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integumentary system [keywords]
- [Oscillatory processes in microlymphatic bed of human skin]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fiziol Cheloveka 2014 Jan-Feb; 40(1):62-7.
Laser Doppler flowmetry with wavelet-analysis of oscillations in microlymphocirculation was used for the first time at 30 persons with (n = 17) and without edema (n = 13) of the upper extremities distal parts. Human skin microlymphatic flow is characterized by well-defined predomination of pacemaker phasic oscillations in frequency range from 0.021 Hz to 0.042 Hz (palmar surface of finger distal phalange) or from 0.016 Hz to 0.035 Hz (forearm skin). Edema was accompanied by increase of average peak frequencies and normalized maximum amplitudes of phasic oscillations (A(l)/M(l), where A(l)--average maximum amplitude of phasic oscillations, M(l)--value of average lymphatic flow, both in perfusion units). Myogenic, endothelial and respiratory low amplitude oscillations were registered rarely. Heart rate rhythms were not revealed in lymphatic flow. Intercommunications were not found between values of A(l)/M(l) and skin temperature. Only in physiologic conditions without edema negative correlation was revealed between values of A(l)/M(l) and amplitudes of myogenic oscillations in blood flow; the latter reflect the number of open capillaries and the activity of oxidative metabolism. Intercommunications were not found between lymphatic and blood flow oscillations in edema availability. Normalized amplitudes and frequencies of phasic oscillations may serve as effective diagnostic indices in micro-lymphocirculation study.
- [The influence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the behavior in old non-human primates]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fiziol Cheloveka 2014 Mar-Apr; 40(2):41-8.
At present time there is a lack of satisfactory understanding of how DHEA affects cognition and nervous system function. Aim of the present study to evaluate effects of long-term DH EA administration of physiological doses on the Higher Brain Activity (HBA) in rhesus macaques (RM) at the limits of their biological age. The study included 9 male RM aged 24-30 years. Five of them were given im injections of DHEA (1 mg/kg each two days for 3 months). 4 control monkeys were administered the vehicle alone. Cortisol, testosterone, and free thyroxin were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. HBA was studied by classical motor-food conditioning (to estimate long-term memory) and by determining delayed response time (a measure of short-term memory). RM had to respond to a positive signal (1000 Hz) and no bar-pressing was required in response to a negative signal (400 Hz). MR were free to move in the cage during the experiment. Their behavior was tested before, within 1, 2, 3 months of DHEA administration and 3 months after its termination. The HBA increased of all 5 RM within 1, 2, and 3 month after the beginning of DHEA administration. Both long- and short-term memory stably improved while response time decreased from 5 to 1-1.5 s. The behavior of RM changed radically from passive one to enhanced motor activity and food motivation. These effects of DHEA persisted as long as 3 months after DHEA treatment. During DHEA treatment the steady tendency to rising in a blood concentrations of a free thyroxine, testosterone and DHEA was observed. DHEA administration caused a rise in testosterone, free thyroxin levels and DHEAS levels. In three months after DHEA treatment the hairs lost in the old monkeys was restored and this effect remained within one years of observation.
Conclusion.Administration of physiological doses of DHEA to old RM induced a stable increase of Higher Brain Activity with harmonization of excitation and inhibition processes; radically enhanced motor and food activity; completely restored body hairiness which already remained within one year.
- [The morphological features of skin wounds inflicted by joinery hand saws designed for different types of sawing]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Sud Med Ekspert 2014 Mar-Apr; 57(2):43-7.
The objective of the present work was to study the morphological features of skin wounds inflicted by joinery hand saws designed for longitudinal, transverse, and mixed sawing. A total of 60 injuries to the thigh skin inflicted by the recurring and reciprocating saw movements were simulated. The hand saws had 5 mm high "sharp" and "blunt"-tipped teeth. The analysis of the morphological features of the wounds revealed differences in their length and depth, shape of edge cuts and defects, and the relief of the walls depending on the sawtooth sharpness and the mode of sawing. It is concluded that morphological features of the wounds may be used to determine the type of the saw, the sharpness of its teeth, the direction and frequency of its movements.
- [The morphological features of stab-and-slash skin wounds inflicted by the blades with differently shaped tips through the multilayer barrier]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Sud Med Ekspert 2014 Mar-Apr; 57(2):28-31.
The objective of the present work was to study the shape, size, and morphological features of stab-and-slash skin wounds inflicted by the blades with differently shaped tips taking into consideration the direction of stab through multiple garments (1, 2, and 3 layers). The injuries were inflicted by kitchen knives having the blades of practically identical length and width but differently shaped tips. A total of 480 skin wounds and 720 damaged cloth specimens were available for the examination. The analysis of the data obtained revealed differences between morphological features of the skin wounds. Injuries to the skin unprotected by the cloths had different shape and length of the edge and end portions depending on the shape of the blade tip and the direction of the stab. The length of all wound inflicted through the barrier decreased as the number of layers increased. The wounds had the linear shape, their contusion collar and flattened area became narrower; the shape of the back edges of the wounds inflicted through a three-layer barrier altered. It is concluded that the result of the present study may be useful for the improvement of diagnostics of stab-and-slash skin wounds.
- [Certain peculiarities of trace formation associated with the infliction of stab wounds]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Sud Med Ekspert 2014 Mar-Apr; 57(2):24-7.
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the detailed morphological picture of stab injuries taking into consideration the design of the piercing objects, conditions of wound infliction, and properties of the affected tissues. The experimental injuries were inflicted either by an impact action or compression at an angle of 90 and 45-60 degrees using sharp (0.01 mm) and blunt (0.5 mm) piercing cylinder-conical bevel-edged (40 mm) objects 7 mm in diameter. A total of 128 skin injuries were available for the examination. It was shown that the shape, length, and orientation of the wounds depended on the sharpness of the injurious agent, the angle at which and the speed with which it was stabbed into the tissue. The new morphological features were identified associated with plastic deformation of the skin, viz. the shape of the wound opening, smoothness or borderline thickening of its edges, flattening and folding of epidermis; conditions for the formation of these features were investigated. These data are of importance for the individual and intra-group expert identification of the putative traumatic agents and reconstruction of the circumstances of a given event or offence.
- [Forensic medical expertise of the stab wounds: the current state-of-the art]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Sud Med Ekspert 2014 Mar-Apr; 57(2):20-3.
This review of special literature encompasses the publications on the injuries inflicted by piercing objects. The results of analysis of these materials indicate that both the mechanisms of formation and the morphological features of stab wounds and damages to the clothes are studied perfectly well. Their shape and morphological patterns are shown to be dependent on the size, shape, and cross-section area of the great variety of the piercing objects. However, investigations carried out thus far did not take into consideration the formation of the signs of skin plastic deformation, such as edge portions of borderline thickening, stretching of epidermis over the walls, transformation of the epidermal network pattern into longitudinal folding, etc. It is concluded that further studies are necessary to better characterize injuries inflicted by piercing objects differing in the sharpness and the shape of cross section and thereby to obtain a deeper insight in the morphological features. It can be expected that such studies will provide a basis for the development of criteria for the individual and intra-group expert identification of the traumatic agents.
- [Clinico-morphological substantiation of feasibility of angiosomic adipose-cutaneous flaps from temporal and parietal regions application]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Klin Khir 2014 Jun; (6):56-7.
Actuality of the problem, consisting of restoration of defects and deformity zones on head and neck, is caused by great quantity of patients, surgical treatment of which constitute important medico-social problem. The flaps, raised from temporal and parietal regions, are considered perspective for replacement of defects and the deformity zones on head and neck. But, for their correct isolation and mobilization it is necessary to know the topographoanatomical peculiarities of superficial temporal artery, localization of which differs, depending on the head form. The methods of isolation and mobilization of angiosomic preauricular, postauricular and fascial temporal-parietal flaps were optimized in the clinic, basing on analysis of results of the investigations performed and computeric modeling of the superficial temporal artery branches.
- [A solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2014 Jul; 28(13):1001-2.
Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumors that arise from the nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Generally, neurofibromas can be categorized into dermal and plexiform subtypes. The former subtype is usually associated with a lone peripheral nerve in the integumentary system, while plexiform tumors are associated with many nerve bundles and can originate internally. Rarely, the plexiform tumors can undergo malignant transformation. Neurofibromas are usually found in individuals with neurofibromatosis, which is an autosomal dominant disease. On occasion, an isolated neurofibroma can transpire without being associated with neurofibromatosis. Mostly, these solitary tumors tend to occur in the gastrointestinal system, and neurofibromas of the head and neck are not uncommon, but very rarely they have been reported to occur in the temporal fossa. In this report, we describe a case of a solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa.
- [Effect of moxibustion on vascular endothelial cell and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in rats with cutaneous wound]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2014 Jul; 34(7):679-84.
To explore the effect and action mechanism of moxibustion on healing of cutaneous wound in rats.Twenty-four SD rats were selected and made into linear full-thickness skin injury model. With randomized digital table, rats were randomly divided into a treatment group and a model group, 12 cases in each one. Then according to treatment time, each group was again divided into a 1d group, a 3d group and a 7d group, 4 cases in each one. The moxibustion at injured skin was applied in the treatment group, 30 min per time, once a day. Hematoxylineosin (HE) staining method was adapted to measure growth status of capillary and number of vascular endothelial cell; immunohistochemical method was used to measure the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).The wound healing indices in the treatment 7d group were higher than those in the model 7d group on both the 4th day and 8th day after treatment (both P < 0.05). The number of capillary in the treatment 1d group and 3d group was higher than that in the model 1 d and 3 d groups (both 1 < 0.05). The number of capillary in the treatment 7d group was lower than that in the model 7d group (P < 0.05). The number of vascular endothelial cell in the treatment 3d group was higher than that in the model 3d group (P < 0.05). The number of vascular endothelial cell in the treatment 7d group was lower than that in the model 7d group (P < 0.05). The difference of number of vascular endothelial cell between the treatment 1d group and model 1d group was not significant (P > 0.05). Positive cells accumulated score of V EGF expression in the treatment 3d group was higher than that in the model 3d group (P < 0.05). Positive cells accumulated score of VEGF expression in the treatment 7d group was lower than that in the model 7d group (P < 0.05). The difference of positive cells accumulated score of VEGF expression between the treatment 1d group and model 1d group was not significant (P > 0.05).Moxibustion could improve the healing of skin wound in rats, which could be related with regulating vascular endothelial cell and VEGF in wound tissue at different time.
- Hand Dermatitis: an Allergist's Nightmare. [Journal Article]
- Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2014 Nov; 14(11):474.
Hand dermatitis is a common skin complaint. We use our hands to explore our environment; subsequently, our hands are in frequent contact with potential allergens and irritants. Patients with hand dermatitis may present to their allergist with this complaint. Approaching the diagnosis and treatment of hand dermatitis can be challenging, as both internal and external factors may contribute to the overall condition. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis of hand dermatitis is broad and the cause often multifactorial. Obtaining a thorough history and performing a focused examination may help the clinician differentiate between multiple causes of hand dermatitis. Numerous treatment options exist for hand dermatitis, and new potential treatments are in development as well. We aim to provide the allergist with a streamlined toolkit for help in the diagnosis and management of hand dermatitis.