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keloid acne [keywords]
- Differential diagnosis of facial acne on black skin. [Journal Article]
- Int J Dermatol 2012 Nov.:24-6, 27-9.
The diagnosis of acne is usually easy, but there are some pitfalls to be avoided. 'Keloid acne of the neck' and beard folliculitis are not acnes in the usual sense: both are inflammatory and fibrous reactions of the hair follicles and frizzy hair; no retentional lesions, blackheads and microcysts--are visible. Gram negative folliculitis classically occurs in acneic male subjects who have undergone extensive treatment with general antibiotics or local antiseptics, but 'de novo' cases do exist. On black skin, this condition is not exceptional, it occurs in both sexes and usually takes the nodular form. The diagnosis should be considered if there is any aggravation of acne which is resistant to classic treatment, with painful nodules on the cheeks. Treatment is based on appropriate antibiotherapy for several weeks and possibly, in a second phase, on Isotretinoin. Pityrosporum folliculitis occurs mainly on the trunk. More frequent in men than in women, it is chiefly observed in subjects living in a hot, humid climate. Demodicidosis is manifested by outbreaks of papular or papulopustular lesions of the face. On black skin the principal differential diagnosis is acne. The presence of numerous parasites is necessary for diagnosis. Clinically speaking, an important sign is when the eyelids are affected. Ivermectin is effective. Acneiform dermatitis may be induced by depigmenting preparations containing powerful dermocorticoids. It is therefore important, in cases of very inflammatory acne, to look for the other clinical signs of voluntary depigmentation. In countries where it is endemic, lepromatous leprosy should be considered. Other common dermatitis may simulate acne or else be associated with it, such as eruptive hidradenoma or molluscum contagiosum. Analysis of the different elementary lesions and the absence of retentional lesions generally enable a diagnosis to be established.
- The efficacy of laser-assisted hair removal in the treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae; a pilot study. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article]
- Eur J Dermatol 2012 Sep-Oct; 22(5):645-50.
Laser-assisted hair removal causes miniaturization of hair shafts which are the principal contributors to inflammation in acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN).To assess the efficacy of hair reduction by long pulsed Nd-YAG laser as a therapeutic modality for AKN.This interventional pilot trial included 16 patients with AKN who received 5 sessions of long pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Lesions were objectively and subjectively assessed at the third and fifth laser sessions, and 1 year after. Global response to treatment was rated using a quartile grading scale regarding the percentage improvement in the count of papules and the size of the plaques. Biopsies were taken before and 2 weeks after the fifth session to evaluate the pathological changes associated with improvement of the treated lesions.All patients showed a significant improvement. The percentage of improvement in the early caseswas significantly higher when compared to late cases.Two weeks after the fifth session, all biopsies showed a significant decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate except one case. Sclerosis was markedly decreased. Complete absence of hair follicles and adenexawas observed, apart from in 2 cases.Laser hair depilation can significantly improve this disfiguring chronic disorder. Starting treatment as early as possible achieves the best results and can stop the disease process if followed by maintenance sessions.
- Noninvasive evaluation of collagen and hemoglobin contents and scattering property of in vivo keloid scars and normal skin using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: pilot study. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Biomed Opt 2012 Jul; 17(7):077005.
Collagen is a rich component in skin that provides skin structure integrity; however, its contribution to the absorption and scattering properties of various types of skin has not been extensively studied. We considered the contribution of the collagen to the absorption spectrum of in vivo normal skin and keloids of 12 subjects derived from our diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system in the wavelength range from 550 to 860 nm. It was found that the collagen concentration, the hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and the reduced scattering coefficient of keloids were remarkably different from that of normal skin. Our results suggest that our DRS system could assist clinicians in understanding the functional and structural condition of keloid scars. In the future, we will evaluate the accuracy of our system in the keloid diagnosis and investigate the applicability of our system for other skin-collagen-related studies.
- The sternalis muscle-incidental finding of a rare chest wall muscle variant during keloid excision-chest wall reconstruction. [Journal Article]
- Eplasty 2012.:e36.
Introduction: The sternalis is a rare (strap-like) parasternal muscle that is well known to anatomists, but relatively unknown to clinicians, including surgeons. Familiarity with the muscle is important in avoiding potential confusion when incidentally encountered. When available, the muscle can be harvested for reconstruction of the chest wall or of nearby region. Presentation of Case: The patient is a 55-year-old man with significant sternal keloids secondary to a previous history of severe acne. The patient desires removal of the keloids. Hence, a decision was made to excise the keloids, followed by immediate reconstruction with a propeller flap. Intraoperative excision of the keloids and undermining of adjacent subcutaneous tissue revealed chest muscle fibers fitting the description of the sternalis muscle. The patient tolerated the procedure without any complications. Discussion: The sternalis muscle can be confused for a mass on mammography, but confusion is resolved by computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. It has unclear embryonic origin-perhaps a remnant of the panniculus carnosus and/or derivative of a primitive ventral-longitudinal muscle sheet that give rise to the sternocleidomastoid and the rectus abdominis muscles. It is uni- or bilateral and has 1 or 2 bellies. It originates in the intraclavicular region and inserts onto the rectus sheath, costal cartilages, lower ribs, or external oblique aponeurosis.
Conclusion:Not enough is known about the sternalis muscle to draw any conclusion about its utility in reconstructive surgery. It is hoped that cases will be presented in the foreseeable future describing its usage in reconstruction of the neck, chest, abdomen, and perhaps even other places.
- Management of acne scarring, part II: a comparative review of non-laser-based, minimally invasive approaches. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Review]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2012 Oct 1; 13(5):331-40.
Acne scarring is a commonly encountered yet extremely challenging problem to treat for the dermatologist. As acne scarring can lead to significant psychological distress and low self-esteem, it is of utmost importance to have effective and satisfying treatments in the physician's armamentarium. However, many treatments are unsatisfying, leading to patient disappointment and frustration. Although early treatment of acne lesions and inflammation with isotretinoin is beneficial in preventing acne scarring, many patients still present with troubling noticeable scars. Despite the advances in pharmacology and technology, scar treatment still remains suboptimal and is tainted with several adverse effects. However, some treatments can provide benefits. This review article exhaustively discusses and analyzes the various minimally invasive approaches to the treatment of acne scarring with an emphasis on pharmacologic agents, such as isotretinoin for atrophic acne scars and corticosteroids and chemotherapeutic drugs for hypertrophic scars. Intralesional injections of corticosteroids are efficacious in reducing keloid scar formation in addition to preventing recurrence following surgical excision. In-office and minimally invasive procedural management, including chemical peels, dermabrasion, tissue augmentation, and punch excision is also discussed. Superficial chemical peels are efficacious in treating atrophic scars with relatively few adverse effects and complications. Although dermabrasion is used less often with the advent of laser resurfacing, this technique remains as a viable option for those with atrophic scars. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation can be managed successfully with topical agents such as azelaic acid and hydroquinone. The efficacy of various treatment modalities is highlighted with a focus on choosing the correct modalities for specific scar types.
- Pseudofolliculitis barbae induced by oral minoxidil. [Case Reports, Letter]
- Clin Exp Dermatol 2012 Oct; 37(7):800-1.
- Long-term organ culture of keloid disease tissue. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Exp Dermatol 2012 May; 21(5):376-81.
Keloid disease (KD) is a common fibroproliferative disorder of unknown aetiopathogenesis, with highly unsatisfactory treatment. Therefore, it is crucial to have a robust and clinically relevant model for studying KD pathobiology as well as preclinical testing of potential KD therapeutics. However, the unique occurrence of KD in human skin and the corresponding lack of animal models pose a major challenge in KD research. Therefore, we developed a simplified assay for the serum-free, long-term organ culture of KD tissue that facilitates quantitative analyses of major KD read-out parameters. Four millimetre KD punches embedded in a collagen matrix and organ-cultured at the epidermis air-liquid interphase (ALI) in supplemented William's E medium showed optimal tissue, cell and RNA preservation for up to 6 weeks (as measured by H & E and Pyronin Y histochemistry as well as by MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase release and quantitative Ki67/TUNEL immunohistomorphometry). The keloid phenotype persisted well during this period, as shown by collagen-I and -III synthesis (Herovici's histochemistry staining and ELISA), and analysis of the expression of significant KD markers (CD3, CD20, CD31, CD34, CD56, tryptase, Langerin, vimentin, neutrophil elastase, CTGF and Collagen). To functionally evaluate whether this assay can test the response to candidate therapeutics, dexamethasone, a glucocorticosteroid often used in KD therapy, was administered. Indeed, dexamethasone significantly reduced the keloid volume and cellularity plus induced epidermal shrinkage. Therefore, this novel assay provides a quantitative, clinically relevant model system for studying KD pathobiology and response to treatment.
- Acne keloidalis nuchae on herpes zoster scar in an HIV patient: isotopic response or not? [Case Reports, Letter]
- G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2012 Apr; 147(2):223-6.
- Tumor stage acne keloidalis nuchae treated with surgical excision and secondary intention healing. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Drugs Dermatol 2012 Apr; 11(4):540-1.
- [How I explore ... primary cicatricial alopecias]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Rev Med Liege 2012 Jan; 67(1):44-50.
Primary cicatricial alopecias (PCA) result from the inflammatory destruction of the hair follicle, followed by its replacement by a fibrotic streamer. The involvement of multipotent stem cells of the hair follicle is possible through a transdifferentiation pathway. The diagnosis relies on clinico-pathologic correlations. PCA are classified as the neutrophilic, lymphocytic and mixed types. Each of these groups gather specific disorders including folliculitis decalvans, dissecting folliculitis of the scalp, erosive pustulosis of the scalp, keloidal acne of the nape, frontal fibrosing alopecia, lichen planopilaris and lupus erythematosus.