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- Ketoprofen enantioseparation with a Cinchona-alkaloid-based stationary phase: Enantiorecognition mechanism and release studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sep Sci 2014 Jul 14.
With the present contribution we demonstrate that the base-line separation of ketoprofen enantiomers can be successfully achieved (α = 1.09; RS = 1.60) in the reversed-phase mode of elution with a commercially available anion-exchange-based chiral stationary phase, incorporating the quinine 2,6-diisopropylphenyl carbamate derivative as the enantioresolving unit. Focused modification of the eluent composition indicated a stereoselective role of hydrophobic and π-π interactions between the selector and selectand units, besides the prime ionic intermolecular interaction. The mechanistic hypotheses based on the chromatographic data were confirmed by in silico molecular dynamic simulations, which allowed us to establish the network of selector-selectand interactions underlying the stereorecognition process at a molecular level. The validated method was successfully used to evaluate the drug content and release profile of ketoprofen-loaded polymeric film, showing drug homogeneous distribution into the film and no preferential interactions between the polymer and one of the enantiomers, with the racemate released at each time point. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- DJ-1 plays an important role in caffeic acid-mediated protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Nutr Biochem 2014 Jun 12.
Ketoprofen is widely used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine; however, this drug may cause oxidative stress and lead to gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers. We previously reported that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species, and it facilitates the prevention of ketoprofen-induced GI mucosal ulcers. Recent reports suggested that Nrf2 becomes unstable in the absence of DJ-1/PARK7, attenuating the activity of Nrf2-regulated downstream antioxidant enzymes. Thus, increasing Nrf2 translocation by DJ-1 may represent a novel means for GI protection. In vitro, caffeic acid increases the nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 ratio and the mRNA expression of the downstream antioxidant enzymes, ϒ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and heme oxygenase-1, by activating the JNK/p38 pathway in Int-407 cells. Moreover, knockdown of DJ-1 also reversed caffeic acid-induced nuclear Nrf2 protein expression in a JNK/p38-dependent manner. Our results also indicated that treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with caffeic acid prior to the administration of ketoprofen inhibited oxidative damage and reversed the inhibitory effects of ketoprofen on the antioxidant system and DJ-1 protein expression in the GI mucosa. Our observations suggest that DJ-1 plays an important role in caffeic acid-mediated protection against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage in the GI mucosa.
- [Meloxicam: the golden mean of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ter Arkh 2014; 86(5):99-105.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most commonly used to treat acute and chronic pain in locomotor system (LMS) diseases. However, their administration may be accompanied by the development of dangerous complications as organic and functional disorders of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Physicians have currently a wide range of NSAIDs at their disposal; but none of the representatives of this group can be considered the best. Thus, highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (Coxibs) are substantially safer for GIT; however, their use is clearly associated with the increased risk of severe cardiovascular events. Nonselective NSAIDs, such as naproxen or ketoprofen, are safer for CVS, but more frequently cause significant GIT organic and functional disorders. Moderately selective NSAIDs, such as meloxicam (movalis), conceivably could be the most acceptable choice for treating the majority of patients in this situation. This drug has been long and extensively used in global clinical practice and has gained the confidence of physicians and patients. The major benefits of meloxicam are its proven efficacy, convenient treatment regimen, relatively low risk of complications as organic and functional disorders of the GIT and CVD and good compatibility with low-dose aspirin.
- Irrigation of Root Vegetables with Treated Wastewater: Evaluating Uptake of Pharmaceuticals and the Associated Human Health Risks. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Sci Technol 2014 Jul 15.
To meet mounting water demands, treated wastewater has become an important source of irrigation. Thus, contamination of treated wastewater by pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) and the fate of these compounds in the agricultural environment are of increasing concern. This field study aimed to quantify PC uptake by treated wastewater-irrigated root crops (carrots and sweet potatoes) grown in lysimeters and to evaluate potential risks. In both crops, the nonionic PCs (carbamazepine, caffeine, and lamotrigine) were detected at significantly higher concentrations than ionic PCs (metoprolol, bezafibrate, clofibric acid, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole and sildenafil). PCs in leaves were found at higher concentrations than in the roots. Carbamazepine metabolites were found mainly in the leaves, where the concentration of the metabolite 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine was significantly higher than the parent compound. The health risk associated with consumption of wastewater-irrigated root vegetables was estimated using the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach. Our data show that the TTC value of lamotrigine can be reached for a child at a daily consumption of half a carrot (~60 g). This study highlights that certain PCs accumulated in edible organs at concentrations above the TTC value should be categorized as contaminants of emerging concern.
- Comparison of the sensitivities of WaterLOGSY and saturation transfer difference NMR experiments. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol NMR 2014 Jul 12.
The WaterLOGSY (WL) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments have proven to be extremely useful techniques to characterize interactions between small molecules and large biomolecules. In this work we compare the relative sensitivities of WL and STD NMR using 3 experimental systems: ketoprofen (KET)-bovine serum albumin (BSA), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ)-hemagglutinin (HA), and chloramphenicol (CAM)-ribosome (70S). In all cases we find that WL is more sensitive than STD for a given experimental time with the ratios ranging from 3.2 for KET-BSA to 16 for TBHQ-HA and CAM-70S. We attribute the increased sensitivity of WL to be due to simultaneous saturation of multiple sources of cross correlation, including direct NOEs of (1)H of water and exchangeable groups and indirect NOEs of (1)H-C groups. We suggest that the outstanding sensitivity of WL make it ideally suited for drug screening efforts targeting very large biomolecules at relatively low concentrations.
- Effect of ketoprofen on pre-weaning piglet mortality on commercial farms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet J 2014 Jun 6.
The effect of ketoprofen on pre-weaning piglet mortality was evaluated in a large-scale study on commercial farms. Sows (n= 1486) from 15 farms were included. Half of the sows received 3 mg/kg ketoprofen in a single intramuscular administration within 12 h after farrowing. The other half remained untreated. Pre-weaning mortality was lower in the ketoprofen-treated group than in the control group (8.43% vs. 10.24%, respectively; P= 0.010). The major impact of ketoprofen on mortality was seen between days 2 and 7 postpartum (mortality rates of 2.75% vs. 4.02% for treated and control groups, respectively; P= 0.001). In addition, ketoprofen treatment was associated with a higher number of piglets weaned per litter than when no treatment was given (10.0 vs. 9.84, respectively; P= 0.012).
- Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in urban wastewater of north Indian cities and risk assessment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Monit Assess 2014 Jul 9.
Six pharmaceuticals of different categories, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac), anti-epileptic (carbamazepine), and anti-microbial (trimethoprim), were investigated in wastewater of the urban areas of Ghaziabad and Lucknow, India. Samples were concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. The SPE-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. All the six drugs were detected in wastewater of Ghaziabad, whereas naproxen was not detected in Lucknow wastewater. Results suggest that levels of these detected drugs were relatively higher in Ghaziabad as compared to those in Lucknow, and diclofenac was the most frequently detected drug in both the study areas. Detection of these drugs in wastewater reflects the importance of wastewater inputs as a source of pharmaceuticals. In terms of the regional distribution of compounds in wastewater of two cities, higher spatial variations (coefficient of variation 112.90-459.44 %) were found in the Lucknow wastewater due to poor water exchange ability. In contrast, lower spatial variation (162.38-303.77 %) was observed in Ghaziabad. Statistical analysis results suggest that both data were highly skewed, and populations in two study areas were significantly different (p < 0.05). A risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotient (RQ) in six different bioassays (bacteria, duckweed, algae, daphnia, rotifers, and fish) showed that the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) posed high (RQ >1) risk to all the test species. The present study would contribute to the formulation of guidelines for regulation of such emerging pharmaceutical contaminants in the environment.
- Fast ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen simultaneous determination in human serum for clinical toxicology by GC-FID. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Biochem 2014 Jul 6.
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the measurement of ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen for clinical toxicology purposes.100μL of plasma was treated with methyl chloroformate and derivatized analytes were extracted with hexane. Optimal conditions of the derivatization procedure have been found using the experimental chemometric design (face-centered central composite design). The selectivity and efficiency of the procedure was confirmed by GC-MS.The assay was linear in the concentration range of 10-400μgmL(-1), with adequate accuracy and precision for GC-FID (98-106.7%, CV≤9.1%, respectively) and for GC-MS (99.3-105.5%, CV≤9.2%, respectively).The entire sample preparation procedure is completed within 5min and the quantitative results are available within 35min. The method was successfully applied to quantify the selected compounds in serum of patients from emergency units.
- Development of a SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS methodology for the determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic pharmaceuticals in seawater. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pharm Biomed Anal 2014 Jun 23.
An analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of seven pharmaceuticals and two metabolites belonging to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics therapeutic groups was developed based on off-line solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). Extraction conditions were optimized taking into account parameters like sorbent material, sample volume and sample pH. Method detection limits (MDLs) ranging from 0.02 to 8.18ng/L were obtained. This methodology was successfully applied to the determination of the selected pharmaceuticals in seawater samples of Atlantic Ocean in the Northern Portuguese coast. All the pharmaceuticals have been detected in the seawater samples, with pharmaceuticals like ibuprofen, acetaminophen, ketoprofen and the metabolite hydroxyibuprofen being the most frequently detected at concentrations that can reach some hundreds of ng/L.
- A randomized, double blind comparison of pethidine and ketoprofen as adjuvants for lignocaine in intravenous regional anaesthesia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Braz J Anesthesiol 2014 July - August; 64(4):221-226.
A review of all the adjuncts for intravenous regional anaesthesia concluded that there is good evidence to recommend NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory agents and pethidine in the dose of 30mg dose as adjuncts to intravenous regional anaesthesia. But there are no studies to compare pethidine of 30mg dose to any of the NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory agents.In a prospective, randomized, double blind study, 45 patients were given intravenous regional anaesthesia with either lignocaine alone or lignocaine with pethidine 30mg or lignocaine with ketprofen 100mg. Fentanyl was used as rescue analgesic during surgery. For the first 6h of postoperative period analgesia was provided by fentanyl injection and between 6 and 24h analgesia was provided by diclofenac tablets. Visual analogue scores for pain and consumption of fentanyl and diclofenac were compared.The block was inadequate for one case each in lignocaine group and pethidine group, so general anaesthesia was provided. Time for the first dose of fentanyl required for postoperative analgesia was significantly more in pethidine and ketoprofen groups compared to lignocaine group (156.7±148.8 and 153.0±106.0 vs. 52.1±52.4min respectively). Total fentanyl consumption in first 6h of postoperative period was less in pethidine and ketoprofen groups compared to lignocaine group (37.5±29.0mcg, 38.3±20.8mcg vs. 64.2±27.2mcg respectively). Consumption of diclofenac tablets was 2.4±0.7, 2.5±0.5 and 2.0±0.7 in the control, pethidine and ketoprofen group respectively, which was statistically not significant. Side effects were not significantly different between the groups.Both pethidine and ketoprofen are equally effective in providing postoperative analgesia up to 6h, without significant difference in the side effects and none of the adjuncts provide significant analgesia after 6h.