information technology [keywords]
- Beta Testing a Novel Smartphone Application to Improve Medication Adherence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Telemed J E Health 2016 Aug 26.
We developed and beta-tested a patient-centered medication management application, PresRx optical character recognition (OCR), a mobile health (m-health) tool that auto-populates drug name and dosing instructions directly from patients' medication labels by OCR.We employed a single-subject design study to evaluate PresRx OCR for three outcomes: (1) accuracy of auto-populated medication dosing instructions, (2) acceptability of the user interface, and (3) patients' adherence to chronic medications.Eight patients beta-tested PresRx OCR. Five patients used the software for ≥6 months, and four completed exit interviews (n = 4 completers). At baseline, patients used 3.4 chronic prescription medications and exhibited moderate-to-high adherence rates. Accuracy of auto-populated information by OCR was 95% for drug name, 98% for dose, and 96% for frequency. Study completers rated PresRx OCR 74 on the System Usability Scale, where scores ≥70 indicate an acceptable user interface (scale 0-100). Adherence rates measured by PresRx OCR were high during the first month of app use (93%), but waned midway through the 6-month testing period (78%). Compared with pharmacy fill rates, PresRx OCR underestimated adherence among completers by 3%, while it overestimated adherence among noncompleters by 8%.Results suggest smartphone applications supporting medication management are feasible and accurately assess adherence compared with objective measures. Future efforts to improve medication-taking behavior using m-health tools should target specific patient populations and leverage common application programming interfaces to promote generalizability.Our medication management application PresRx OCR is innovative, acceptable for patient use, and accurately tracks medication adherence.
- Serum Procalcitonin and Peripheral Venous Lactate for Predicting Dengue Shock and/or Organ Failure: A Prospective Observational Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Aug; 10(8):e0004961.
Currently, there are no biomarkers that can predict the incidence of dengue shock and/or organ failure, although the early identification of risk factors is important in determining appropriate management to reduce mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the factors associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure and to evaluate the prognostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and peripheral venous lactate (PVL) levels as biomarkers of dengue shock and/or organ failure.A prospective observational study was conducted among adults hospitalized for confirmed viral dengue infection at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Bangkok, Thailand between October 2013 and July 2015. Data, including baseline characteristics, clinical parameters, laboratory findings, serum PCT and PVL levels, management, and outcomes, were recorded on pre-defined case report forms. Of 160 patients with dengue, 128 (80.0%) patients had dengue without shock or organ failure, whereas 32 (20.0%) patients developed dengue with shock and/or organ failure. Using a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR]: 4.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60-14.45; p = 0.005) and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L (OR: 27.99, 95% CI: 8.47-92.53; p <0.001) were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. A combination of PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L provided good prognostic value for predicting dengue shock and/or organ failure, with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.92), a sensitivity of 81.2% (95% CI: 63.6-92.8%), and a specificity of 84.4% (95% CI: 76.9-90.2%). Dengue shock patients with non-clearance of PCT and PVL expired during hospitalization.PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. The combination of PCT and PVL levels could be used as prognostic biomarkers for the prediction of dengue shock and/or organ failure.
- Therapeutic potential of naringin: an overview. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharm Biol 2016 Aug 26.:1-8.
Naringin is a natural flavanone glycoside that is found in the Chinese herbal medicines and citrus fruits. Studies have demonstrated that naringin possesses numerous biological and pharmacological properties, but few reviews of these studies have been performed.The present review gathers the fragmented information available in the literature describing the extraction of naringin, its pharmacology and its controlled release formulations. Current research progress and the therapeutic potential of naringin are also discussed.A literature survey for relevant information regarding the biological and pharmacological properties of naringin was conducted using Pubmed, Sciencedirect, MEDLINE, Springerlink and Google Scholar electronic databases from the year 2007-2015.Naringin modulates signalling pathways and interacts with signalling molecules and thus has a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer activities, as well as effects on bone regeneration, metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress, genetic damage and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Information was gathered that showed the extraction of naringin can be improved using several modifications. There has been some progress in the development of controlled release formulations of naringin.Naringin is a promising candidate for further in vivo studies and clinical use. More detailed studies regarding its mechanism of action are required.
- Malware and Disease: Lessons from Cyber Intelligence for Public Health Surveillance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Health Secur 2016 Aug 26.
Malicious software and infectious diseases are similar is several respects, as are the functional requirements for surveillance and intelligence to defend against these threats. Given these similarities, this article compares and contrasts the actors, relationships, and norms at work in cyber intelligence and disease surveillance. Historical analysis reveals that civilian cyber defense is more decentralized, private, and voluntary than public health in the United States. Most of these differences are due to political choices rather than technical necessities. In particular, political resistance to government institutions has shaped cyber intelligence over the past 30 years, which is a troubling sign for attempts to improve disease surveillance through local, state, and federal health departments. Information sharing about malware is also limited, despite information technology being integral to cyberspace. Such limits suggest that automation through electronic health records will not automatically improve public health surveillance. Still, certain aspects of information sharing and analysis for cyber defense are worth emulating or, at the very least, learning from to help detect and manage health threats.
- User acceptance of mobile health services from users' perspectives: The role of self-efficacy and response-efficacy in technology acceptance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inform Health Soc Care 2016 Aug 26.:1-13.
With the swift emergence of electronic medical information, the global popularity of mobile health (mHealth) services continues to increase steadily. This study aims to investigate the efficacy factors that directly or indirectly influence individuals' acceptance of mHealth services. Based on the technology acceptance model, this research incorporates efficacy factors into the acceptance decision process. A research model was proposed involving the direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy and response-efficacy on acceptance intention, along with their moderating effects. The model and hypotheses were validated using data collected from a field survey of 650 potential service users. The results reveal that: (1) self-efficacy and response-efficacy are both positively associated with perceived ease of use; and (2) self-efficacy and response-efficacy moderate the impact of perceived usefulness toward adoption intention. Self-efficacy and response-efficacy both play an important role in individuals' acceptance of mHealth services, which not only affect their perceived ease of use of mHealth services, but also positively moderate the effects of perceived usefulness on adoption intention. Our findings serve to provide recommendations that are specifically customized for mHealth service providers and their marketers.
- Bringing eCare platforms to the market. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inform Health Soc Care 2016 Aug 26.:1-25.
Due to changes in the demographic situation of most Western European countries, interest in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-supported care services is growing fast. eCare services that foster better care information exchange, social involvement, lifestyle monitoring services, etc., offered via ICT platforms, integrated in the homes of the elderly are believed to be cost-effective. Additionally, they could lead to an increased quality of life of both care receiver and (in)formal caregiver. Currently, adoption and integration of these eCare platforms (eCPs) is slowed down by several barriers such as unclear added value, a lack of regulations, or lack of sustainable financial models. In this work, the added value of eCPs is identified for the several involved key actors such as the care receiver, the (in)formal care providers, and the home care organizations. In a second step, several go-to-market strategies are formulated. Because the gap between the current way of providing home care and providing home care supported by a fully integrated eCP seems too big to bridge in one effort, a migration path is provided for stepwise integration and adoption of eCPs in the current way of home care provisioning.
- Evaluating Mobile Survey Tools (MSTs) for Field-Level Monitoring and Data Collection: Development of a Novel Evaluation Framework, and Application to MSTs for Rural Water and Sanitation Monitoring. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016; 13(9)
Information and communications technologies (ICTs) such as mobile survey tools (MSTs) can facilitate field-level data collection to drive improvements in national and international development programs. MSTs allow users to gather and transmit field data in real time, standardize data storage and management, automate routine analyses, and visualize data. Dozens of diverse MST options are available, and users may struggle to select suitable options. We developed a systematic MST Evaluation Framework (EF), based on International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) software quality modeling standards, to objectively assess MSTs and assist program implementers in identifying suitable MST options. The EF is applicable to MSTs for a broad variety of applications. We also conducted an MST user survey to elucidate needs and priorities of current MST users. Finally, the EF was used to assess seven MSTs currently used for water and sanitation monitoring, as a validation exercise. The results suggest that the EF is a promising method for evaluating MSTs.
- The Finite Element Analysis for a Mini-Conductance Probe in Horizontal Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sensors (Basel) 2016; 16(9)
Oil-water two-phase flow is widespread in petroleum industry processes. The study of oil-water two-phase flow in horizontal pipes and the liquid holdup measurement of oil-water two-phase flow are of great importance for the optimization of the oil production process. This paper presents a novel sensor, i.e., a mini-conductance probe (MCP) for measuring pure-water phase conductivity of oil-water segregated flow in horizontal pipes. The MCP solves the difficult problem of obtaining the pure-water correction for water holdup measurements by using a ring-shaped conductivity water-cut meter (RSCWCM). Firstly, using the finite element method (FEM), the spatial sensitivity field of the MCP is investigated and the optimized MCP geometry structure is determined in terms of the characteristic parameters. Then, the responses of the MCP for the oil-water segregated flow are calculated, and it is found that the MCP has better stability and sensitivity to the variation of water-layer thickness in the condition of high water holdup and low flow velocity. Finally, the static experiments for the oil-water segregated flow were carried out and a novel calibration method for pure-water phase conductivity measurements was presented. The validity of the pure-water phase conductivity measurement with segregated flow in horizontal pipes was verified by experimental results.
- Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sensors (Basel) 2016; 16(9)
The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset.
- A New Approach of Oil Spill Detection Using Time-Resolved LIF Combined with Parallel Factors Analysis for Laser Remote Sensing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sensors (Basel) 2016; 16(9)
In hope of developing a method for oil spill detection in laser remote sensing, a series of refined and crude oil samples were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence in conjunction with parallel factors analysis (PARAFAC). The time resolved emission spectra of those investigated samples were taken by a laser remote sensing system on a laboratory basis with a detection distance of 5 m. Based on the intensity-normalized spectra, both refined and crude oil samples were well classified without overlapping, by the approach of PARAFAC with four parallel factors. Principle component analysis (PCA) has also been operated as a comparison. It turned out that PCA operated well in classification of broad oil type categories, but with severe overlapping among the crude oil samples from different oil wells. Apart from the high correct identification rate, PARAFAC has also real-time capabilities, which is an obvious advantage especially in field applications. The obtained results suggested that the approach of time-resolved fluorescence combined with PARAFAC would be potentially applicable in oil spill field detection and identification.