- Presence of pharmaceuticals in the Lis river (Portugal): Sources, fate and seasonal variation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sci Total Environ 2016 Aug 22.:164-177.
The occurrence of 33 pharmaceuticals and metabolites was evaluated along the Lis river and in the influents and effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located along the river. Results indicate that pharmaceuticals, such as ibuprofen, ketoprofen, carbamazepine and fluoxetine, and the metabolite salicylic acid are widespread along the Lis river, showing 100% of detection frequency, at levels up to 1.3μgL(-1). The number of molecules detected increased along the river, with 11 molecules in the source, 15 upstream WWTP 1, 16 downstream WWTP 1 and upstream WWTP 2 and 19 downstream WWTP 2. The highest concentrations were often found downstream near the river mouth. Different possible sources of contamination of the Lis river were identified, namely WWTP effluents, untreated wastewaters and livestock production. Nevertheless, the discharge of WWTP effluents appeared to be the most pronounced, given that, in general, it was noticed an increase in the concentration of pharmaceuticals downstream of the WWTPs. WWTP effluents contributed with a total mass load of pharmaceuticals into the Lis river between 470 and 2317mg/d/1000 inhabitants. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/analgesics were the therapeutic group with a high contribution to the total mass load of pharmaceuticals entering the Lis river, followed by psychiatric drugs and antibiotics. No seasonal variation was observed for the detected concentrations of pharmaceuticals. At the levels detected in the Lis river, sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin, azithromycin and ibuprofen showed to have potential risk for aquatic organisms. These findings show that further studies embracing different environmental compartments (water, sediment and biota) are needed, in order to evaluate the partition/distribution of pharmaceuticals, their metabolites and transformation products in the environment as well as to predict their possible impact to non-target organisms and, in a last instance, to human health.
- Innovative combination of QuEChERS extraction with on-line solid-phase extract purification and pre-concentration, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their metabolites in sewage sludge. [Journal Article]
- Anal Chim Acta 2016 Sep 7.:269-81.
For the first time QuEChERS extraction of sewage sludge was combined with the automatic solid-phase pre-concentration and purification of the extract (following indicated as SPE) and LC-MS/MS analysis, for the determination of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), diclofenac (DIC), fenbufen (FEN), flurbiprofen (FLU), ketoprofen (KET), ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NAP), and their metabolites salicylic acid (SAL), 4'-hydroxydiclofenac (4'-HYDIC), 1-hydroxyibuprofen (1-HYIBU), 2-hydroxyibuprofen (2-HYIBU), 3-hydroxyibuprofen (3-HYIBU) and o-desmethylnaproxen (O-DMNAP). Various commercial pellicular stationary phases (i.e. silica gel functionalized with octadecyl, biphenyl, phenylhexyl and pentafluorophenyl groups) were preliminarily investigated for the resolution of target analytes and different sorbent phases (i.e. octyl or octadecyl functionalized silica gel and a polymeric phase functionalized with N-benzylpyrrolidone groups) were tested for the SPE phase. The optimized method involves the QuEChERS extraction of 1 g of freeze-dried sludge with 15 mL of water/acetonitrile 1/2 (v/v), the SPE of the extract with the N-benzylpyrrolidone polymeric phase and the water/acetonitrile gradient elution on the pentafluorophenyl stationary phase at room temperature. Matrix effect was always suppressive and in most cases low, being it ≤20% for ASA, DIC, FLU, KET, IBU, 1-HYIBU, 2-HYIBU, 3-HYIBU, NAP and O-DMNAP, and included in the range of 35-47% for the other analytes. Recoveries were evaluated at three spiking levels, evidencing almost quantitative values for HYIBUs and O-DMNAP; for ASA, SAL and KET the recoveries were included in between 50 and 76%, whereas for the other compounds they ranged from 36% to 55%. The proposed method showed better analytical performances than those so far published, being suitable for target compound determination in real samples from tens of pg g(-1) to ng g(-1) of freeze-dried sludge, with a total analysis time of 30 min per sample.
- Determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in water and urine using selective molecular imprinted polymer extraction and liquid chromatography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 Aug 4.:48-53.
A selective solid-phase extraction was employed for the improvement of the determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in continental water and urine samples. Ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, and ibuprofen were selected as target analytes due to they are the most frequently administered and consumed NSAIDs. These compounds were extracted using molecular imprinted polymers and determined by liquid chromatography with diode array (DAD), and tandem-mass spectrometry (MS-MS) detectors. Performance of DAD and MS-MS detectors was evaluated throughout this study. The obtained limits of quantification, after a 50-fold preconcentration solid-phase extraction, varied from 20 to 30μgL(-1) for DAD, and from 0.007 to 0.017μgL(-1) for MS-MS for both types of sample matrixes. Quantitative recoveries were found for blank-samples spiked at different NSAIDs concentration levels, ranging from 0.05 to 10mgL(-1) for urine and from 0.5 to 500μgL(-1) for water. The proposed methodology was applied for the determination of NSAID residues in urine of prescribed individuals, and continental waters.
- Matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of selective ciclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in sewage sludge samples. [Journal Article]
- J Chromatogr A 2016 Sep 2.:35-43.
A straightforward single-step extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS), was developed and optimized to determine five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Valdecoxib, Etoricoxib, Parecoxib, Celecoxib and 2,5-Dimethylcelecoxib) in sewage sludge samples. The influence of different operational parameters on the extraction efficiency a well as in the matrix effects of the produced extracts was evaluated in detail. Under final working conditions, freeze dried samples (0.2g) were first soaked with 100μL of aqueous potassium hydroxide solution (60%, w/v), mixed with 1g of anhydrous sodium sulfate and dispersed with 1g of Florisil. This blend was transferred to the top of a polypropylene column cartridge containing 3g of silica. Analytes were recovered using 15mL of hexane/acetone (1:2, v/v) mixture. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation and reconstituted with 1mL of methanol/water (1:1, v/v), filtered and injected in the LC system. Quantification limits from 0.005 and 0.05ngg(-1) and absolute recoveries between 86 and 105% were achieved. Results indicated the presence of two of the targeted COXIBs in real samples of sewage sludge, the highest average concentration (22ngg(-1)) corresponding to celecoxib. Moreover, the screening capabilities of the LC-QTOF-MS system demonstrated that the developed MSPD extraction procedure might be useful for the selective extraction of some other pharmaceuticals (e.g. amiodarone and their metabolite N-desethylamiodarone, miconazole, clotrimazole and ketoprofen) from sludge samples.
- Cellulose triacetate films obtained from sugarcane bagasse: Evaluation as coating and mucoadhesive material for drug delivery systems. [Journal Article]
- Carbohydr Polym 2016 Nov 5.:764-74.
Cellulose triacetate (CTA) films were produced from cellulose extracted from sugarcane bagasse. The films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical properties (MP), enzymatic digestion (ED), and mucoadhesive properties evaluation (MPE). WVP showed that more concentrated films have higher values; asymmetric films had higher values than symmetric films. MP showed that symmetric membranes are more resistant than asymmetric ones. All films presented high mucoadhesiveness. From the WVP and MP results, a symmetric membrane with 6.5% CTA was selected for the coating of gellan gum (GG) particles incorporating ketoprofen (KET). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the CTA coating does not influence the thermal stability of the particles. Coated particles released 100% of the KET in 24h, while uncoated particles released the same amount in 4h. The results highlight the CTA potential in the development of new controlled oral delivery systems.
- Regional Intestinal Permeability of Three Model Drugs in Human. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2016 Aug 18.
Currently there are only a limited number of determinations of human Peff in the distal small intestine and none in the large intestine. This has hindered the validation of preclinical models with regard to absorption in the distal parts of the intestinal tract, which can be substantial for BCS class II-IV drugs, and drugs formulated into modified-release (MR) dosage forms. To meet this demand, three model drugs (atenolol, metoprolol, and ketoprofen) were dosed in solution intravenously, and into the jejunum, ileum, and colon of 14 healthy volunteers. The Peff of each model drug was then calculated using a validated deconvolution method. The median Peff of atenolol in the jejunum, ileum, and colon was 0.45, 0.15, and 0.013 × 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. The corresponding values for metoprolol were 1.72, 0.72, and 1.30 × 10(-4) cm/s, and for ketoprofen 8.85, 6.53, and 3.37 × 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. This is the first study where the human Peff of model drugs has been determined in all parts of the human intestinal tract in the same subjects. The jejunal values were similar to directly determined values using intestinal single-pass perfusion, indicating that the deconvolution method is a valid approach for determining regional Peff. The values from this study will be highly useful in the validation of preclinical regional absorption models and in silico tools.
- Regional Intestinal Permeability in Dogs: Biopharmaceutical Aspects for Development of Oral Modified-Release Dosage Forms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2016 Aug 18.
The development of oral modified-release (MR) dosage forms requires an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with a sufficiently high absorption rate in both the small and large intestine. Dogs are commonly used in preclinical evaluation of regional intestinal absorption and in the development of novel MR dosage forms. This study determined regional intestinal effective permeability (Peff) in dogs with the aim to improve regional Peff prediction in humans. Four model drugs, atenolol, enalaprilat, metoprolol, and ketoprofen, were intravenously and regionally dosed twice as a solution into the proximal small intestine (P-SI) and large intestine (LI) of three dogs with intestinal stomas. Based on plasma data from two separate study occasions for each dog, regional Peff values were calculated using a validated intestinal deconvolution method. The determined mean Peff values were 0.62, 0.14, 1.06, and 3.66 × 10(-4) cm/s in the P-SI, and 0.13, 0.02, 1.03, and 2.20 × 10(-4) cm/s in the LI, for atenolol, enalaprilat, metoprolol, and ketoprofen, respectively. The determined P-SI Peff values in dog were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.98) to the historically directly determined human jejunal Peff after a single-pass perfusion. The determined dog P-SI Peff values were also successfully implemented in GI-Sim to predict the risk for overestimation of LI absorption of low permeability drugs. We conclude that the dog intestinal stoma model is a useful preclinical tool for determination of regional intestinal permeability. Still, further studies are recommended to evaluate additional APIs, sources of variability, and formulation types, for more accurate determination of the dog model in the drug development process.
- Modeling of pharmaceuticals mixtures toxicity with deviation ratio and best-fit functions models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sci Total Environ 2016 Jul 29.:259-268.
The present study deals with assessment of ecotoxicological parameters of 9 drugs (diclofenac (sodium salt), oxytetracycline hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride, chloramphenicol, ketoprofen, progesterone, estrone, androstenedione and gemfibrozil), present in the environmental compartments at specific concentration levels, and their mutual combinations by couples against Microtox® and XenoScreen YES/YAS® bioassays. As the quantitative assessment of ecotoxicity of drug mixtures is an complex and sophisticated topic in the present study we have used two major approaches to gain specific information on the mutual impact of two separate drugs present in a mixture. The first approach is well documented in many toxicological studies and follows the procedure for assessing three types of models, namely concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and simple interaction (SI) by calculation of a model deviation ratio (MDR) for each one of the experiments carried out. The second approach used was based on the assumption that the mutual impact in each mixture of two drugs could be described by a best-fit model function with calculation of weight (regression coefficient or other model parameter) for each of the participants in the mixture or by correlation analysis. It was shown that the sign and the absolute value of the weight or the correlation coefficient could be a reliable measure for the impact of either drug A on drug B or, vice versa, of B on A. Results of studies justify the statement, that both of the approaches show similar assessment of the mode of mutual interaction of the drugs studied. It was found that most of the drug mixtures exhibit independent action and quite few of the mixtures show synergic or dependent action.
- KINETICS STUDY ON KETOPROFEN RELEASE FROM MINI TABLETS AND MULTI-COMPARTMENT SYSTEMS. [Journal Article]
- Acta Pol Pharm 2016 May-Jun; 73(3):731-7.
Thanks to multi-compartment systems it is possible to modify drug release. Two types of mini tablets containing 12.5 mg of ketoprofen were made: mini tablets of immediate (IR) and sustained (SR) release. Some of the tablets of immediate release were coated with an enteric coating, thereby obtaining a delayed release effect (IRc). For each tablet type, release profiles were tested in three media: 0.1 M HCl, phosphate buffer pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Based on the obtained results, three appropriate multi-compartment models have been constructed and tested. The factor limiting the amount of available ketoprofen at the absorption place is pH of the environment. It was observed that the increase in pH caused the increase of ketoprofen solubility. Constructed multi-compartment systems allowed to change the composition and the dose of medicinal substances easily. Thanks to this it is possible to adjust the release profile of the active substance to the individual patient, which meets the expectations of personalized medicine.
- Continuous treatment of non-sterile hospital wastewater by Trametes versicolor: How to increase fungal viability by means of operational strategies and pretreatments. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2016 Jul 16.:561-570.
Hospital wastewaters have a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs). Fungal treatments could be appropriate for source treatment of such effluents but the transition to non-sterile conditions proved to be difficult due to competition with indigenous microorganisms, resulting in very short-duration operations. In this article, coagulation-flocculation and UV-radiation processes were studied as pretreatments to a fungal reactor treating non-sterile hospital wastewater in sequential batch operation and continuous operation modes. The influent was spiked with ibuprofen and ketoprofen, and both compounds were successfully degraded by over 80%. UV pretreatment did not extent the fungal activity after coagulation-flocculation measured as laccase production and pellet integrity. Sequential batch operation did not reduce bacteria competition during fungal treatment. The best strategy was the addition of a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment to a continuous reactor, which led to an operation of 28days without biomass renovation.