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integumentary system [keywords]
- Irritants and Corrosives. [REVIEW]
- Emerg Med Clin North Am 2015 Feb; 33(1):117-131.
This article reviews toxic chemicals that cause irritation and damage to single and multiple organ systems (corrosion) in an acute fashion. An irritant toxic chemical causes reversible damage to skin or other organ system, whereas a corrosive agent produces irreversible damage, namely, visible necrosis into integumentary layers, following application of a substance for up to 4 hours. Corrosive reactions can cause coagulation or liquefaction necrosis. Damaged areas are typified by ulcers, bleeding, bloody scabs, and eventual discoloration caused by blanching of the skin, complete areas of alopecia, and scars. Histopathology should be considered to evaluate questionable lesions.
- [Hair apposition technique for scalp lacerations]. [Journal Article]
- MMW Fortschr Med 2014 Jun 26; 156(12):32-3.
- Herbal preparation extract for skin after radiotherapy treatment. Part One--Preclinical tests. [Journal Article]
- Acta Pol Pharm 2014 Sep-Oct; 71(5):781-8.
Naran R is a herbal composition made of Plantago lanceolate folium, Malvae arboreae flos, Calendulae flos, Chamomillae inflorescentia, Lamii albi flos to prepare compresses or to wash skin with inflammations. The extract of this preparation is mixed to be applied as an ointment on patients' skin after radiotherapy. Experiments performed in vitro are part of pre-clinical tests with Naran R ointment. This study examined the impact of the plant composition for ethanol-water extract on human skin fibroblasts (HSF) culture. Samples of extract, prepared from patented amounts of herbs, were in the range of 25-225 μg/mL. Six methods were applied: standard spectrophotometric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red (NR) uptake assay, DPPH free radical scavenging test, labeling of cytoskeleton F-actin, staining of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) and trypan blue coloration. The extract concentration 75 μg/mL was established as safe for application on human skin. In labeling of F-actin with rhodamine-phalloidin dye at this concentration the cytoskeleton was stable. The extract did not influence the membrane stability and had positive influence on the proliferation activity. It was confirmed in AgNOR test during incubation with extract, which led to formation of larger amount of smaller nucleolins. In DPPH scavenging activity test, the extract revealed over 8% higher free-radical scavenging activity in comparison to control. After trypan blue staining, the extract in concentration 125 μg/mL significantly lowered the cell viability. When the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity of the extracts were analyzed, MTT and Neutral Red (NR) methods were used. The cells' viability was maintained on a constant level (80-110%) after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. During all time of NR test (72 h) and even when 225 μg/mL of extract was applied, the viability of cells was in range 80-110% of control. Positive influence of the extract on investigated cells structure and proliferation, lack of toxicity and increasing anti-oxidant activity enable to consider this preparation as a natural remedy with potential application in skin therapy after radiation.
- Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics. [Journal Article]
- Acta Pol Pharm 2014 Sep-Oct; 71(5):701-7.
The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology.
- Anti-wrinkle effects of fermented and non-fermented Cyclopia intermedia in hairless mice. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Complement Altern Med 2014.:424.
The fermented leaves and stems of Cyclopia intermedia are used to brew honeybush tea, an herbal tea indigenous to South Africa with reported anti-wrinkle effects. Wrinkle formation caused by photoaging clearly involves changes in extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of the skin.The inhibitory effects of honeybush extract and fermented honeybush on wrinkle formation were determined by analyzing skin replicas, histologically examining epidermal thickness, and identifying damage to collagen fibers.Honeybush extract and fermented honeybush reduced the length and depth of skin winkles caused by UV irradiation and inhibited thickening of the epidermal layer, in addition to suppressing collagen tissue breakdown reactions, indicating its potential use as a skin wrinkle prevention agent.This in vivo study demonstrates that honeybush produces significant anti-wrinkle effects and is therefore of interest in anti-aging skin care products.
- Response to Comment on "A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales". [Comment, Journal Article]
- Science 2014 Oct 24; 346(6208):434.
Lingham-Soliar questions our interpretation of integumentary structures in the Middle-Late Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur Kulindadromeus as feather-like appendages and alternatively proposes that the compound structures observed around the humerus and femur of Kulindadromeus are support fibers associated with badly degraded scales. We consider this hypothesis highly unlikely because of the taphonomy and morphology of the preserved structures.
- Comment on "A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales". [Comment, Journal Article]
- Science 2014 Oct 24; 346(6208):434.
Godefroit et al. (Reports, 25 July 2014, p. 451) reported scales and feathers, including "basal plates," in an ornithischian dinosaur. Their arguments against the filaments being collagen fibers are not supported because of a fundamental misinterpretation of such structures and underestimation of their size. The parsimonious explanation is that the filaments are support fibers in association with badly degraded scales and that they do not represent early feather stages.
- Efinaconazole 10% nail solution: a post-FDA approval update. [Journal Article]
- Skinmed 2014 Jul-Aug; 12(4):235-7.
- Tinea lucidum or dermatophytosis of the stratum lucidum: is the epidermal location of dermatophyte infection evolving? [Journal Article]
- Skinmed 2014 Jul-Aug; 12(4):226-30.
Dermatophyte infections are traditionally localized to the stratum corneum. The advent of immunosuppressants and topical steroid/antifungal preparations, however, has created a new phenomenon: dermatophytosis in the stratum lucidum. This atypical presentation manifests in 3 clinical scenarios: oral immunosuppression and/or medical comorbidities, lesions/body sites with lichenification, and sites on/near acral skin. In each setting, superficial potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations have proved ineffective in diagnosis, despite high indices of suspicion for dermatophytosis. It is only under histologic examination that florid hyphal elements are identified. The authors propose a modified KOH technique requiring a sample of deeper, pathological scale-containing fungal elements to be used in scenarios where tinea lucidum or dermatophyte infection of the stratum lucidum may be present.
- Asymmetric gait nail unit syndrome: the most common worldwide toenail abnormality and onychomycosis. [Journal Article]
- Skinmed 2014 Jul-Aug; 12(4):217-23.
Asymmetric gait nail unit syndrome (AGNUS) is the result of asymmetric shoe pressure on the toes and foot caused by ubiquitous uneven flat feet that affect the gait. The pressure produces clinical changes in the toenails, which are identical to all clinical types of dermatophyte and opportunistic onychomycosis, yet they are dermatophytes-free. AGNUS produces additional signs that make it easy to identify. Its coexistence with fungal disease has resulted in reports describing new clinical types of onychomycosis, identifying signs of drug resistance, assessing severity index, and defining complete clinical cure when taking a systemic or topical antifungal, as well as "retronychia." These signs are typically seen in the toenails of patients with AGNUS. AGNUS has a mechanical etiology and can coexist with dermatophytosis, which is a hereditary disease. AGNUS can coexist with any other disease affecting the toenails and results in greater clinical severity than each condition individually. AGNUS is and has been the most common worldwide toenail abnormality in shoe-wearing societies.