- Dietary vitamin C deficiency depressed the gill physical barriers and immune barriers referring to Nrf2, apoptosis, MLCK, NF-κB and TOR signaling in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under infection of Flavobacterium columnare. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2016 Sep 15; 58:177-192
- This study explored the effects of vitamin C on the physical barriers and immune barriers, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under in...
This study explored the effects of vitamin C on the physical barriers and immune barriers, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under infection of Flavobacterium columnare. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) (1) increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl (PC) contents (P < 0.05), decreased the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and mRNA levels (P < 0.05), and glutathione and vitamin C contents (P < 0.05), down-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 mRNA level (P < 0.05), and up-regulated Kelch-like ECH-associating protein (Keap) 1a (rather than Keap1b) mRNA level (P < 0.05) in the gill of grass carp under infection of F. columnare, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency induced oxidative injury in fish gill; (2) up-regulated caspase-3, -7, -8, -9, Fas ligand, B-cell lymphoma protein 2 associated X protein, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05), and down-regulated inhibitor of apoptosis protein and B-cell lymphoma-2 (rather than myeloid cell leukemia-1) mRNA level (P < 0.05) in the gill of grass carp under infection of F. columnare, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency aggravated cell apoptosis in fish gill; (3) up-regulated pore-forming TJs Claudin-12, 15a, -15b, and related signaling molecules myosin light chain kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (rather than c-Jun N-terminal kinases) mRNA levels (P < 0.05), and down-regulated barrier-forming TJs Occludin, zonula occludens (ZO) 1, ZO-2, Claudin-c, -3c, -7a, -7b mRNA levels (P < 0.05) in the gill of grass carp under infection of F. columnare, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency disrupted tight junctional complexes in fish gill; (4) decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 (C3), C4 and IgM contents (P < 0.05), down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides liver expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP) 2A, LEAP-2B, Hepcidin, β-defensin mRNA levels (P < 0.05) in the gill of grass carp under infection of F. columnare, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency decrease fish gill immune function; (5) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines-related factors interleukin 10 (IL-10), IL-11, transforming growth factor (TGF) β1, TGF-β2, inhibitor of κBa and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) (rather than 4E-BP2) (P < 0.05), and up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines-related factors interferon γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 P35, IL-12 P40, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 (rather than NF-κB p52), IκB kinases (IKK) (only IKKα and IKKγ), target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05) in the gill of grass carp under infection of F. columnare, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency aggravated fish gill inflammation. In conclusion, vitamin C deficiency disrupted physical barriers and immune barriers, and regulated relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in fish gill. The vitamin C requirement for against gill rot morbidity of grass carp (264-1031 g) was estimated to be 156.0 mg/kg diet. In addition, based on the gill biochemical indices (antioxidant indices MDA, PC and vitamin C contents, and immune indices LA and ACP activity) the vitamin C requirements for grass carp (264-1031 g) were estimated to be 116.8, 156.6, 110.8, 57.8 and 134.9 mg/kg diet, respectively.
- Alemtuzumab improves preexisting disability in active relapsing-remitting MS patients. [Journal Article]
- NeurNeurology 2016 Oct 12
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients with RRMS and inadequate response to prior disease-modifying therapies, alemtuzumab provides greater benefits than SC IFN-β-1a across several disability outcomes, reflecting improvement of preexisting disabilities.
- Peginterferon beta-1a versus other self-injectable disease-modifying therapies in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Scotland: a cost-effectiveness analysis. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Econ 2016 Oct 12; :1-29
- CONCLUSIONS: The impact of improved adherence with peginterferon beta-1a on clinical and economic outcomes and the impact of subsequent DMTs after treatment discontinuation were not considered. Oral and infused DMTs were not included as comparators.Long-term treatment with peginterferon beta-1a improves clinical outcomes, while its cost profile makes it either dominant or cost-effective compared with other self-injectable DMTs for the treatment of RRMS in Scotland.
- The effect of intramuscular interferon beta-1a on spinal cord volume in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Med Imaging 2016 Oct 5; 16(1):56
- CONCLUSIONS: Established IFNβ-1a therapy was not associated with ongoing spinal cord atrophy or any difference in the rate of spinal cord volume change in RRMS compared to NC over 2 years. These results may reflect a treatment effect. However, due to sample size and study design, these results should be considered preliminary and await confirmation.
- Therapeutic efficacy of monthly subcutaneous injection of daclizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis. [Review]
- BBiologics 2016; 10:119-38
- Despite the availability of multiple disease-modifying therapies for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), there remains a need for highly efficacious targeted therapy with a favorable benefit-risk prof...
Despite the availability of multiple disease-modifying therapies for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), there remains a need for highly efficacious targeted therapy with a favorable benefit-risk profile and attributes that encourage a high level of treatment adherence. Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD25, the α subunit of the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, that reversibly modulates IL-2 signaling. Daclizumab treatment leads to antagonism of proinflammatory, activated T lymphocyte function and expansion of immunoregulatory CD56(bright) natural killer cells, and has the potential to, at least in part, rectify the imbalance between immune tolerance and autoimmunity in relapsing MS. The clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of subcutaneous daclizumab have been evaluated extensively in a large clinical study program. In pivotal studies, daclizumab demonstrated superior efficacy in reducing clinical and radiologic measures of MS disease activity compared with placebo or intramuscular interferon beta-1a, a standard-of-care therapy for relapsing MS. The risk of hepatic disorders, cutaneous events, and infections was modestly increased. The monthly subcutaneous self-injection dosing regimen of daclizumab may be advantageous in maintaining patient adherence to treatment, which is important for optimal outcomes with MS disease-modifying therapy. Daclizumab has been approved in the US and in the European Union and represents an effective new treatment option for patients with relapsing forms of MS, and is currently under review by other regulatory agencies.
- Multiple Sclerosis in Pediatrics: Current Concepts and Treatment Options. [Review]
- NTNeurol Ther 2016 Sep 17
- Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS is increasingly recognized in the pediatric population, and it is usually diagn...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS is increasingly recognized in the pediatric population, and it is usually diagnosed around 15 years of age. The exact etiology of MS is still not known, although autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors play important roles in its development, making it a multifactorial disease. The disease in children almost always presents in the relapsing-remittent form. The therapy involves treatment of relapses, and immunomodulatory and symptomatic treatment. The treatment of children with MS has to be multidisciplinary and include pediatric neurologists, ophthalmologists, psychologists, physiotherapists, and if necessary, pediatric psychiatrists and pharmacologists. The basis of MS therapy should rely on drugs that are able to modify the course of the disease, i.e. immunomodulatory drugs. These drugs can be subdivided into two general categories: first-line immunomodulatory therapy (interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b, glatiramer acetate) and second-line immunomodulatory therapy (natalizumab, mitoxantrone, fingolimod, teriflunomide, azathioprine, rituximab, dimethyl fumarate, daclizumab). Treatment of relapses involves the use of high intravenous doses of corticosteroids, administration of intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasmapheresis. We summarize here the current available information related to the etiology and treatment options in MS. Early administration of immunomodulatory therapy is beneficial in adults, while more studies are needed to prove their effectiveness in pediatric populations. Therefore, pediatric MS still represents a great challenge for both, the early and correct diagnosis, as well as its treatment.
- Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9 agonists enhance interferon (IFN) beta-1a's immunoregulatory effects on B cells in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroimmunol 2016 Sep 15; 298:181-8
- We report that B cells from patients with RRMS have decreased endogenous IFN-β secretion and deficient IFN receptor (IFNAR)1/2 and TLR7 gene expression in comparison to healthy controls (HCs), which ...
We report that B cells from patients with RRMS have decreased endogenous IFN-β secretion and deficient IFN receptor (IFNAR)1/2 and TLR7 gene expression in comparison to healthy controls (HCs), which may contribute to disregulation of cytokine secretion by B cells. We propose that TLR7 and TLR9 stimulation with loxorubin (LOX) and CpG, in combination with exogenous IFN-β may effectively reconstitute endogenous IFN-β production deficit and induce the secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines by B cells. Both LOX/IFN-β and CpG/IFN-β in-vitro treatments of B cells from RRMS patients induced higher endogenous IFN-β gene expression in comparison to the exogenous IFN-β alone. CpG/IFN-β combination induced higher secretion of IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-27 in comparison to stimulation with IFN-β. Our study provides a basis for future clinical studies employing IFN-β and TLR7/9 agonists, which may enhance the resolution of the inflammatory response in RRMS.
- Superior MRI outcomes with alemtuzumab compared with subcutaneous interferon β-1a in MS. [Journal Article]
- NeurNeurology 2016 Oct 4; 87(14):1464-1472
- CONCLUSIONS: Alemtuzumab demonstrated greater efficacy than SC IFN-β-1a on MRI endpoints in active RRMS. The superiority of alemtuzumab was more prominent during the second year of both studies. These findings complement the superior clinical efficacy of alemtuzumab over SC IFN-β-1a in RRMS.
- Rapid Conformational Analysis of Protein Drugs in Formulation by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Sci 2016; 105(11):3269-3277
- Hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has become an established method for analysis of protein higher order structure. Here, we use HDX-MS methodology based on manual soli...
Hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has become an established method for analysis of protein higher order structure. Here, we use HDX-MS methodology based on manual solid-phase extraction (SPE) to allow fast and simplified conformational analysis of proteins under pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. Of significant practical utility, the methodology allows global HDX-MS analyses to be performed without refrigeration or external cooling of the setup. In mode 1, we used dimethyl sulphoxide-containing solvents for SPE, allowing the HDX-MS analysis to be performed at acceptable back-exchange levels (<30%) without the need for cooling any components of the setup. In mode 2, SPE and chromatography were performed using fast isocratic elution at 0°C resulting in a back-exchange of 10%-30%. Real-world applicability was demonstrated by HDX-MS analyses of interferon-β-1a in formulation, using an internal HDX reference peptide (P7I) to control for any sample-to-sample variations in back-exchange. Advantages of the methodology include low sample use, optimized excipient removal using multiple solvents, and fast data acquisition. Our results indicate that HDX-MS can provide a reliable approach for fast conformation analysis of proteins in their intended formulations, which could facilitate an increased use of the technique in pharmaceutical development research.
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- EVASEP: A Noninterventional Study Describing the Perception of Neurologists, Patients, and Caregivers on Caregivers' Role in the Support of Patients Suffering from Multiple Sclerosis Treated with Subcutaneous Interferon Beta 1a. [Journal Article]
- MSMult Scler Int 2016; 2016:4986073
- CONCLUSIONS: There are many unmet needs in the perception of the role of caregivers for people with MS which need to be addressed to deliver the most effective care package for patients and to support the needs of the support provider.