- Application of RPMI 2650 as a cell model to evaluate solid formulations for intranasal delivery of drugs. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharm 2016 Oct 1; 515(1-2):1-10
- During the development of intranasal drug delivery systems for local/systemic effect or brain targeting, it is necessary to assess its cytotoxicity and drug transport through nasal epithelium. In ord...
During the development of intranasal drug delivery systems for local/systemic effect or brain targeting, it is necessary to assess its cytotoxicity and drug transport through nasal epithelium. In order to avoid animal experiments or the use of excised tissues, in vitro cell models, such as RPMI 2650 cells, are being preferred during recent years. Nevertheless, the deposition of solid formulations into nasal cell layers with further transepithelial transport rate of drugs has been poorly studied or reported. Thus, the purpose of this work is to further investigate RPMI 2650 cell line as an effective alternative to animal tissues for solid drug-loaded formulations cytotoxicity and drug permeation studies in order to become an option as a tool for drug discovery. Furthermore, we wanted to determine the extent to which the administration of drugs in particulate forms would differ in relation to the permeability of the same compounds applied as solutions. RPMI 2650 cells were cultured in submersed or at air-liquid interface conditions and characterized regarding transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and production of mucus. Pure ketoprofen (used as model compound) and five formulations loaded with same drug, namely solid lipid particles (Gelucire 43/01™), structured lipid particles (Gelucire 43/01™:Glyceryl monooleate) and aerogel microparticles (Alginate, Alginate:Pectin, Alginate:Carrageenan), were evaluated with RPMI 2650 model in terms of cytotoxicity and permeability of drug (applied as solution, dispersion or powder+buffer). RPMI 2650 cells were capable to grow in monolayer and multilayer, showing the same permeability as excised human nasal mucosa for sodium fluorescein (paracellular marker), with analogous TEER values and production of mucus, as referred by other authors. None of the powders showed cytotoxicity when applied to RPMI 2650 cells. Regarding permeation of drug through cell layers, not only the form of application of powders but also their physical and chemical properties affected the final permeation of active pharmaceutical ingredient. Aerogel microparticles administered directly to the cell layer (powder+buffer) exhibited the highest permeation-enhancing effect compared to the pure drug, which can be attributed to the mucoadhesive properties of the materials composing the carriers, proving to be an attractive formulation for nasal drug delivery. According to these results, RPMI 2650 showed to be a promising alternative to ex vivo or in vivo nasal models for cytotoxicity and evaluation of drug permeability of nasal drug-loaded formulations.
- FCERI and Histamine Metabolism Gene Variability in Selective Responders to NSAIDS. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2016; 7:353
- The high-affinity IgE receptor (Fcε RI) is a heterotetramer of three subunits: Fcε RIα, Fcε RIβ, and Fcε RIγ (αβγ2) encoded by three genes designated as FCER1A, FCER1B (MS4A2), and FCER1G, respective...
The high-affinity IgE receptor (Fcε RI) is a heterotetramer of three subunits: Fcε RIα, Fcε RIβ, and Fcε RIγ (αβγ2) encoded by three genes designated as FCER1A, FCER1B (MS4A2), and FCER1G, respectively. Recent evidence points to FCERI gene variability as a relevant factor in the risk of developing allergic diseases. Because Fcε RI plays a key role in the events downstream of the triggering factors in immunological response, we hypothesized that FCERI gene variants might be related with the risk of, or with the clinical response to, selective (IgE mediated) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) hypersensitivity. From a cohort of 314 patients suffering from selective hypersensitivity to metamizole, ibuprofen, diclofenac, paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), propifenazone, naproxen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, etofenamate, aceclofenac, etoricoxib, dexibuprofen, indomethacin, oxyphenylbutazone, or piroxicam, and 585 unrelated healthy controls that tolerated these NSAIDs, we analyzed the putative effects of the FCERI SNPs FCER1A rs2494262, rs2427837, and rs2251746; FCER1B rs1441586, rs569108, and rs512555; FCER1G rs11587213, rs2070901, and rs11421. Furthermore, in order to identify additional genetic markers which might be associated with the risk of developing selective NSAID hypersensitivity, or which may modify the putative association of FCERI gene variations with risk, we analyzed polymorphisms known to affect histamine synthesis or metabolism, such as rs17740607, rs2073440, rs1801105, rs2052129, rs10156191, rs1049742, and rs1049793 in the HDC, HNMT, and DAO genes. No major genetic associations with risk or with clinical presentation, and no gene-gene interactions, or gene-phenotype interactions (including age, gender, IgE concentration, antecedents of atopy, culprit drug, or clinical presentation) were identified in patients. However, logistic regression analyses indicated that the presence of antecedents of atopy and the DAO SNP rs2052129 (GG) were strongly related (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively) with selective hypersensitivity to ibuprofen. With regard to patients with selective hypersensitivity to ASA, men were more prone to develop such a reaction than women (P = 0.011), and the detrimental DAO SNP rs10156191 in homozygosity increased the risk of developing such hypersensitivity (P = 0.039).
- Nanoemulgel (NEG) of Ketoprofen with eugenol as oil phase for the treatment of ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Deliv 2016; 23(7):2228-2234
- CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed the great synergistic potential of the combined NEG of an anti-inflammatory drug KP along with eugenol as the oil phase, which have potential antibacterial, analgesic, and anesthetic properties to combat periodontal disease.
- [Dexketoprofen trometamol in dorsalgia treatment]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2016; 116(9):88-92
- Lower back pain (LBP) remains an important problem due to its high prevalence. LBP is the fifth in frequency among reasons for seeking treatment, and one of the most common among the chronic pain syn...
Lower back pain (LBP) remains an important problem due to its high prevalence. LBP is the fifth in frequency among reasons for seeking treatment, and one of the most common among the chronic pain syndromes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered to be the «gold standard» in relieving back pain. In treatment of acute musculoskeletal pain syndromes, special attention is drawn to drugs characterized by high analgesic activity and a short half-life. Among the drugs in this group, dexketoprofen (a derivative of propionic acid), a water-soluble salt of the dextrorotatory enantiomer of ketoprofen, deserves special attention. Over the last decade, a number of studies have shown the high efficacy of dexketoprofen trometamol.
- Conformational Change in the Mechanism of Inclusion of Ketoprofen in β-Cyclodextrin: NMR Spectroscopy, Ab Initio Calculations, Molecular Dynamics Simulations, and Photoreactivity. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Chem B 2016 Oct 11
- Inclusion of drugs in cyclodextrins (CDs) is a recognized tool for modifying several properties such as solubility, stability, bioavailability, and so on. The photoreactive behavior of the β-CD/ketop...
Inclusion of drugs in cyclodextrins (CDs) is a recognized tool for modifying several properties such as solubility, stability, bioavailability, and so on. The photoreactive behavior of the β-CD/ketoprofen (KP) complex upon UV exposure showed a significant increase in photodecarboxylation, whereas the secondary degradation products by hydroxylation of the benzophenone moiety were inhibited. The results may account for an improvement of KP photophysical properties upon inclusion, thus better fostering its topical use. To correlate the structural details of the inclusion with these results, an NMR spectroscopic study of KP upon inclusion in β-CD was performed. Effects of the magnetically anisotropic centers of KP, changing their orientations upon inclusion and giving chemical shift variations, were specifically correlated with the results of the molecular dynamic simulations and ab initio calculations. In the large variety of papers focusing on the structural analysis of β-CD complexes, this work represents one of the few examples in which a detailed analysis of these simultaneous upfield-downfield NMR shifts of the same aromatic molecule upon inclusion is reported. Interestingly, the results demonstrate that the observed upfield and downfield shifts upon inclusion are not related to any direct magnetic role of β-CD. The conformational change of KP upon the inclusion process consists of a slight reduction in the angle between the two phenyl rings and in a remarkable reduction in the mobility of the carboxyl group, the latter being one of the main contributions to the NMR resonance shifts. These structural details help in understanding the features of the inclusion complex and, eventually, the driving force for its formation.
- NSAIDs diclofenac, indomethacin, and meloxicam highly upregulate expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2 induced by X-irradiation in human endothelial cells. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 Oct 28; 479(4):847-852
- CONCLUSIONS: Indomethacin, diclofenac, and meloxicam highly upregulated radiation-induced expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2 in HUVECs, which suggests that use of these NSAIDs may increase the effects of ionizing radiation and affect the risk of MI after radiation exposure to the heart.
- Nerve stimulator-guided pudendal nerve block vs general anesthesia for postoperative pain management after anterior and posterior vaginal wall repair: a prospective randomized trial. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Anesth 2016; 34:668-75
- CONCLUSIONS: This randomized controlled trial demonstrated that nerve stimulator-guided PNB could be used as an alternative to GA for AP repair of stages I and II prolapse because it is associated with less postoperative pain and analgesic consumption, in addition to shorter duration of recovery.
- Life cycle assessment and costing of urine source separation: Focus on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug removal. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2016 Nov 15; 105:487-495
- Urine source separation has the potential to reduce pharmaceutical loading to the environment, while enhancing nutrient recovery. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) was to evaluate the env...
Urine source separation has the potential to reduce pharmaceutical loading to the environment, while enhancing nutrient recovery. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) was to evaluate the environmental impacts and economic costs to manage nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (i.e., diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) and nutrients in human urine. Urine source separation was compared with centralized wastewater treatment (WWT) (biological or upgraded with ozonation). The current treatment method (i.e., centralized biological WWT) was compared with hypothetical treatment scenarios (i.e., centralized biological WWT upgraded with ozonation, and urine source separation). Alternative urine source separation scenarios included varying collection and handling methods (i.e., collection by vacuum truck, vacuum sewer, or decentralized treatment), pharmaceuticals removal by ion-exchange, and struvite precipitation. Urine source separation scenarios had 90% lower environmental impact (based on the TRACI impact assessment method) compared with the centralized wastewater scenarios due to reduced potable water production for flush water, reduced electricity use at the wastewater treatment plant, and nutrient offsets from struvite precipitation. Despite the greatest reduction of pharmaceutical toxicity, centralized treatment upgraded with ozone had the greatest ecotoxicity impacts due to ozonation operation and infrastructure. Among urine source separation scenarios, decentralized treatment of urine and centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum truck had negligible cost differences compared with centralized wastewater treatment. Centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum sewer and centralized treatment with ozone cost 30% more compared with conventional wastewater treatment.
- Ketoprofen for episodic tension-type headache in adults. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Sep 22; 9:CD012190
- CONCLUSIONS: Ketoprofen 25 mg provided a small benefit compared with placebo in terms of being pain-free at two hours or having mild or no pain at two hours for people with frequent episodic TTH who have an acute headache of moderate or severe intensity. Its use was associated with more people experiencing adverse events. Ketoprofen 25 mg was not superior to paracetamol 1000 mg for any efficacy outcome.
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- Prophylaxis of pancreatitis with intravenous ketoprofen in a consecutive population of ERCP patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- SESurg Endosc 2016 Sep 20
- Background Acute pancreatitis is the most common complication after ERCP, occurring in about 4 % of the procedures. Only the placement of pancreatic duct prosthesis and the use of nonsteroidal anti-i...
Background Acute pancreatitis is the most common complication after ERCP, occurring in about 4 % of the procedures. Only the placement of pancreatic duct prosthesis and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have shown benefit in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). Although the benefit of rectal administration of indomethacin or diclofenac is recommended by some studies and society guidelines especially in a selected group of high-risk patients, there is so far, no standardization of time or route of NSAID administration. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of an intravenous NSAID administered before the procedure for PEP prevention. Methods In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, all consecutive patients who underwent ERCP were randomized to receive saline infusion with ketoprofen or saline, immediately before the procedure. Results A total of 477 patients were enrolled and completed follow-up. The majority of patients (72.1 %) had bile duct stones, and only 1.5 % had a clinical suspicion of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. PEP developed in 5 of 253 (2 %) patients in the placebo group and in 5 of 224 (2.2 %) patients in the ketoprofen group (p = 1.). Conclusions Intravenous administration of ketoprofen immediately prior to ERCP did not result in reduction in PEP in a general population of ERCP patients.