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integumentary system [keywords]
- Preparation and in vitro evaluation of a pluronic lecithin organogel containing ricinoleic acid for transdermal delivery. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Pharm Compd 2014 May-Jun; 18(3):256-61.
The present study deals with the preparation and in vitro evaluation of a Pluronic lecithin organogel gel containing ricinoleic acid for transdermal delivery. Blank Pluronic lecithin organogel gels were prepared using ricinoleic acid as the oil phase and characterized for pH, viscosity, gelation temperature, and microscopic structure. The optimized Pluronic lecithin organogel gel formulation was further evaluated using ketoprofen (10%) and dexamethasone (0.5%) as model drugs. The stability and in vitro permeability of ketoprofen and dexamethasone was evaluated and compared with the corresponding control formulation (Pluronic lecithin organogel gel made with isopropyl palmitate as the oil phase). The pH and viscosity of blank Pluronic lecithin organogel gel prepared with ricinoleic acid was comparable with the isopropyl palmitate Pluronic lecithin organogel gel. The thixotropic property of ricinoleic acid Pluronic lecithin organogel gel was found to be better than the control. Drug-loaded Pluronic lecithin organogel gels behaved in a similar manner and all formulations were found to be stable at 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 40 degrees C for up to 35 days. The penetration profile of dexamethasone was similar from both the Pluronic lecithin organogel gels, while the permeability for ketoprofen from Pluronic lecithin organogel gel containing ricinoleic acid was found to be three times higher as compared to the control formulation.
- Prolidase deficiency: dento-facial aspects in a paediatric patient. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2014 Jul; 15(2 Suppl):224-8.
Prolidase Deficiency (PD) is a rare hereditary disease consisting in developmental delay, mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, splenomegaly, recurrent pulmonary infections and skin lesions.The present study reports a case of PD treated in the Paediatric Section of the Department of Dentistry and Surgery at the University of Bari. A special diagnostic and clinical approach to the patient was useful to improve his quality of life and identify some new aspects of this systemic disease. In particular, clinical features never described before are reported: low hair line, decreased osteotendinous reflexes, long upper lip, microrhinia, dentoskeletal Class III, dental age (Proffit) older than chronological age, fusion of 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebrae, incomplete atlanto-occipital fusion.
- [Human dirofilariasis: clinical and diagnostic signs and diagnostic methods]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2014 Apr-Jun; (2):13-7.
The clinical and diagnostic signs caused by the tissue location and migration of adult Dirofilaria in the human body determine the use of different methods for the diagnosis of dirofilariasis. During their investigations, the authors modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR): they chose and synthesized primers and selected amplification regimens for them and obtained agarose gel bands that corresponded to PCR fragment length nucleotide sequences that were equal to 245 bp for D. (N.) repens and 656 bp for D. immitis. There was 100% agreement in the results of PCR and microscopic examination of sera from 32 dogs and 1 female patient with low parasitemia and in the blood nucleotide sequence characteristic of D. repens.
- Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis: a case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Pathologica 2014 Jun; 106(2):70-2.
Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, hereditary disease with distinct clinical and histopathological features. Clinically, it presents with gingival hypertrophy, pappulonodular skin lesions and joint contractures. Bone involvement is usually an uncommon finding. We report a case of a 2-year-old patient, daughter of consanguineous parents, who presented since the age of 2 months with impairment of mental development, multiple joint contractures, motion limitation and nodules on the scalp. The calvarian lesions were surgically removed, and histopathological examination concluded to juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.
- Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural]
- Nature 2014 Oct 2; 514(7520):59-64.
The varied topography of human skin offers a unique opportunity to study how the body's microenvironments influence the functional and taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Phylogenetic marker gene-based studies have identified many bacteria and fungi that colonize distinct skin niches. Here metagenomic analyses of diverse body sites in healthy humans demonstrate that local biogeography and strong individuality define the skin microbiome. We developed a relational analysis of bacterial, fungal and viral communities, which showed not only site specificity but also individual signatures. We further identified strain-level variation of dominant species as heterogeneous and multiphyletic. Reference-free analyses captured the uncharacterized metagenome through the development of a multi-kingdom gene catalogue, which was used to uncover genetic signatures of species lacking reference genomes. This work is foundational for human disease studies investigating inter-kingdom interactions, metabolic changes and strain tracking, and defines the dual influence of biogeography and individuality on microbial composition and function.
- Microbiology: An integrated view of the skin microbiome. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Nature 2014 Oct 2; 514(7520):44-5.
- Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration: Wnt signaling and stem cell control. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Review]
- Science 2014 Oct 3; 346(6205):1248012.
Stem cells fuel tissue development, renewal, and regeneration, and these activities are controlled by the local stem cell microenvironment, the "niche." Wnt signals emanating from the niche can act as self-renewal factors for stem cells in multiple mammalian tissues. Wnt proteins are lipid-modified, which constrains them to act as short-range cellular signals. The locality of Wnt signaling dictates that stem cells exiting the Wnt signaling domain differentiate, spatially delimiting the niche in certain tissues. In some instances, stem cells may act as or generate their own niche, enabling the self-organization of patterned tissues. In this Review, we discuss the various ways by which Wnt operates in stem cell control and, in doing so, identify an integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration.
- T cell memory. Skin-resident memory CD8⁺ T cells trigger a state of tissue-wide pathogen alert. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Science 2014 Oct 3; 346(6205):101-5.
After an infection, pathogen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells) persist in nonlymphoid tissues to provide rapid control upon reinfection, and vaccination strategies that create T(RM) cell pools at sites of pathogen entry are therefore attractive. However, it is not well understood how T(RM) cells provide such pathogen protection. Here, we demonstrate that activated T(RM) cells in mouse skin profoundly alter the local tissue environment by inducing a number of broadly active antiviral and antibacterial genes. This "pathogen alert" allows skin T(RM) cells to protect against an antigenically unrelated virus. These data describe a mechanism by which tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells protect previously infected sites that is rapid, amplifies the activation of a small number of cells into an organ-wide response, and has the capacity to control escape variants.
- Immunology. A neighborhood watch upholds local immune protection. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Science 2014 Oct 3; 346(6205):40-1.
- [Preparation of paeonol transdermal delivery systems based on proniosomes-based ointment and its pharmacokinetics characters]. [English Abstract, Evaluation Studies, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2014 Jun; 39(11):2131-5.
The paeonol proniosomes ointment and ordinary ointment were administered to rats. Physiological saline served as perfused solution. The perfusion rate was 5 mL x L(-1) and the microdialysis samples were collected every 20 min intervals. The paeonol concentration in perfused solution was determined by HPLC. Investigation of the pharmacokinetics of paeonol proniosomes ointment and ordinary ointment by the skin-blood synchronous microdialysis coupled with HPLC is reported in this study. The results show that the recovery was (54.80 +/- 1.50)% in vitro and (54.58 +/- 4.61)% in vivo. The results showed that paeonol proniosomes ointment significantly raised the drug concentrations in skin more than the paeonol ordinary ointment. The paeono proniosomes ointment has less drugs into the blood as the ordinary ointments in blood, but its blood drug concentrations were steadier. The paeonol proniosomes ointment may be developed into a new preparation.