematol 2016 Dec 1
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy for which overall disease-free survival is less than 50%. Manipulation of the immune system is an interesting and promising therapy for AML pa...
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy for which overall disease-free survival is less than 50%. Manipulation of the immune system is an interesting and promising therapy for AML patients. We aimed to characterize the immune system of AML patients, highlighting the clinical relevance of total bone marrow (BM) lymphocytes and subpopulations. Sixty-six new AML cases diagnosed according to WHO criteria from King Abdullah Medical City, KSA, from October 2012 to February 2015. Analysis of BM lymphocytes and subpopulations was done by flowcytometry. Significantly, high percentages of BM lymphocytes, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells were detected in the group that achieved complete remission (P values = 0.004, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). Overall survival (OS) was significantly prolonged in patients with high BM lymphocytes and T cells (P values = 0.047 and P 0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that BM T-cell percentage and cytogenetics were independent prognostic factors predictive of OS (HR 4.7, P value = 0.011). BM T-cell percentage constitutes a novel host factor that can be used in combination with cytogenetics to better predict OS. Large-scale multicenter studies are recommended to clarify its role as a predictor of OS and leukemia-free survival.
- Obesity and Liver Cancer. [Journal Article]
- RRRecent Results Cancer Res 2016; 208:177-198
- Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phen...
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure. Accumulating evidence has established an association between higher body mass index as an indicator of general obesity and higher risk of primary liver cancer. The associations are stronger in men, in patients with underlying liver disease and in white ethnic groups. Abdominal obesity, weight gain in adult life and metabolic factors related to visceral fat accumulation were also suggested as important risk factors for liver cancer; however, more studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The association of obesity and metabolic parameters with liver cancer survival remains controversial. It is unclear which exact mechanisms could provide links between obesity and liver cancer risk. Recent evidence has implicated several molecular pathways in obesity-associated liver cancer. These include insulin resistance leading to increased levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factors, chronic inflammation, adipose tissue remodeling, pro-inflammatory cytokine and adipokine secretion, and altered gut microbiota. These mechanisms coincide with inflammatory and metabolic processes occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease predisposing cancer development and progression. In the context of the current evidence, better understanding of the role of obesity and related metabolic factors may help in improving current strategies for liver cancer prevention.
- Effects of Chronic and Acute Zinc Supplementation on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats. [Journal Article]
- BTBiol Trace Elem Res 2016 Dec 1
- The present study aims to explore the effects of chronic and acute zinc sulfate supplementation on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study registered 50 adult male rats which were d...
The present study aims to explore the effects of chronic and acute zinc sulfate supplementation on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study registered 50 adult male rats which were divided into five groups in equal numbers as follows: group 1, normal control; group 2, sham; group 3, myocardial ischemia reperfusion (My/IR): the group which was fed on a normal diet and in which myocardial I/R was induced; group 4, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + chronic zinc: (5 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate for 15 days); and group 5, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + acute zinc: the group which was administered 15 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate an hour before the operation and in which myocardial I/R was induced. The collected blood and cardiac tissue samples were analyzed using spectrophotometric method to determine levels of MDA, as an indicator of tissue injury, and GSH, as an indicator of antioxidant activity. The highest plasma and heart tissue MDA levels were measured in group 3 (p < 0.05). Group 5 had lower MDA values than group 3, while group 4 had significantly lower MDA values than groups 3 and 5 (p < 0.05). The highest erythrocyte GSH values were found in group 4 (p < 0.05). Erythrocyte GSH values in group 5 were higher than those in group 3 (p < 0.05). The highest GSH values in heart tissue were measured in group 4 (p < 0.05). The results of the study reveal that the antioxidant activity inhibited by elevated oxidative stress in heart ischemia reperfusion in rats is restored partially by acute zinc administration and markedly by chronic zinc supplementation.
- The Microbiota of Recreational Freshwaters and the Implications for Environmental and Public Health. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2016; 7:1826
- The microbial communities in recreational freshwaters play important roles in both environmental and public health perspectives. In this study, the bacterial community structure and its associations ...
The microbial communities in recreational freshwaters play important roles in both environmental and public health perspectives. In this study, the bacterial community structure and its associations with freshwater environments were investigated by analyzing the summertime microbiomes of three beach waters in Ohio (East Fork, Delaware, and Madison lakes) together with environmental and microbial water quality parameters. From the swimming season of 2009, 21 water samples were collected from the three freshwater beaches. From the samples, 110,000 quality-checked bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and analyzed, resulting in an observation of 4500 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The most abundant bacteria were Mycobacterium and Arthrobacter of the Actinobacteria (33.2%), Exiguobacterium and Paenisporosarcina of the Firmicutes (23.4%), Planktothrix and Synechococcus of the Cyanobacteria (20.8%), and Methylocystis and Polynucleobacter of the Proteobacteria (16.3%). Considerable spatial and temporal variations were observed in the bacterial community of Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Firmicutes, where the bacterial community structure was greatly influenced by hydrological and weather conditions. The most influential factors were (1) water inflow for Bacteroidia and Clostridia, (2) turbidity for Gammaproteobacteria, (3) precipitation for Bacilli, and (4) temperature and pH for Cyanobacteria. One noticeable microbial interaction in the bacterial community was a significant negative relationship between Cyanobacteria and Bacilli (P < 0.05). Concerning beach water quality, the level of the genetic markers for cyanobacterial toxin (mcyA) was linked to the abundance of Cyanobacteria. In addition, unique distributions of the genera Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Finegoldia, Burkholderia, and Klebsiella, together with a high density of fecal indicator Escherichia coli, were markedly observed in the sample from Madison Lake on July 13, suggesting a distinctly different source of bacterial loading into the lake, possibly fecal contamination. In conclusion, deep sequencing-based microbial community analysis can provide detailed profiles of bacterial communities and information on potential public health risks at freshwater beaches.
- The Relationship between Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2016 Nov 28
- Chronic systematic inflammation has been suggested to be associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular events. Low-grade systematic inflammation persists in type 2 diabetes mellitu...
Chronic systematic inflammation has been suggested to be associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular events. Low-grade systematic inflammation persists in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In addition, the risk of cerebral hemorrhage in these patients is increased compared with non-diabetic patients. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is the ratio derived by dividing the neutrophil count with the lymphocyte count from a peripheral blood sample. This study aimed to explore the relation between NLR and cerebral hemorrhage, and to prove that NLR is an independent risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage in T2DM patients.
- A Test in Context: Hemoglobin A1c and Cardiovascular Disease. [Review]
- JACCJ Am Coll Cardiol 2016 Dec 6; 68(22):2479-2486
- Measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the most widely accepted indicator of long-term glycemic exposure, is central for the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Levels of HbA1c track ...
Measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the most widely accepted indicator of long-term glycemic exposure, is central for the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Levels of HbA1c track epidemiologically with diabetic complications, and glycemic control, as reflected by HbA1c reduction, results in decreased risk of microvascular complications, including diabetic kidney disease, neuropathy, and retinopathy. The relationship between HbA1c reduction and cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with diabetes is more complex, with data from large randomized trials published over the past decade providing clear evidence that lowering of HbA1c per se is an inadequate marker for a therapeutic regimen's impact on cardiovascular outcomes and patient survival. Recent revisions in professional society guidelines moved away from uniform recommendations and toward a more nuanced, patient-centered approach to HbA1c therapeutic targets. The context and key evidence underpinning these recent changes are discussed in this paper, alongside a brief overview of HbA1c contemporary assays and their limitations.
- Serum substance P concentrations to predict oocyte maturation index and clinical pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- GEGynecol Endocrinol 2016 Dec 2; :1-5
- CONCLUSIONS: SP concentrations at the day of oocyte pick up may be used to predict clinical pregnancy and may be an indirect indicator for cycle outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART).
- Association of Muscle Endurance, Fatigability, and Strength With Functional Limitation and Mortality in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2016 Oct 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Muscle endurance, estimated by isokinetic work, is an indicator of muscle health associated with mobility limitation and mortality providing important insight beyond strength testing.
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- Excellent storage stability and sensitive detection of neurotoxin quinolinic acid. [Journal Article]
- BBBiosens Bioelectron 2016 Nov 23; 90:224-229
- Quinolinic acid (QA) is a metabolite of tryptophan degradation obtained through kynurenine pathway, produced naturally in the mammalian brain as well as in the human cerebrospinal fluid. The presence...
Quinolinic acid (QA) is a metabolite of tryptophan degradation obtained through kynurenine pathway, produced naturally in the mammalian brain as well as in the human cerebrospinal fluid. The presence of QA ~10-40µM is a clear indicator of many neurological disorders as well as deficiency of vitamin B6 in human being. In the present work; rapid, sensitive and cost-effective bio-electrodes were prepared to detect the trace amount of endogenous neurotoxin (QA). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies were carried out to measure the electrochemical response of the fabricated bio-electrodes as a function of QA concentrations. These devices were found to exhibit desirable sensitivity of ~7.86mAμM(-1)cm(-2) in wide concentration range (6.5μM-65mM). The lower detection limit of this device is as low as 6.5μM and it has excellent storage stability of ~30 days. The capability of the proposed electrochemical bio-sensor was also checked to detect QA in the real samples (human serum). These results reveal that the use of this electrochemical bio-sensor may provide a potential platform for the detection of QA in the real samples for the prior detection of many diseases.