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integumentary system [keywords]
- [Human dirofilariasis: clinical and diagnostic signs and diagnostic methods]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2014 Apr-Jun; (2):13-7.
The clinical and diagnostic signs caused by the tissue location and migration of adult Dirofilaria in the human body determine the use of different methods for the diagnosis of dirofilariasis. During their investigations, the authors modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR): they chose and synthesized primers and selected amplification regimens for them and obtained agarose gel bands that corresponded to PCR fragment length nucleotide sequences that were equal to 245 bp for D. (N.) repens and 656 bp for D. immitis. There was 100% agreement in the results of PCR and microscopic examination of sera from 32 dogs and 1 female patient with low parasitemia and in the blood nucleotide sequence characteristic of D. repens.
- Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration: Wnt signaling and stem cell control. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- Science 2014 Oct 3; 346(6205):1248012.
Stem cells fuel tissue development, renewal, and regeneration, and these activities are controlled by the local stem cell microenvironment, the "niche." Wnt signals emanating from the niche can act as self-renewal factors for stem cells in multiple mammalian tissues. Wnt proteins are lipid-modified, which constrains them to act as short-range cellular signals. The locality of Wnt signaling dictates that stem cells exiting the Wnt signaling domain differentiate, spatially delimiting the niche in certain tissues. In some instances, stem cells may act as or generate their own niche, enabling the self-organization of patterned tissues. In this Review, we discuss the various ways by which Wnt operates in stem cell control and, in doing so, identify an integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration.
- T cell memory. Skin-resident memory CD8⁺ T cells trigger a state of tissue-wide pathogen alert. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Science 2014 Oct 3; 346(6205):101-5.
After an infection, pathogen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells) persist in nonlymphoid tissues to provide rapid control upon reinfection, and vaccination strategies that create T(RM) cell pools at sites of pathogen entry are therefore attractive. However, it is not well understood how T(RM) cells provide such pathogen protection. Here, we demonstrate that activated T(RM) cells in mouse skin profoundly alter the local tissue environment by inducing a number of broadly active antiviral and antibacterial genes. This "pathogen alert" allows skin T(RM) cells to protect against an antigenically unrelated virus. These data describe a mechanism by which tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells protect previously infected sites that is rapid, amplifies the activation of a small number of cells into an organ-wide response, and has the capacity to control escape variants.
- Immunology. A neighborhood watch upholds local immune protection. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Science 2014 Oct 3; 346(6205):40-1.
- [Oscillatory processes in microlymphatic bed of human skin]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fiziol Cheloveka 2014 Jan-Feb; 40(1):62-7.
Laser Doppler flowmetry with wavelet-analysis of oscillations in microlymphocirculation was used for the first time at 30 persons with (n = 17) and without edema (n = 13) of the upper extremities distal parts. Human skin microlymphatic flow is characterized by well-defined predomination of pacemaker phasic oscillations in frequency range from 0.021 Hz to 0.042 Hz (palmar surface of finger distal phalange) or from 0.016 Hz to 0.035 Hz (forearm skin). Edema was accompanied by increase of average peak frequencies and normalized maximum amplitudes of phasic oscillations (A(l)/M(l), where A(l)--average maximum amplitude of phasic oscillations, M(l)--value of average lymphatic flow, both in perfusion units). Myogenic, endothelial and respiratory low amplitude oscillations were registered rarely. Heart rate rhythms were not revealed in lymphatic flow. Intercommunications were not found between values of A(l)/M(l) and skin temperature. Only in physiologic conditions without edema negative correlation was revealed between values of A(l)/M(l) and amplitudes of myogenic oscillations in blood flow; the latter reflect the number of open capillaries and the activity of oxidative metabolism. Intercommunications were not found between lymphatic and blood flow oscillations in edema availability. Normalized amplitudes and frequencies of phasic oscillations may serve as effective diagnostic indices in micro-lymphocirculation study.
- [The influence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the behavior in old non-human primates]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fiziol Cheloveka 2014 Mar-Apr; 40(2):41-8.
At present time there is a lack of satisfactory understanding of how DHEA affects cognition and nervous system function. Aim of the present study to evaluate effects of long-term DH EA administration of physiological doses on the Higher Brain Activity (HBA) in rhesus macaques (RM) at the limits of their biological age. The study included 9 male RM aged 24-30 years. Five of them were given im injections of DHEA (1 mg/kg each two days for 3 months). 4 control monkeys were administered the vehicle alone. Cortisol, testosterone, and free thyroxin were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. HBA was studied by classical motor-food conditioning (to estimate long-term memory) and by determining delayed response time (a measure of short-term memory). RM had to respond to a positive signal (1000 Hz) and no bar-pressing was required in response to a negative signal (400 Hz). MR were free to move in the cage during the experiment. Their behavior was tested before, within 1, 2, 3 months of DHEA administration and 3 months after its termination. The HBA increased of all 5 RM within 1, 2, and 3 month after the beginning of DHEA administration. Both long- and short-term memory stably improved while response time decreased from 5 to 1-1.5 s. The behavior of RM changed radically from passive one to enhanced motor activity and food motivation. These effects of DHEA persisted as long as 3 months after DHEA treatment. During DHEA treatment the steady tendency to rising in a blood concentrations of a free thyroxine, testosterone and DHEA was observed. DHEA administration caused a rise in testosterone, free thyroxin levels and DHEAS levels. In three months after DHEA treatment the hairs lost in the old monkeys was restored and this effect remained within one years of observation.
Conclusion.Administration of physiological doses of DHEA to old RM induced a stable increase of Higher Brain Activity with harmonization of excitation and inhibition processes; radically enhanced motor and food activity; completely restored body hairiness which already remained within one year.
- [The morphological features of skin wounds inflicted by joinery hand saws designed for different types of sawing]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Sud Med Ekspert 2014 Mar-Apr; 57(2):43-7.
The objective of the present work was to study the morphological features of skin wounds inflicted by joinery hand saws designed for longitudinal, transverse, and mixed sawing. A total of 60 injuries to the thigh skin inflicted by the recurring and reciprocating saw movements were simulated. The hand saws had 5 mm high "sharp" and "blunt"-tipped teeth. The analysis of the morphological features of the wounds revealed differences in their length and depth, shape of edge cuts and defects, and the relief of the walls depending on the sawtooth sharpness and the mode of sawing. It is concluded that morphological features of the wounds may be used to determine the type of the saw, the sharpness of its teeth, the direction and frequency of its movements.
- [The morphological features of stab-and-slash skin wounds inflicted by the blades with differently shaped tips through the multilayer barrier]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Sud Med Ekspert 2014 Mar-Apr; 57(2):28-31.
The objective of the present work was to study the shape, size, and morphological features of stab-and-slash skin wounds inflicted by the blades with differently shaped tips taking into consideration the direction of stab through multiple garments (1, 2, and 3 layers). The injuries were inflicted by kitchen knives having the blades of practically identical length and width but differently shaped tips. A total of 480 skin wounds and 720 damaged cloth specimens were available for the examination. The analysis of the data obtained revealed differences between morphological features of the skin wounds. Injuries to the skin unprotected by the cloths had different shape and length of the edge and end portions depending on the shape of the blade tip and the direction of the stab. The length of all wound inflicted through the barrier decreased as the number of layers increased. The wounds had the linear shape, their contusion collar and flattened area became narrower; the shape of the back edges of the wounds inflicted through a three-layer barrier altered. It is concluded that the result of the present study may be useful for the improvement of diagnostics of stab-and-slash skin wounds.
- [Certain peculiarities of trace formation associated with the infliction of stab wounds]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Sud Med Ekspert 2014 Mar-Apr; 57(2):24-7.
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the detailed morphological picture of stab injuries taking into consideration the design of the piercing objects, conditions of wound infliction, and properties of the affected tissues. The experimental injuries were inflicted either by an impact action or compression at an angle of 90 and 45-60 degrees using sharp (0.01 mm) and blunt (0.5 mm) piercing cylinder-conical bevel-edged (40 mm) objects 7 mm in diameter. A total of 128 skin injuries were available for the examination. It was shown that the shape, length, and orientation of the wounds depended on the sharpness of the injurious agent, the angle at which and the speed with which it was stabbed into the tissue. The new morphological features were identified associated with plastic deformation of the skin, viz. the shape of the wound opening, smoothness or borderline thickening of its edges, flattening and folding of epidermis; conditions for the formation of these features were investigated. These data are of importance for the individual and intra-group expert identification of the putative traumatic agents and reconstruction of the circumstances of a given event or offence.
- [Forensic medical expertise of the stab wounds: the current state-of-the art]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Sud Med Ekspert 2014 Mar-Apr; 57(2):20-3.
This review of special literature encompasses the publications on the injuries inflicted by piercing objects. The results of analysis of these materials indicate that both the mechanisms of formation and the morphological features of stab wounds and damages to the clothes are studied perfectly well. Their shape and morphological patterns are shown to be dependent on the size, shape, and cross-section area of the great variety of the piercing objects. However, investigations carried out thus far did not take into consideration the formation of the signs of skin plastic deformation, such as edge portions of borderline thickening, stretching of epidermis over the walls, transformation of the epidermal network pattern into longitudinal folding, etc. It is concluded that further studies are necessary to better characterize injuries inflicted by piercing objects differing in the sharpness and the shape of cross section and thereby to obtain a deeper insight in the morphological features. It can be expected that such studies will provide a basis for the development of criteria for the individual and intra-group expert identification of the traumatic agents.