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- Random urine protein/creatinine ratio readily predicts proteinuria in preeclampsia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Obstet Gynecol Sci 2013 Jan; 56(1):8-14.
To assess the diagnostic accuracy of random urine protein-creatinine (P/C) ratio for prediction of significant proteinuria in preeclampsia as an alternative to the time-consuming 24-hour urine protein collection.Retrospective record analysis was performed on 140 pregnant women who were admitted with suspicion for preeclampsia from January 2006 to June 2011. Random urine protein and/or 24-hour urine protein levels were assessed and their correlation to random urine P/C ratio and 24-hour urine protein excretion was evaluated.Out of 140 patients, random urine P/C ratio or/and 24-hour urine protein was performed in 79 patients to evaluate significant proteinuria. Of 79 patients, 46 (58%) underwent both tests whereas in 33 women (42%) 24-hour urine collection was not available due to urgent delivery. In 39 cases (85%), significant proteinuria (≥300 mg/24 hr) was detected with 6 cases (13%) having values over 5,000 mg/24 hr, corresponding to the diagnosis of severe preeclampsia. Random urine P/C ratio highly correlated with 24-hour urine protein excretion (r=0.823, P<0.01). The optimal random urine P/C ratio cutoff points were 0.63 and 4.68 for 300 mg/24 hr and 5,000 mg/24 hr of protein excretion, respectively. with each sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 87.1%, 100%, 100%, and 58.3%; and 100%, 85%, 50%, and 100%, for significant and severe preeclampsia, respectively.Random urine P/C ratio is a reliable indicator of significant proteinuria in preeclampsia and may be better at providing earlier diagnostic information than the 24-hour urine protein excretion with more accuracy than the urinary dipstick test.
- On the intrinsic disorder status of the major players in programmed cell death pathways. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- F1000Res 2013.
Earlier computational and bioinformatics analysis of several large protein datasets across 28 species showed that proteins involved in regulation and execution of programmed cell death (PCD) possess substantial amounts of intrinsic disorder. Based on the comprehensive analysis of these datasets by a wide array of modern bioinformatics tools it was concluded that disordered regions of PCD-related proteins are involved in a multitude of biological functions and interactions with various partners, possess numerous posttranslational modification sites, and have specific evolutionary patterns (Peng et al. 2013). This study extends our previous work by providing information on the intrinsic disorder status of some of the major players of the three major PCD pathways: apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. We also present a detailed description of the disorder status and interactomes of selected proteins that are involved in the p53-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways.
- Reporting research antibody use: how to increase experimental reproducibility. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- F1000Res 2013.
Research antibodies are used in a wide range of bioscience disciplines, yet it is common to hear dissatisfaction amongst researchers with respect to their quality. Although blame is often attributed to the manufacturers, scientists are not doing all they can to help themselves. One example of this is in the reporting of research antibody use. Publications routinely lack key details, including the host species, code number and even the company who supplied the antibody. Authors also fail to demonstrate that validation of the antibodies has taken place. These omissions make it harder for reviewers to establish the likely reliability of the results and for researchers to reproduce the experiments. The scale of this problem, combined with high profile concerns about experimental reproducibility, has caused the Nature Publishing Group to include a section on antibody information in their recent Reporting Checklist for Life Science Articles. In this commentary we consider the issue of reporting research antibody use and ask what details authors should be including in their publications to improve experimental reproducibility.
- On the accurate identification of network paths having a common bottleneck. [Journal Article]
- ScientificWorldJournal 2013.:890578.
We present a new mechanism for detecting shared bottlenecks between end-to-end paths in a network. Our mechanism, which only needs one-way delays from endpoints as an input, is based on the well-known linear algebraic approach: singular value decomposition (SVD). Clusters of flows which share a bottleneck are extracted from SVD results by applying an outlier detection method. Simulations with varying topologies and different network conditions show the high accuracy of our technique.
- A Robust Variable Sampling Time BLDC Motor Control Design Based upon μ-Synthesis. [Journal Article]
- ScientificWorldJournal 2013.:236404.
The variable sampling rate system is encountered in many applications. When the speed information is derived from the position marks along the trajectory, one would have a speed dependent sampling rate system. The conventional fixed or multisampling rate system theory may not work in these cases because the system dynamics include the uncertainties which resulted from the variable sampling rate. This paper derived a convenient expression for the speed dependent sampling rate system. The varying sampling rate effect is then translated into multiplicative uncertainties to the system. The design then uses the popular μ-synthesis process to achieve a robust performance controller design. The implementation on a BLDC motor demonstrates the effectiveness of the design approach.
- Clinical Cancer Advances 2013: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Oncol 2013 Dec 10.
Since its founding in 1964, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has been committed to improving cancer outcomes through research and the delivery of quality care. Research is the bedrock of discovering better treatments-providing hope to the millions of individuals who face a cancer diagnosis each year.The studies featured in "Clinical Cancer Advances 2013: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology" represent the invaluable contributions of thousands of patients who participate in clinical trials and the scientists who conduct basic and clinical research. The insights described in this report, such as how cancers hide from the immune system and why cancers may become resistant to targeted drugs, enable us to envision a future in which cancer will be even more controllable and preventable.The scientific process is thoughtful, deliberate, and sometimes slow, but each advance, while helping patients, now also points toward new research questions and unexplored opportunities. Both dramatic and subtle breakthroughs occur so that progress against cancer typically builds over many years. Success requires vision, persistence, and a long-term commitment to supporting cancer research and training.Our nation's longstanding investment in federally funded cancer research has contributed significantly to a growing array of effective new treatments and a much deeper understanding of the drivers of cancer. But despite this progress, our position as a world leader in advancing medical knowledge and our ability to attract the most promising and talented investigators are now threatened by an acute problem: Federal funding for cancer research has steadily eroded over the past decade, and only 15% of the ever-shrinking budget is actually spent on clinical trials. This dismal reality threatens the pace of progress against cancer and undermines our ability to address the continuing needs of our patients.Despite this extremely challenging economic environment, we continue to make progress. Maintaining and accelerating that progress require that we keep our eyes on the future and pursue a path that builds on the stunning successes of the past. We must continue to show our policymakers the successes in cancer survival and quality of life (QOL) they have enabled, emphasizing the need to sustain our national investment in the remarkably productive US cancer research enterprise.We must also look to innovative methods for transforming how we care for-and learn from-patients with cancer. Consider, for example, that fewer than 5% of adult patients with cancer currently participate in clinical trials. What if we were able to draw lessons from the other 95%? This possibility led ASCO this year to launch CancerLinQ, a groundbreaking health information technology initiative that will provide physicians with access to vast quantities of clinical data about real-world patients and help achieve higher quality, higher value cancer care.As you read the following pages, I hope our collective progress against cancer over the past year inspires you. More importantly, I hope the pride you feel motivates you to help us accelerate the pace of scientific advancement.Clifford A. Hudis, MD, FACPPresidentAmerican Society of Clinical Oncology.
- Development of schemas revealed by prior experience and NMDA receptor knock-out. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Elife 2013; 2(0):e01326.
Prior experience accelerates acquisition of novel, related information through processes like assimilation into mental schemas, but the underlying neuronal mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the roles that prior experience and hippocampal CA3 N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity play in CA1 place cell sequence encoding and learning during novel spatial experiences. We found that specific representations of de novo experiences on linear environments were formed on a framework of pre configured network activity expressed in the preceding sleep and were rapidly, flexibly adjusted via NMDAR-dependent activity. This prior experience accelerated encoding of subsequent experiences on contiguous or isolated novel tracks, significantly decreasing their NMDAR-dependence. Similarly, de novo learning of an alternation task was facilitated by CA3 NMDARs; this experience accelerated subsequent learning of related tasks, independent of CA3 NMDARs, consistent with a schema-based learning. These results reveal the existence of distinct neuronal encoding schemes which could explain why hippocampal dysfunction results in anterograde amnesia while sparing recollection of old, schema-based memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01326.001.
- Glycosylated platycosides: Identification by enzymatic hydrolysis and structural determination by LC-MS/MS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sep Sci 2013 Nov 8.
In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis and chemometric methods were utilized to discriminate glycosylated platycosides in the extract of Platycodi Radix by LC-MS. Laminarinase, whose enzymatic activity was evaluated using gentiobiose and laminaritriose, was a suitable enzyme to identify the glycosylated platycosides. The laminarinase produced deapi-platycodin D and platycodin D from the isolated deapi-platycoside E and platycoside E through the loss of two glucose units by enzymatic reaction, respectively. After hydrolyzing a crude extract by laminarinase, the reconstructed total ion chromatogram generated by a chemometric technique sorted peaks of deglycosylated platycosides easily. Structural information of the glycosylated isomers was revealed through fragment ions generated by the sodiated C0β ion corresponding to reduced disaccharides in the positive MS(4) spectra. Characteristic fragment ions of Glc-(1→6)-Glc moieties were observed through ring cleavages of (0,2) A0β , (0,3) A0β , and (0,4) A0β , whereas Glc-(1→3)-Glc moieties produced only (0,3) A0β ions. Lithium-adducted platycosides allowed more detailed structural analysis of glycosidic bond cleavage corresponding to Y1β and B1β in addition to ring cleavage.
- Development of an automated system for preparation of liquid scintillation counting samples for radiolabeled pharmaceuticals. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Labelled Comp Radiopharm 2013 Dec 11.
Radiolabeled compounds are essential tools in drug development used to obtain critical metabolism and safety information. To support the synthesis and ensure quality of radiolabeled compounds for all programs, bench automation has been implemented in our laboratories. The concept of a platform technology for bench-top automation is not new. A considerable investment in the automation of various critical analytical laboratory workflows to both harmonize the efforts of a large and diverse global organization and minimize capital footprint has been made on our part. Various custom automation techniques and applications have been developed to increase capabilities and productivity of radiochemical analyses at Merck. In this paper, we will present a novel system that is capable of automating the liquid scintillation counting procedure. The system has handled multiple radiolabeled ((3) H, (14) C, and (35) S) pharmaceutical compounds with an accuracy of 5% with a standard deviation of 2% and a cycle time of ~10 min per analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- What do the data show? Knowledge map development for comprehensive environmental assessment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Integr Environ Assess Manag 2013 Oct 12.
Environmental and human health risk assessments benefit from using data that cross multiple scientific domains. Although individual data points may often be readily understood, the total picture can be difficult to envision. This is especially true with gaps in the data (e.g., with emerging substances such as engineered nanomaterials [ENM]), such that simply presenting only known information can result in a skewed picture. This study describes a method for building knowledge maps (KM) to visually summarize factors relevant to risk assessment in a relatively easy to interpret format. The KMs were created in the context of the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for research planning and risk management of environmental contaminants. Recent applications of CEA to emerging substances such as engineered nanomaterials that have numerous data gaps have suggested that a more visually based depiction of information would improve the approach. We developed KM templates as a pilot project, to represent pertinent aspects of conceptual domains, and to highlight gaps in available information for one particular portion of a specific CEA application: the comparison of environmental transport, transformation, and fate of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and decabromodiphenyl ether as flame retardants. The results are 3 KM templates representing Physical Properties, Transport, and Transformation. The 3 templates were applied to both substances, resulting in a total of 6 KMs. In addition to presenting the KMs, this paper details the process used to generate them, to aid KM development for other sections of CEA applied to MWCNTs, or to apply the process to new CEA applications. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2013;9999:1-11. © 2013 SETAC.