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interferon beta 1a [keywords]
- Interferon β-1a reduces increased interleukin-16 levels in multiple sclerosis patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Neurol Scand 2014 Jan 25.
There is convergent evidence for an important role of interleukin-16 (IL-16) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). IL-16 serves as a chemoattractant for different immune cells that are involved in developing lesions. Here, we compared IL-16 levels of MS patients and controls and addressed the long-term effect of IFN-β, the most common immunomodulatory MS therapy, on IL-16 serum levels in MS patients over 2 years. Beyond this, we analysed the expression of IL-16 in two CD4(+) T-cell subsets, Th1 and Th17 cells, which are important autoimmune mediators and affected by IFN-β treatment, derived from myelin-specific T-cell transgenic mice.IL-16 serum levels of 17 controls and of 16 MS patients before therapy and at months 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 during IFN-β1a therapy were determined by ELISA. MRI was performed before therapy, at months 12 and 24. IL-16 expression of in vitro differentiated murine myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific Th1 and Th17 cells was quantified by real-time PCR.Before therapy, MS patients showed significantly elevated IL-16 levels compared with controls irrespective of disease activity determined by MRI. Therapy with IFN-β1a led to a significant linear decrease in IL-16 serum levels beginning after 2 months. MOG-specific Th17 cells expressed more IL-16 than Th1 cells.Reduction in increased IL-16 levels may be of relevance for the therapeutic effect of IFN-β1a in MS. Easily accessible IL-16 serum levels hold a potential as biomarker of treatment efficacy in MS.
- Patient expectations and experiences of multiple sclerosis interferon β-1a treatment: a longitudinal, observational study in routine UK clinical practice. [Journal Article]
- Patient Prefer Adherence 2014.:247-55.
Premature discontinuation and poor treatment adherence are problems in chronic conditions, such as multiple sclerosis in which patients must take long-term treatment in order to receive maximum benefit from their medication. The Assessing needs In Multiple Sclerosis (AIMS) study explored factors related to premature treatment discontinuation and patients' experiences of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) β-1a treatment in the UK.A questionnaire-based survey was integrated into the Bupa Home Healthcare patient-support program, which delivers sc IFN β-1a to patients in their home. Data were collected via patient questionnaires incorporated into routine clinical care and administered upon registration of a new patient by the coordinator, following initial delivery of treatment, prior to each delivery during therapy and at the end of treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with premature discontinuation.Data were collected from 2,390 patients (1,267 new; 1,123 existing) from 59 UK prescribing centers (November 2006-April 2011). Following the first delivery of sc IFN β-1a, 94% (1,149/1,225) of patients had received training, and 73% (818/1,120) reported that they had no concerns. In total, 24% of new patients discontinued therapy by the end of the study. In the univariate model, none of the candidate variables tested were significant predictors of treatment discontinuation. The strongest predictors of discontinuation in multivariate analyses were lack of information prior to starting treatment and patients feeling unwell on treatment and geographic region (P<0.05 for each variable).This study suggests that patients feeling well on treatment and provision of high-quality information are the main determinants of persistence with sc IFN β-1a therapy. A package of care that targets these issues should therefore be considered when initiating sc IFN β-1a therapy.
- Pegylated interferons: a nurses' review of a novel multiple sclerosis therapy. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci Nurs 2014 Apr; 46(2):88-96.
: Most multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies are injectable drugs, and the frequency of injections has been shown to be inversely proportional to overall compliance. One method of improving therapeutic compliance and thus clinical outcomes is to develop medications that require less frequent dosing. One of the most promising modification techniques to extend the bioavailability of a drug is poly(ethylene glycol) conjugation (pegylation), which increases the size of a molecule by attaching polyethylene glycol moieties to the parent compound, resulting in slower clearance and metabolism. This approach has been used to improve the efficacy of a number of therapeutic molecules, including interferons. Peginterferon beta-1a, a pegylated form of interferon beta-1a, is currently in phase III clinical trials for relapsing MS and has the potential to improve patient compliance by reducing the number of injections while maintaining clinical efficacy. The role of nurses in educating patients about the effective use of this new MS therapy is discussed.
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients on high-dose interferon β [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mult Scler 2014 Feb 17.
Three women aged 34-47 years old, on high dose interferon beta-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, were hospitalized between 2009-2012 for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome. Patients sought medical attention for neurological symptoms including cephalalgia, blurred vision, confusion, focal deficits and seizures. All patients presented thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia and arterial hypertension. Despite plasma exchanges, corticosteroids and anti-CD20 treatments, all patients progressed towards severe renal insufficiency and one patient died of hemorrhagic shock. In this report we identify a rare but morbid complication of interferon beta-1a treatment associated with female gender, Caucasian background and low body mass index.
- A pilot study on the use of interferon beta-1a in early Alzheimer's disease subjects. [Journal Article]
- J Neuroinflammation 2014; 11(1):30.
Despite the fact that multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share common neuroimmunological features, interferon beta 1a (IFNβ1a), the well-established treatment for the prevention of disease progression and cognitive decline in MS patients, has never been used in AD. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of IFNβ1a in subjects affected by mild-to-moderate AD in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter pilot study. Forty-two early Alzheimer's patients were randomized to receive either a 22 mcg subcutaneous injection of IFNβ1a or placebo three times per week. A treatment period of 28 weeks was followed by 24 weeks of observation. IFNβ1a was well tolerated and adverse events were infrequent and mild to moderate. Although not statistically significant, a reduction in disease progression during follow-up was measured in IFNβ1a-treated patients by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale. Interestingly, the treatment group showed significant improvements in the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Physical Self-maintenance Scale. This study suggests that IFNβ1a is safe and well tolerated in early AD patients, and its possible beneficial role should be further investigated in larger studies.
- Mycophenolate mofetil for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014.:CD010242.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system and a leading cause of disability in young and middle-aged adults. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressive agent that has been used for the prevention of allograft rejection after renal, cardiac, or liver transplant and in patients with autoimmune diseases such as active relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and progressive MS.To assess the efficacy and safety of MMF for preventing disease activity in patients with RRMS.We searched the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the Central Nervous System Group Specialised Register (January 14, 2013). We searched three Chinese databases (January 2013) and checked reference lists of identified trials. We contacted authors and pharmaceutical companies to ask for additional information. We applied no language restrictions.We included randomized controlled trials with a follow-up of at least 12 months that compared MMF as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments versus placebo, another drug, or the same cointervention as the treated group.Two review authors independently selected the trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality, and extracted data.One included study involving 26 participants with new-onset RRMS investigated the efficacy and safety of MMF (13 participants) versus placebo in interferon β-1a-treated participants. It was assessed to be at high risk of bias, and had a small numbers of participants receiving treatment with short-term duration. There was inadequate information provided by the study to determine the effect of MMF in reducing relapses, preventing disability progression, or developing new T2- or new gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after a 12-month follow-up period. No data were available at 24 months. No serious adverse effects were reported. All participants in the MMF-treated group suffered from gastrointestinal upset, but none of them discontinued therapy as a result.The evidence we found from one small study was insufficient to determine the effects of MMF as an add-on therapy for interferon β-1a in new-onset RRMS participants.
- The effect of intravenous interferon-beta-1a (FP-1201) on lung CD73 expression and on acute respiratory distress syndrome mortality: an open-label study. [Journal Article]
- Lancet Respir Med 2014 Feb; 2(2):98-107.
Pulmonary vascular leakage occurs early in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mortality is high (35-45%), but no effective pharmacotherapy exists. Production of anti-inflammatory adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) helps maintain endothelial barrier function. We tested whether interferon-beta-1a (IFN-beta-1a), which increases CD73 synthesis, can reduce vascular leakage and mortality in patients with ARDS.In ex-vivo studies, we first established that IFN-beta-1a induced CD73 up-regulation in cultured human lung tissue samples. We then tested the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of intravenous human recombinant IFN-beta-1a (FP-1201) in patients with ARDS in an open-label study (comprising dose-escalation and expansion phases). We recruited patients from eight intensive care units in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had ARDS, and were being treated with assisted ventilation. We established an optimal tolerated dose (OTD) in the first, dose-escalation phase. Once established, we gave all subsequently enrolled patients the OTD of intravenous FP-1201 for 6 days. We assessed 28-day mortality (our primary endpoint) in all patients receiving the OTD versus 28-day mortality in a group of patients who did not receive treatment (this control group comprised patients in the study but who did not receive treatment because they were screened during the safety windows after dose escalation). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00789685, and the EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT, number 2008-000140-13.IFN-beta-1a increased the number of CD73-positive vessels in lung culture by four times on day 1 (p=0·04) and by 14·3 times by day 4 (p=0·004). For the clinical trial, between Feb 23, 2009, and April 7, 2011, we identified 150 patients, of whom 37 were enrolled into the trial and given treatment. The control group consisted of 59 patients who were recruited to take part in the study, but who did not receive treatment. Demographic characteristics and severity of illness did not differ between treatment and control groups. The optimal tolerated FP-1201 dose was 10 μg per day for 6 days. By day 28, 3 (8%) of 37 patients in the treatment cohort and 19 (32%) of 59 patients in the control cohort had died-thus, treatment with FP-1201 was associated with an 81% reduction in odds of 28-day mortality (odds ratio 0·19 [95% CI 0·03-0·72]; p=0·01).FP-1201 up-regulates human lung CD73 expression, and is associated with a reduction in 28-day mortality in patients with ARDS. Our findings need to be substantiated in large, prospective randomised trials, but suggest that FP-1201 could be the first effective, mechanistically targeted, disease-specific pharmacotherapy for patients with ARDS.Faron Pharmaceuticals, National Institute for Health Research University College Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, the Finnish Academy, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, and the Arvo and Inkeri Suominen Foundation.
- Cost-effectiveness of glatiramer acetate and interferon beta-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, based on the CombiRx study. [Journal Article]
- J Med Econ 2014 Mar; 17(3):215-22.
Background:To assess the cost-effectiveness of the Disease Modifying Treatments (DMT), Glatiramer Acetate (GA) and Interferon beta-1a (IFN) in monotherapy alone and in combination for the prevention of relapses among Spanish patients aged between 18-60 years old with established Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS).
Methods:A Markov model was developed to represent the transition of a cohort of patients over a 10 year period using the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS). The model considered five different health states with 1-year cycles including without relapse, patients with suspect, non-protocol defined and protocol defined exacerbations, as well as a category information lost. Efficacy data was obtained from the 3-year CombiRx Study. Costs were reported in 2013 Euros and a 3% discount rate was applied for health and benefits. Deterministic results were presented as the annual treatment cost for the number of relapses. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the model.
Results:Deterministic results showed that the expected annual cost per patient was lower when treated with GA (€13,843) compared with IFN (€15,589) and the combined treatment with IFN + GA (€21,539). The annual number of relapses were lower in the GA cohort with 3.81 vs 4.18 in the IFN cohort and 4.08 in the cohort treated with IFN + GA. Results from probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that GA has a higher probability of being cost-effective than treatment with IFN or IFN + GA for threshold values from €28,000 onwards, independent of the maximum that the Spanish NHS is willing to pay for avoiding relapses.
Conclusion:GA was shown to be a cost-effective treatment option for the prevention of relapses in Spanish patients diagnosed with RRMS. When GA in monotherapy is compared with INF in monotherapy and IFN + GA combined, it may be concluded that the first is the dominant strategy.
- Apolipoproteins are associated with new MRI lesions and deep grey matter atrophy in clinically isolated syndromes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Jan 27.
There is increasing evidence that serum lipoprotein cholesterol biomarkers are associated with disease progression in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). Apolipoproteins (Apo) are recognition ligands that mediate the physiological interactions of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins. The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum Apo levels are associated with CIS disease progression.ApoB, ApoAI, ApoAII, ApoE and lipoprotein (a) (Lpa) levels were measured in serum samples obtained prior to the start of treatment from 181 CIS patients (123 women, 58 men, 68% women; mean age: 28.1±SD 8.1 years). All patients were treated with intramuscular interferon-β as part of the prospective study. Clinical and MRI assessments were obtained at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months after start of interferon-β treatment.Greater ApoB levels were associated with increased number of new T2 lesions (p<0.001) and increased number of new or enlarging T2 lesions (p<0.001) over 2 years. Each 10 mg/dL of greater baseline ApoB is associated with a 16% increase in the number of new T2 lesions over 2 years. ApoAI, ApoAII, ApoE and Lpa were not associated with T2 lesions. Greater ApoE levels were associated with greater deep grey matter atrophy (partial correlation rp=-0.28, p<0.001). Each 1 mg/dL increment in ApoE levels was associated with a 1% increase in deep grey matter atrophy over 2 years.Serum ApoB levels are associated with new lesion accumulation whereas ApoE levels are associated with deep grey matter atrophy in high risk CIS patients treated with interferon β-1a.
- Treatment discontinuation and disease progression with injectable disease-modifying therapies: findings from the north american research committee on multiple sclerosis database. [Journal Article]
- Int J MS Care 2013; 15(4):194-201.
Injectable first-line disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) are generally prescribed for continuous use. Accordingly, the various factors that influence patient persistence with treatment and that can lead some patients to switch medications or discontinue treatment may affect clinical outcomes. Using data from the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) database, this study evaluated participants' reasons for discontinuation of injectable DMTs as well as the relationship between staying on therapy and sustained patient-reported disease progression and annualized relapse rates. Participants selected their reason(s) for discontinuation from among 16 possible options covering the categories of efficacy, safety, tolerability, and burden, with multiple responses permitted. Both unadjusted data and data adjusted for baseline age, disease duration, disability, and sex were evaluated. Discontinuation profiles varied among DMTs. Participants on intramuscular interferon beta-1a (IM IFNβ-1a) and glatiramer acetate (GA) reported the fewest discontinuations based on safety concerns, although GA was associated with reports of higher burden and lower efficacy than other therapies. Difficulties with tolerability were more often reported as a reason for discontinuing subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a than as a reason for discontinuing IM IFNβ-1a, GA, or SC IFNβ-1b. In the persistent therapy cohort, less patient-reported disability progression was reported with IM IFNβ-1a treatment than with SC IFNβ-1a, IFNβ-1b, or GA. These findings have relevance to clinical decision making and medication compliance in MS patient care.