- Prognostic impact of CD44-positive cancer stem-like cells at the invasive front of gastric cancer. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Cancer 2016 Dec 08
- CONCLUSIONS: CD44-positive cancer stem-like cells at the invasive tumour front indicate poor survival and can be a unique biological prognostic factor for GC.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 8 December 2016; doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.401 www.bjcancer.com.
- Impact and influence of "omics" technology on hyper tension studies. [Review]
- IJInt J Cardiol 2016 Nov 23; 228:1022-1034
- CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrates that "omics technologies" contributed to identify new biomarkers which could be used as drug targets and therapeutic agents and to understand hypertension pathogenesis. New technologies will help us to understand the disease, however, many results are currently not replicable. High-throughput technology has identified many SNPs involved in BP regulation. Some of them have been replicated and validated and they may become targets for new drugs to regulate blood pressure.
- Bacterial Interactions with Immobilized Liquid Layers. [Journal Article]
- AHAdv Healthc Mater 2016 Dec 08
- Bacterial interactions with surfaces are at the heart of many infection-related problems in healthcare. In this work, the interactions of clinically relevant bacteria with immobilized liquid (IL) lay...
Bacterial interactions with surfaces are at the heart of many infection-related problems in healthcare. In this work, the interactions of clinically relevant bacteria with immobilized liquid (IL) layers on oil-infused polymers are investigated. Although oil-infused polymers reduce bacterial adhesion in all cases, complex interactions of the bacteria and liquid layer under orbital flow conditions are uncovered. The number of adherent Escherichia coli cells over multiple removal cycles increases in flow compared to static growth conditions, likely due to a disruption of the liquid layer continuity. Surprisingly, however, biofilm formation appears to remain low regardless of growth conditions. No incorporation of the bacteria into the layer is observed. Bacterial type is also found to affect the number of adherent cells, with more E. coli remaining attached under dynamic orbital flow than Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa under identical conditions. Tests with mutant E. coli lacking flagella confirm that flagella play an important role in adhesion to these surfaces. The results presented here shed new light on the interaction of bacteria with IL layers, highlighting the fundamental differences between oil-infused and traditional solid interfaces, as well as providing important information for their eventual translation into materials that reduce bacterial adhesion in medical applications.
- A Meta-Synthesis of Children's Experiences of Postoperative Pain Management. [Journal Article]
- WEWorldviews Evid Based Nurs 2016 Dec 08
- Ineffective management of postoperative pain in children has been reported widely. To improve the effectiveness of postoperative pain management for children, it was necessary to conduct a systematic...
Ineffective management of postoperative pain in children has been reported widely. To improve the effectiveness of postoperative pain management for children, it was necessary to conduct a systematic review to better understand the current knowledge of children's experiences of their postoperative pain management.
- Reasons for Lack of Consensus in Forensic Pathologist Interpretation of Photographs of Patterns of Injury of the Skin(). [Journal Article]
- JFJ Forensic Sci 2016 Dec 08
- In a previous study, a survey-based analysis of pathologist diagnoses of patterned injury in which participants were asked makes diagnoses from photographs in the absence of history or context. The l...
In a previous study, a survey-based analysis of pathologist diagnoses of patterned injury in which participants were asked makes diagnoses from photographs in the absence of history or context. The level of consensus was low. A follow-up survey was created to ask those who responded to the first survey why they answered as they did or why they were unsure of their answers. The most common reason for lack of consensus was that the lesion was nonspecific. Responses invoking ambiguity were more common than those that indicated a confident difference in diagnosis. There were differences between demographic groups, with age and experience being most prominent. These findings suggest that differences in image interpretation do not generally reflect firm differences in diagnosis as much as differing ways of dealing with ambiguity in the absence of history and context. A third survey will study the effect of the addition of contextual information.
- Effects of Recreation on Animals Revealed as Widespread through a Global Systematic Review. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(12):e0167259
- Outdoor recreation is typically assumed to be compatible with biodiversity conservation and is permitted in most protected areas worldwide. However, increasing numbers of studies are discovering nega...
Outdoor recreation is typically assumed to be compatible with biodiversity conservation and is permitted in most protected areas worldwide. However, increasing numbers of studies are discovering negative effects of recreation on animals. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature and analyzed 274 articles on the effects of non-consumptive recreation on animals, across all geographic areas, taxonomic groups, and recreation activities. We quantified trends in publication rates and outlets, identified knowledge gaps, and assessed evidence for effects of recreation. Although publication rates are low and knowledge gaps remain, the evidence was clear with over 93% of reviewed articles documenting at least one effect of recreation on animals, the majority of which (59%) were classified as negative effects. Most articles focused on mammals (42% of articles) or birds (37%), locations in North America (37.7%) or Europe (26.6%), and individual-level responses (49%). Meanwhile, studies of amphibians, reptiles, and fish, locations in South America, Asia, and Africa, and responses at the population and community levels are lacking. Although responses are likely to be species-specific in many cases, some taxonomic groups (e.g., raptors, shorebirds, ungulates, and corals) had greater evidence for an effect of recreation. Counter to public perception, non-motorized activities had more evidence for a negative effect of recreation than motorized activities, with effects observed 1.2 times more frequently. Snow-based activities had more evidence for an effect than other types of recreation, with effects observed 1.3 times more frequently. Protecting biodiversity from potentially harmful effects of recreation is a primary concern for conservation planners and land managers who face increases in park visitation rates; accordingly, there is demand for science-based information to help solve these dilemmas.
- Assessing Inhalation Exposures Associated with Contamination Events in Water Distribution Systems. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(12):e0168051
- When a water distribution system (WDS) is contaminated, short-term inhalation exposures to airborne contaminants could occur as the result of domestic water use. The most important domestic sources o...
When a water distribution system (WDS) is contaminated, short-term inhalation exposures to airborne contaminants could occur as the result of domestic water use. The most important domestic sources of such exposures are likely to be showering and the use of aerosol-producing humidifiers, i.e., ultrasonic and impeller (cool-mist) units. A framework is presented for assessing the potential effects of short-term, system-wide inhalation exposures that could result from such activities during a contamination event. This framework utilizes available statistical models for showering frequency and duration, available exposure models for showering and humidifier use, and experimental results on both aerosol generation and the volatilization of chemicals during showering. New models for the times when showering occurs are developed using time-use data for the United States. Given a lack of similar models for how humidifiers are used, or the information needed to develop them, an analysis of the sensitivity of results to assumptions concerning humidifier use is presented. The framework is applied using network models for three actual WDSs. Simple models are developed for estimating upper bounds on the potential effects of system-wide inhalation exposures associated with showering and humidifier use. From a system-wide, population perspective, showering could result in significant inhalation doses of volatile chemical contaminants, and humidifier use could result in significant inhalation doses of microbial contaminants during a contamination event. From a system-wide perspective, showering is unlikely to be associated with significant doses of microbial contaminants. Given the potential importance of humidifiers as a source of airborne contaminants during a contamination event, an improved understanding of the nature of humidifier use is warranted.
- On the Wiener Polarity Index of Lattice Networks. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(12):e0167075
- Network structures are everywhere, including but not limited to applications in biological, physical and social sciences, information technology, and optimization. Network robustness is of crucial im...
Network structures are everywhere, including but not limited to applications in biological, physical and social sciences, information technology, and optimization. Network robustness is of crucial importance in all such applications. Research on this topic relies on finding a suitable measure and use this measure to quantify network robustness. A number of distance-based graph invariants, also known as topological indices, have recently been incorporated as descriptors of complex networks. Among them the Wiener type indices are the most well known and commonly used such descriptors. As one of the fundamental variants of the original Wiener index, the Wiener polarity index has been introduced for a long time and known to be related to the cluster coefficient of networks. In this paper, we consider the value of the Wiener polarity index of lattice networks, a common network structure known for its simplicity and symmetric structure. We first present a simple general formula for computing the Wiener polarity index of any graph. Using this formula, together with the symmetric and recursive topology of lattice networks, we provide explicit formulas of the Wiener polarity index of the square lattices, the hexagonal lattices, the triangular lattices, and the 33 ⋅ 42 lattices. We also comment on potential future research topics.
- Stochastic Simulation Service: Bridging the Gap between the Computational Expert and the Biologist. [Journal Article]
- PCPLoS Comput Biol 2016; 12(12):e1005220
- We present StochSS: Stochastic Simulation as a Service, an integrated development environment for modeling and simulation of both deterministic and discrete stochastic biochemical systems in up to th...
We present StochSS: Stochastic Simulation as a Service, an integrated development environment for modeling and simulation of both deterministic and discrete stochastic biochemical systems in up to three dimensions. An easy to use graphical user interface enables researchers to quickly develop and simulate a biological model on a desktop or laptop, which can then be expanded to incorporate increasing levels of complexity. StochSS features state-of-the-art simulation engines. As the demand for computational power increases, StochSS can seamlessly scale computing resources in the cloud. In addition, StochSS can be deployed as a multi-user software environment where collaborators share computational resources and exchange models via a public model repository. We demonstrate the capabilities and ease of use of StochSS with an example of model development and simulation at increasing levels of complexity.
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- Brain Connectivity Variation Topography Associated with Working Memory. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(12):e0165168
- Brain connectivity analysis plays an essential role in the research of working memory that involves complex coordination of various brain regions. In this research, we present a comprehensive view of...
Brain connectivity analysis plays an essential role in the research of working memory that involves complex coordination of various brain regions. In this research, we present a comprehensive view of trans-states brain connectivity variation based on continuous scalp EEG, extending beyond traditional stimuli-lock averaging or restriction to short time scales of hundreds of milliseconds after stimulus onset. The scalp EEG was collected under three conditions: quiet, memory, and control. The only difference between the memory and control conditions was that in the memory condition, subjects made an effort to retain information. We started our investigation with calibrations of Pearson correlation in EEG analysis and then derived two indices, link strength and node connectivity, to make comparisons between different states. Finally, we constructed and studied trans-state brain connectivity variation topography. Comparing memory and control states with quiet state, we found that the beta topography highlights links between T5/T6 and O1/O2, which represents the visual ventral stream, and the gamma topography conveys strengthening of inter-hemisphere links and weakening of intra-hemisphere frontal-posterior links, implying parallel inter-hemisphere coordination combined with sequential intra-hemisphere coordination when subjects are confronted with visual stimuli and a motor task. For comparison between memory and control states, we also found that the node connectivity of T6 stands out in gamma topography, which provides strong proof from scalp EEG for the information binding or relational processing function of the temporal lobe in memory formation. To our knowledge, this is the first time for any method to effectively capture brain connectivity variation associated with working memory from a relatively large scale both in time (from a second to a minute) and in space (from the scalp). The method can track brain activity continuously with minimal manual interruptions; therefore, it has promising potential in applications such as brain computer interfaces and brain training.