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- Estimating the number of pure chemical components in a mixture by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Synchrotron Radiat 2014 Sep 1; 21(Pt 5):1140-1147.
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a multivariate data analysis approach commonly used in X-ray absorption spectroscopy to estimate the number of pure compounds in multicomponent mixtures. This approach seeks to describe a large number of multicomponent spectra as weighted sums of a smaller number of component spectra. These component spectra are in turn considered to be linear combinations of the spectra from the actual species present in the system from which the experimental spectra were taken. The dimension of the experimental dataset is given by the number of meaningful abstract components, as estimated by the cascade or variance of the eigenvalues (EVs), the factor indicator function (IND), or the F-test on reduced EVs. It is shown on synthetic and real spectral mixtures that the performance of the IND and F-test critically depends on the amount of noise in the data, and may result in considerable underestimation or overestimation of the number of components even for a signal-to-noise (s/n) ratio of the order of 80 (σ = 20) in a XANES dataset. For a given s/n ratio, the accuracy of the component recovery from a random mixture depends on the size of the dataset and number of components, which is not known in advance, and deteriorates for larger datasets because the analysis picks up more noise components. The scree plot of the EVs for the components yields one or two values close to the significant number of components, but the result can be ambiguous and its uncertainty is unknown. A new estimator, NSS-stat, which includes the experimental error to XANES data analysis, is introduced and tested. It is shown that NSS-stat produces superior results compared with the three traditional forms of PCA-based component-number estimation. A graphical user-friendly interface for the calculation of EVs, IND, F-test and NSS-stat from a XANES dataset has been developed under LabVIEW for Windows and is supplied in the supporting information. Its possible application to EXAFS data is discussed, and several XANES and EXAFS datasets are also included for download.
- [Perspectives of Application of Evidence-Based Measures of Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Arterial Hypertension.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Kardiologiia 2014 Jul; 54(7):25-30.
Aim of the study was to assess advantages and disadvantages of existing measures of adequacy blood pressure (BP) control and their appropriateness in Russian population of patients with arterial hypertension (AH). Material and methods. Two indicators were studied with the help of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association methodology (ACC/AHA, 2005): Russian AH registry indicator "Achieving and maintenance of the goal BP" and indicator "Optimal AH treatment" adopted from UK and US measures for the data of Russian AH registry. Each indicator was calculated in the same group comprising 37 827 patients with diagnosis AH. The data from the year 2011 were used. Results. Indicator "Achieving and maintenance of the goal BP" was evaluated in 27% of eligible patients. Extrapolation to the total study group showed that portion patients with goal BP was 17.5%. Indicator "Optimal AH treatment" was evaluated in 47.5% of its target group. Extrapolation to the total study group showed that portion of optimally treated patients was 42.4%. Analysis with the help of ACC/AHA methodology demonstrated feasibility of using both indicators for assessment of degree of BP control among Russian AH patients. According to its characteristics indicator "Optimal AH treatment" was found appropriate for monitoring the effectiveness of AH treatment on popular level. Use of indicator "Achieving and maintenance of the goal BP" in the system of interrelated quality measures was considered to be appropriate for audit of completeness of implementation of recommended treatments in medical care delivered to AH patients. Conclusion.Measures of adequacy of BP control being realized in Russia and abroad allow to characterize reliably the effectiveness of treatment among Russian AH patients and may be implemented on different organizational levels of healthcare system for monitoring of clinical situation in population as well as for audit of work of healthcare units.
- Relationship between Serum Level of Interleukin-2 in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Disease Activity in Comparison with Control Group. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Jul; 8(7):MC16-8.
Despite the large number of surveys, there are not any validated biomarkers for SLE disease activity till now. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum level of IL-2 in patients with SLE and disease activity in comparison with control group.In this case-control study, 73 patients with lupus and 73 healthy subjects referred to the rheumatology clinic of 5 Azar Hospital in Gorgan (North of Iran).They were studied via convenience sampling during 2011-2012. Blood samples were taken from both groups and serum levels of interleukin -2 measured by Avi Bion Human IL-2 ELISA kit. Serum Level of IL-2 greater than 15 pg/ml defined positive and lesser than this amount defined negative. Disease activity evaluated with SLE disease activity index. Score greater than or equal to three or four defined as active disease. Data analysis conducted by SPSS software (version 16) and by using descriptive statistics and statistical tests.Serum level of IL-2 was positive in 45.2% of sample studied and negative in 54.8% in case group, while in control group, serum level of IL-2 only in 11% of sample studied was positive and in 89% was negative. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between serum level of IL-2 and the SLE disease activity index (p=0.025).This study showed the relationship between serum levels of IL-2 and disease activity, so this biomarker can be used as a clinical indicator for assessing disease activity in patients with SLE.
- Cytological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma thyroid metastasis in pelvic muscles-a rare and unusual site. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Jul; 8(7):FD05-6.
Distant metastasis of thyroid neoplasm as an initial presentation is rarely encountered. The present case report describes a chance diagnosis of follicular carcinoma thyroid (FCT) metastasis in a 75-year-old female who was presented with symptoms related to pelvic mass. This is a rare site of reporting as only three cases have been reported previously at the first diagnosis. It is important to identify the presence of distant metastasis as it is the most important prognostic indicator (associated with 50% mortality). This is significant as this has a direct bearing upon its treatment and managing the patient. Hence more awareness is required by both diagnosticians and clinicians regarding this.
- Effect of yoga on oxidative stress in elderly with grade-I hypertension: a randomized controlled study. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Jul; 8(7):BC04-7.
Hypertension, especially in elderly is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Oxidative stress has been implicated as one of the underlying cause of hypertension. Yoga has been found to control hypertension in the elderly, but the underlying benefits of mechanism in relation to oxidative stress regulation remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of yoga on oxidative stress in elderly with Grade-I hypertension.An open parallel-arm randomised controlled study was conducted at BLDE University's Shri B.M.Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, India on elderly male individuals with Grade-I hypertension (n=57, age 60-80 years). Study (Yoga) group was assigned for yoga intervention and control group for walking for one hour in the morning for six days in a week for three months under the supervision of yoga instructor and physical training instructor respectively. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator of oxidative stress and antioxidants such as serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels were estimated.Yoga practice for three months has significantly reduced serum MDA level (p<0.001), and enhanced antioxidants level such as SOD activity (p=0.007), serum GSH (p=0.002) and vitamin C (p=0.002). In the control group, we observed a significant increase in serum MDA level (p=0.04) and reduction in serum vitamin C level (p=0.015) with no significant difference in the SOD activity and GSH level.These findings suggest that yoga is an effective means to reduce oxidative stress and to improve antioxidant defense in elderly hypertensive individuals.
- Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas. [Journal Article, Review]
- Front Oncol 2014.:216.
The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual's risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB) at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon, and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal, and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction, and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: (1) validation of prognostic scoring systems for TB in large, multi-center studies, (2) consensus on the optimal assessment method, and (3) inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.
- Role of bite mark characteristics and localizations in finding an assailant. [Journal Article]
- J Forensic Dent Sci 2014 Sep; 6(3):202-6.
The location, size, and number of bite marks can be used as a beneficial indicator of the crime type and feasible group of suspects. This study aims to present information about the bite mark locations, the bite mark characteristics, and the perpetrator's profile based on three cases which were carried out by the same biter. The attack bites, which observed in all of the three cases, were characterized by serious wounds and tissue loss. Analysis of bite mark characteristics and bite mark localizations of these three cases by the relevant experts provided helpful information for the police units which searched for the assailant. But, in order to conduct criminal profiling from bite marks objectively, the number of case series is advised to be expanded.
- A note on digital dental radiography in forensic odontology. [Journal Article]
- J Forensic Dent Sci 2014 Sep; 6(3):197-201.
Digital dental radiography, intraoral and extraoral, is becoming more popular in dental practice. It offers convenience, such as lower exposure to radiation, ease of storing of images, and elimination of chemical processing. However, it also has disadvantages and drawbacks. One of these is the potential for confusion of the orientation of the image. This paper outlines one example of this, namely, the lateral inversion of the image. This source of confusion is partly inherent in the older model of phosphor storage plates (PSPs), as they allow both sides to be exposed without clue to the fact that the image is acquired on the wrong side. The native software allows digital manipulation of the X-ray image, permitting both rotation and inversion. Attempts to orientate the X-ray according to the indicator incorporated on the plate can then sometimes lead to inadvertent lateral inversion of the image. This article discusses the implications of such mistakes in dental digital radiography to forensic odontology and general dental practice.
- The influence of karate practice level and sex on physiological and perceptual responses in three modern karate training modalities. [Journal Article]
- Biol Sport 2014 Aug; 31(3):201-7.
The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of karate practice level (national vs international level) and sex (women vs men) on physiological and perceptual responses in three modern karate training modalities (tactical-technical (TT), technical-development (TD), and randori).The study included 18 karatekas participating in an eight-session training camp of four TT, two TD, and two randori. During each session, the percentage of maximal heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [La(-)], and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed.The main results showed that the percentage of maximal HR was significantly higher in women than in men regardless of practice level or training modality (70.3 ± 4.1 vs 66.2 ± 6.3, respectively). Moreover, [La(-)] and RPE were significantly lower in international-level karatekas compared with their national-level counterparts whatever the sex or training modality ([La(-)] = 11.4 ± 2.6 vs 8.3 ± 2.4 mmol · L(-1) and RPE = 3.6 ± 1.2 vs 4.3 ± 1.5, respectively). Last, physiological and perceptual responses were significantly higher during randori in comparison with TT and TD for both sexes.The combination of [La(-)] and RPE thus seems to be a good indicator for discriminating between national- and international-level karatekas, and randori seems to be an effective means to reproduce official karate sparring.
- C-89Reliable Digit Span Performance in Children Referred Primarily due to Academic Problems. [Journal Article]
- Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2014 Sep; 29(6):606.
The purpose of this study was to describe performance on an indicator of effort, Reliable Digit Span (RDS), in a sample of children referred primarily due to academic difficulties. Little research has examined RDS performance in this population.This archival study consisted of 37 children (28 males, 9 females) referred for a psychological evaluation primarily for academic difficulties to a college-affiliated psychological clinic. Participants ranged in age from 6 to 16 (M = 10.789, SD = 3.16) and were primarily Euro-American (66%). Six participants met criteria for a learning disability (LD), four for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 18 had more than one diagnosis (typically ADHD and LD), one had dysthymia, and eight did not meet any diagnostic criteria.RDS scores ranged from 6 to 15 (M = 8.51, SD = 2.04). The rate of participants scoring above the low effort cutoff score of ≤6 was 91.9%. RDS scores were not significantly differentiated by gender, t(35) = 0.44, p > 0.05, or diagnostic category, F(4, 32) = 1.35, p > 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between RDS and age, r(n = 37) = 0.50, p < 0.01) but not RDS and FSIQ, r(n = 37) = 0.04, p > 0.05).RESULTS indicated that RDS performance exceeded the pass rate of 90% recommended in prior research for an effective effort index, suggesting that it is a potentially useful indicator of effort in children referred due to academic difficulties.