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interferon beta 1a [keywords]
- Immunomodulatory treatment other than corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and plasma exchange for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Jun 14.:CD003280.
BACKGROUND:Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a disease causing progressive or relapsing and remitting weakness and numbness. It is probably due to an autoimmune process. Immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs would be expected to be beneficial. This review was first published in 2003 and has been most recently updated in 2013.
OBJECTIVES:We aimed to review systematically the evidence from randomised trials of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents other than corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and plasma exchange for CIDP. SEARCH
METHODS:On 9 July 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (July 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 6 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1977 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), CINAHL (January 1982 to July 2012) and LILACS (January 1982 to July 2012). We contacted the authors of the trials identified and other disease experts seeking other published and unpublished trials.
SELECTION CRITERIA:We sought randomised and quasi-randomised trials of all immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, ciclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil, and rituximab and all immunomodulatory agents such as interferon alfa and interferon beta, in participants fulfilling standard diagnostic criteria for CIDP.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two authors independently selected trials, judged their risk of bias and extracted data. We wanted to measure the change in disability after one year as our primary outcome. Our secondary outcomes were change in disability after four or more weeks (from randomisation), change in impairment after at least one year, change in maximum motor nerve conduction velocity and compound muscle action potential amplitude after one year and for those participants who were receiving corticosteroids or intravenous immunoglobulin, the amount of this medication given during at least one year after randomisation. Participants with one or more serious adverse events during the first year was also a secondary outcome.
MAIN RESULTS:Four trials fulfilled the selection criteria, one of azathioprine (27 participants), two of interferon beta-1a (77 participants in total) and one of methotrexate (60 participants). The risk of bias in the two trials of interferon beta-1a for CIDP and the trial of methotrexate was assessed to be low but bias in the trial of azathioprine was judged high. None of these trials showed significant benefit in the primary outcome (measured only in the methotrexate study) or secondary outcomes selected for this review. Severe adverse events occurred no more frequently than in the placebo groups for methotrexate and interferon beta-1a, but participant numbers were low. There was no adverse event reporting in the azathioprine study. AUTHORS'
CONCLUSIONS:The evidence from randomised trials does not show significant benefit from azathioprine, interferon beta-1a or methotrexate but none of the trials was large enough to rule out small or moderate benefit. The evidence from observational studies is insufficient to avoid the need for randomised controlled trials to discover whether these drugs are beneficial. Future trials should have improved designs, more sensitive outcome measures and longer durations.
- Effects of Interferon β-1a and Interferon β-1b Monotherapies on Selected Serum Cytokines and Nitrite Levels in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuroimmunomodulation 2013 May 24; 20(4):213-222.
Objective:Interferon (IFN)β treatment is a mainstay of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) immunotherapy. Its efficacy is supposedly a consequence of impaired trafficking of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system and modification of the proinflammatory/antiinflammatory cytokine balance. However, the effects of long-term monotherapy using various IFNβ preparations on cytokine profiles and the relevance of these effects for the therapy outcome have not yet been elucidated.
Methods:Changes were compared in serum levels of TNFα, IFNγ, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and nitrite between RRMS patients given 3-year treatment with intramuscular IFNβ-1a (30 μg once a week) or subcutaneous IFNβ-1b (250 μg every other day). Only the data from patients who completed the 3-year study (n = 20 and n = 18, respectively) were analyzed.
Results:Three-year IFNβ-1a or IFNβ-1b monotherapy reduced serum nitrite levels by 77 and 71%, respectively, lowered multiple sclerosis relapse annual rate by 70 and 71%, respectively, and significantly and similarly lowered Expanded Disability Status Scale scores in both study groups (by 0.9 on average). The two monotherapies showed little if any effect on cytokine levels and cytokine level ratios after the first year, but exerted diverging effects on these indices later on; the only exception was the IFNγ/IL-6 ratio that showed a monotonous rise in both study groups over the entire study period.
Conclusion:During long-term IFNβ monotherapy, the levels of the studied cytokines show no relevance to the course of RRMS and neurological status of patients, whereas there seems to be a link between these clinical indices and the activity of nitric oxide-mediated pathways.
- Alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- Semin Neurol 2013 Feb; 33(1):66-73.
Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD52. A single cycle of alemtuzumab, administered over 5 days, depletes lymphocytes. Reconstitution causes prolonged alterations in the lymphocyte repertoire, with relatively increased regulatory T-cell numbers and reduced naïve T cells. It is currently approved for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is being considered for licensing for multiple sclerosis (MS).When first used, alemtuzumab successfully reduced relapses and new lesion formation based on magnetic resonance imaging in people with progressive MS, but this cohort continued to accumulate disability, associated with progressive cerebral atrophy, presumably due to axonal degeneration. From this experience, we advocated that immunotherapies should be given early in the course of the disease. Since then, one phase II and two phase III trials have shown that alemtuzumab reduces the relapse rate, compared with the active comparator interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced MS up to 10 years from disease onset. Furthermore, in two of these trials, alemtuzumab reduced the risk of accumulating disability compared with IFNβ-1a; indeed alemtuzumab treatment led to an improvement in disability and reduction in cerebral atrophy. Safety issues are infusion-associated reactions, mainly controlled by methyl-prednisolone, antihistamines, and antipyretics; mild to moderate infections; and autoimmunity. After 5 years, 30 to 40% of alemtuzumab patients have developed autoimmunity, largely against the thyroid gland, but rarely (2%) against platelets in immune thrombocytopenia, and in a few cases, Goodpasture's renal syndrome.Alemtuzumab is an effective therapy for early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, offering disability improvement at least to 5 years after treatment. Its use requires careful monitoring so that potentially serious side effects can be treated early and effectively.
- Persistence on therapy and propensity matched outcome comparison of two subcutaneous interferon Beta 1a dosages for multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e63480.
To compare treatment persistence between two dosages of interferon β-1a in a large observational multiple sclerosis registry and assess disease outcomes of first line MS treatment at these dosages using propensity scoring to adjust for baseline imbalance in disease characteristics.Treatment discontinuations were evaluated in all patients within the MSBase registry who commenced interferon β-1a SC thrice weekly (n = 4678). Furthermore, we assessed 2-year clinical outcomes in 1220 patients treated with interferon β-1a in either dosage (22 µg or 44 µg) as their first disease modifying agent, matched on propensity score calculated from pre-treatment demographic and clinical variables. A subgroup analysis was performed on 456 matched patients who also had baseline MRI variables recorded.Overall, 4054 treatment discontinuations were recorded in 3059 patients. The patients receiving the lower interferon dosage were more likely to discontinue treatment than those with the higher dosage (25% vs. 20% annual probability of discontinuation, respectively). This was seen in discontinuations with reasons recorded as "lack of efficacy" (3.3% vs. 1.7%), "scheduled stop" (2.2% vs. 1.3%) or without the reason recorded (16.7% vs. 13.3% annual discontinuation rate, 22 µg vs. 44 µg dosage, respectively). Propensity score was determined by treating centre and disability (score without MRI parameters) or centre, sex and number of contrast-enhancing lesions (score including MRI parameters). No differences in clinical outcomes at two years (relapse rate, time relapse-free and disability) were observed between the matched patients treated with either of the interferon dosages.Treatment discontinuations were more common in interferon β-1a 22 µg SC thrice weekly. However, 2-year clinical outcomes did not differ between patients receiving the different dosages, thus replicating in a registry dataset derived from "real-world" database the results of the pivotal randomised trial. Propensity score matching effectively minimised baseline covariate imbalance between two directly compared sub-populations from a large observational registry.
- Subcutaneous Interferon Beta-1a in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: A Retrospective Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Child Neurol 2013 May 27.
To expand current knowledge, we examined the safety and tolerability of subcutaneous interferon β-1a in patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Records from 307 patients who had received at least 1 injection of subcutaneous interferon β-1a for demyelinating events when aged younger than 18 years were reviewed. Overall, 168 (54.7%) patients had at least 1 prespecified medical event related to or under close monitoring with subcutaneous interferon β-1a or specific to pediatric patients, 184 (59.9%) had nonserious medical events related to treatment or of unknown causality, and 12 (3.9%) had serious medical events irrespective of causality. The most common laboratory abnormalities were increased alanine (74/195; 37.9%) and aspartate aminotransferase levels (59/194; 30.4%). Annualized relapse rates were 1.79 before treatment and 0.47 during treatment. In conclusion, adult doses of subcutaneous interferon β-1a (44 and 22 μg, 3 times weekly) were well tolerated in pediatric patients and were associated with reduced relapse rates.
- Alemtuzumab in multiple sclerosis: latest evidence and clinical prospects. [Journal Article]
- Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2013 May; 4(3):97-103.
Alemtuzumab was first used in multiple sclerosis in 1991. It is a monoclonal antibody which is directed against CD52, a protein of unknown function on lymphocytes. Alemtuzumab causes a lymphopenia, following which homeostatic reconstitution leads to prolonged alteration of the immune repertoire. This reduces the risk of relapse and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis; it is the only drug to show superiority over interferon β-1a in disability outcomes in a monotherapy phase III trial. It should be used with a parallel risk management programme to identify the principal adverse effects of alemtuzumab, especially secondary autoimmunity months or years later, mainly against the thyroid but also immune thrombocytopenia. This review charts the development of alemtuzumab as a drug for multiple sclerosis and summarizes the latest clinical trial data.
- Cost-effectiveness of injectable disease-modifying therapies for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis in Spain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Health Econ 2013 Apr 25.
OBJECTIVE:To compare the cost-effectiveness of injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for the first-line treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Spain.
METHODS:A Markov model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of intramuscular interferon beta-1a (IM IFNβ-1a), subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (SC IFNβ-1a), interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) and glatiramer acetate (GA) relative to best supportive care in a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 RRMS patients in Spain. The model was developed from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 30 years. Natural history and clinical trial data were used to model relapse rates and disease progression. Cost and utility data were obtained from a published survey of multiple sclerosis patients in Spain. The primary outcome measure was cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.
RESULTS:Compared to best supportive care, the base case cost-effectiveness was <euro>168,629 per QALY gained for IM IFNβ-1a, <euro>231,853 per QALY gained for IFNβ-1b, <euro>295,638 per QALY gained for SC IFNβ-1a, and <euro>318,818 per QALY gained for GA. Results were most sensitive to changes in DMT cost, utility values and treatment effect.
CONCLUSIONS:In our cost-effectiveness analysis of first-line injectable DMTs in Spain, we found IM IFNβ-1a to be more cost-effective than SC IFNβ-1a, IFNβ-1b or GA. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results.
- Lipid profiles are associated with lesion formation over 24 months in interferon-β treated patients following the first demyelinating event. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013 Apr 17.
OBJECTIVES:To investigate the associations of serum lipid profile with disease progression in high-risk clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) after the first demyelinating event.
METHODS:High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) were obtained in pretreatment serum from 135 high risk patients with CIS (≥2 brain MRI lesions and ≥2 oligoclonal bands) enrolled in the Observational Study of Early Interferon β-1a Treatment in High Risk Subjects after CIS study (SET study), which prospectively evaluated the effect of intramuscular interferon β-1a treatment following the first demyelinating event. Thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, active smoking status and body mass index were also obtained. Clinical and MRI assessments were obtained within 4 months of the initial demyelinating event and at 6, 12 and 24 months.
RESULTS:The time to first relapse and number of relapses were not associated with any of the lipid profile variables. Higher LDL-C (p=0.006) and TC (p=0.001) levels were associated with increased cumulative number of new T2 lesions over 2 years. Higher free thyroxine levels were associated with lower cumulative number of contrast-enhancing lesions (p=0.008). Higher TC was associated as a trend with lower baseline whole brain volume (p=0.020). Higher high density lipoprotein was associated with higher deseasonalised 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (p=0.003) levels and a trend was found for deseasonalised 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (p=0.014).
CONCLUSIONS:In early multiple sclerosis, lipid profile variables particularly LDL-C and TC levels are associated with inflammatory MRI activity measures.
- A cost-effectiveness analysis of subcutaneous interferon beta-1a 44mcg 3-times a week vs no treatment for patients with clinically isolated syndrome in Sweden. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Econ 2013 Apr 17.
Objective:To assess the cost-effectiveness of subcutaneous interferon (sc IFN) beta-1a 44 mcg 3-times weekly (tiw) vs no treatment at reducing the risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) in Sweden.
Methods:A Markov model was constructed to simulate the clinical course of patients with CIS treated with sc IFN beta-1a 44 mcg tiw or no treatment over a 40-year time horizon. Costs were estimated from a societal perspective in 2012 Swedish kronor (SEK). Treatment efficacy data were derived from the REFLEX trial; resource use and quality-of-life (QoL) data were obtained from the literature. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3%. Sensitivity analyses explored whether results were robust to changes in input values and use of Poser criteria.
Results:Using McDonald criteria sc IFN beta-1a was cost-saving and more effective (i.e., dominant) vs no treatment. Gains in progression free life years (PFLYs) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were 1.63 and 0.53, respectively. Projected cost savings were 270,263 SEK. For Poser criteria cost savings of 823,459 SEK were estimated, with PFLY and QALY gains of 4.12 and 1.38, respectively. Subcutaneous IFN beta-1a remained dominant from a payer perspective. Results were insensitive to key input variation. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis estimated a 99.9% likelihood of cost-effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay threshold of 500,000 SEK/QALY.
Conclusion:Subcutaneous IFN beta-1a is a cost-effective option for the treatment of patients at high risk of MS conversion. It is associated with lower costs, greater QALY gains, and more time free of MS. Limitations: The risk of conversion from CIS to MS was extrapolated from 2-year trial data. Treatment benefit was assumed to persist over the model duration, although long-term data to support this are unavailable. Cost and QoL data from MS patients were assumed applicable to CIS patients.
- Identification of oxidation sites and covalent cross-links in metal catalyzed oxidized interferon Beta-1a: potential implications for protein aggregation and immunogenicity. [Journal Article]
- Mol Pharm 2013 Jun 3; 10(6):2311-22.
Oxidation via Cu(2+)/ascorbate of recombinant human interferon beta-1a (IFNβ1a) leads to highly immunogenic aggregates, however it is unknown which amino acids are modified and how covalent aggregates are formed. In the present work we mapped oxidized and cross-linked amino acid residues in aggregated IFNβ1a, formed via Cu(2+)/ascorbate catalyzed oxidation. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to confirm extensive aggregation of oxidized IFNβ1a. Circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy indicated substantial loss of secondary and tertiary structure, respectively. Derivatization with 4-(aminomethyl)benzenesulfonic acid was used to demonstrate, by fluorescence in combination with SEC, the presence of tyrosine (Tyr) oxidation products. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of reduced, alkylated, and digested protein was employed to localize chemical degradation products. Oxidation products of methionine, histidine, phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan, and Tyr residues were identified throughout the primary sequence. Covalent cross-links via 1,4- or 1,6-type addition between primary amines and DOCH (2-amino-3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)propanoic acid, an oxidation product of Phe and Tyr) were detected. There was no evidence of disulfide bridge, Schiff base, or dityrosine formation. The chemical cross-links identified in this work are most likely responsible for the formation of covalent aggregates of IFNβ1a induced by oxidation, which have previously been shown to be highly immunogenic.