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lateral geniculate nucleus [keywords]
- Central projections of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Neurol 2014 Feb 6.
Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin and the neuropeptide PACAP. The ipRGCs regulate other non-image-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behaviour and light induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we characterized the occurrence of PACAP in melanopsin expressing ipRGCs and in the retinal target areas in the brain visualized by the anterograde tracer Cholera Toxin subunit B (CtB) in combination with PACAP staining. In the retina, PACAP and melanopsin were found to be co-stored in 99% of melanopsin expressing cells characterized as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin RGCs. Two macaque monkeys were anesthetized and received a unilateral intravitreal injection of CtB. Bilateral retinal projections containing co-localized CtB and PACAP immunostaining were identified in the SCN, the lateral geniculate complex (LGN) including the pregeniculate nucleus (PrGC), the pretectal olivary nucleus (PON), the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), the brachium of the superior colliculus (BSC), and the superior colliculus (SC). In conclusion, PACAP immunoreactive projections with co-localized CtB represent retinal projections of ipRGCs in the macaque monkey, and support previous retrograde tracer studies demonstrating that melanopsin containing retinal projections reach areas in the primate brain involved in both image and non-image-forming visual processing. J. Comp. Neurol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Central projections of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey. [Journal Article]
- J Comp Neurol 2014 Jul 1; 522(10):Spc1.
Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin and the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). The ipRGCs regulate other nonimage-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behavior, and light-induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP-immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we characterized the occurrence of PACAP in melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs and in the retinal target areas in the brain visualized by the anterograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CtB) in combination with PACAP staining. In the retina, PACAP and melanopsin were found to be costored in 99% of melanopsin-expressing cells characterized as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin RGCs. Two macaque monkeys were anesthetized and received a unilateral intravitreal injection of CtB. Bilateral retinal projections containing colocalized CtB and PACAP immunostaining were identified in the SCN, the lateral geniculate complex including the pregeniculate nucleus, the pretectal olivary nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract, the brachium of the superior colliculus, and the superior colliculus. In conclusion, PACAP-immunoreactive projections with colocalized CtB represent retinal projections of ipRGCs in the macaque monkey, supporting previous retrograde tracer studies demonstrating that melanopsin-containing retinal projections reach areas in the primate brain involved in both image- and nonimage-forming visual processing. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2231-2248, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Thalamic Control of Human Attention Driven by Memory and Learning. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Biol 2014 Apr 15.
The role of the thalamus in high-level cognition-attention, working memory (WM), rule-based learning, and decision making-remains poorly understood, especially in comparison to that of cortical frontoparietal networks [1-3]. Studies of visual thalamus have revealed important roles for pulvinar and lateral geniculate nucleus in visuospatial perception and attention [4-10] and for mediodorsal thalamus in oculomotor control . Ventrolateral thalamus contains subdivisions devoted to action control as part of a circuit involving the basal ganglia [12, 13] and motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortices , whereas anterior thalamus forms a memory network in connection with the hippocampus . This connectivity profile suggests that ventrolateral and anterior thalamus may represent a nexus between mnemonic and control functions, such as action or attentional selection. Here, we characterize the role of thalamus in the interplay between memory and visual attention. We show that ventrolateral lesions impair the influence of WM representations on attentional deployment. A subsequent fMRI study in healthy volunteers demonstrates involvement of ventrolateral and, notably, anterior thalamus in biasing attention through WM contents. To further characterize the memory types used by the thalamus to bias attention, we performed a second fMRI study that involved learning of stimulus-stimulus associations and their retrieval from long-term memory to optimize attention in search. Responses in ventrolateral and anterior thalamic nuclei tracked learning of the predictiveness of these abstract associations and their use in directing attention. These findings demonstrate a key role for human thalamus in higher-level cognition, notably, in mnemonic biasing of attention.
- Lateral Geniculate Lesions Causing Reversible Blindness in a Pre-eclamptic Patient With a Variant of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroophthalmol 2014 Apr 15.
: Bilateral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) injury is a rare cause of vision loss. We describe a patient with pre-eclampsia who developed profound but reversible bilateral vision loss, bilateral serous retinal detachments, and magnetic resonance imaging signs of a variant of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) that affected both LGNs and spared the retrogeniculate pathways. We provide evidence that the visual loss was not from the chorioretinal lesions but from the LGN lesions. The concurrence of PRES and lesions attributed to choroidal hypoperfusion provides support for the notion that vasoconstriction also underlies the pathogenesis of PRES.
- Repetitive and retinotopically restricted activation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus with optogenetics. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(4):e94633.
Optogenetics allows the control of cellular activity using focused delivery of light pulses. In neuroscience, optogenetic protocols have been shown to efficiently inhibit or stimulate neuronal activity with a high temporal resolution. Among the technical challenges associated with the use of optogenetics, one is the ability to target a spatially specific population of neurons in a given brain structure. To address this issue, we developed a side-illuminating optical fiber capable of delivering light to specific sites in a target nucleus with added flexibility through rotation and translation of the fiber and by varying the output light power. The designed optical fiber was tested in vivo in visual structures of ChR2-expressing transgenic mice. To assess the spatial extent of neuronal activity modulation, we took advantage of the hallmark of the visual system: its retinotopic organization. Indeed, the relative position of ganglion cells in the retina is transposed in the cellular topography of both the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in the thalamus and the primary visual cortex (V1). The optical fiber was inserted in the LGN and by rotating it with a motor, it was possible to sequentially activate different neuronal populations within this structure. The activation of V1 neurons by LGN projections was recorded using intrinsic optical imaging. Increasing light intensity (from 1.4 to 8.9 mW/mm2) led to increasing activation surfaces in V1. Optogenetic stimulation of the LGN at different translational and rotational positions was associated with different activation maps in V1. The position and/or orientation of the fiber inevitably varied across experiments, thus limiting the capacity to pool data. With the optogenetic design presented here, we demonstrate for the first time a transitory and spatially-concise activation of a deep neuronal structure. The optogenetic design presented here thus opens a promising avenue for studying the function of deep brain structures.
- An Investigation of Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Volume in Patients with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma using 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014 Apr 10.
Purpose:To investigate lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) volume of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients compared with age and gender-matched controls using ultra-high field 7.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods:Methods: The study included 18 patients with POAG and 18 age-, and sex-matched healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent imaging on a high-resolution 7.0-T MR imaging system. Bilateral LGNs were identified, manually delineated, and LGN volumes were compared. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness, optic nerve head parameters including optic disc size, rim area, and cup-to-disc ratio and combined thickness of the ganglion cell layer and inner plexus layer (GC-IPL) were measured by Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (OCT). Correlations between OCT parameters and LGN volume were investigated. Results: Mean LGN volumes were significantly smaller in the POAG group than that in the control group (Right, glaucoma 83.97 ± 26.65 mm3 vs. control 106.12 ± 24.32 mm3 ; Left, glaucoma 65.12 ± 29.41 mm3 vs. control 92.70 ± 24.42 mm3 , both p<0.05). In the POAG group, average GC-IPL thickness was correlated with contra-lateral LGN volume (right LGN: r=0.605, p=0.008; left LGN r=0.471, p=0.049). The correlation for right LGN volume remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. However, there was no correlation between LGN volume and average pRNFL thickness or optic disc parameters in the POAG group. Conclusions: On high-resolution 7.0T MRI, LGN volumes in POAG patients are significantly smaller than those of healthy subjects. Furthermore, in patients, LGN volume was found to be significantly correlated with GC-IPL thickness of the contralateral eye.
- Central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis: the great masquerader-an autopsy case report. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Neurol Med 2014.:745347.
Central pontine myelinolysis is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the loss of myelin in the center of the basis pontis usually caused by rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia. The clinical features vary depending on the extent of involvement. Demyelination can occur outside the pons as well and diagnosis can be challenging if both pontine and extrapontine areas are involved. We herein report a case of myelinolysis involving pons, lateral geniculate bodies, subependymal region, and spinal cord. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the second case of spinal cord involvement in osmotic demyelination syndrome and the first case of involvement of thoracic region of spinal cord.
- Antidromic latency of magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular (Blue-ON) geniculocortical relay cells in marmosets. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vis Neurosci 2014 Apr 7.:1-11.
We studied the functional connectivity of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) with the primary visual cortex (V1) in anesthetized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The LGN sends signals to V1 along parallel visual pathways called parvocellular (P), magnocellular (M), and koniocellular (K). To better understand how these pathways provide inputs to V1, we antidromically activated relay cells in the LGN by electrically stimulating V1 and measuring the conduction latencies of P (n = 7), M (n = 14), and the "Blue-ON" (n = 5) subgroup of K cells (K-BON cells). We found that the antidromic latencies of K-BON cells were similar to those of P cells. We also measured the response latencies to high contrast visual stimuli for a subset of cells. We found the LGN cells that have the shortest latency of response to visual stimulation also have the shortest antidromic latencies. We conclude that Blue color signals are transmitted directly to V1 from the LGN by K-BON cells.
- Iron deposits in post-mortem brains of patients with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases: a semi-quantitative 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Neurol 2014 Apr 2.
Accumulation of iron (Fe) is often detected in brains of people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. However, no studies have compared the Fe load between these disease entities. The present study investigates by T2*-weighted gradient-echo 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the Fe content in post-mortem brains with different neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases.One hundred and fifty-two post-mortem brains, composed of 46 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 37 with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 11 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 13 with Lewy body disease, 14 with progressive supranuclear palsy, 16 with vascular dementia (VaD) and 15 controls without a brain disease, were examined. The Fe load was determined semi-quantitatively on T2*-weighted MRI serial brain sections in the claustrum, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, hippocampus, mamillary body, lateral geniculate body, red nucleus, substantia nigra and dentate nucleus. The disease diagnosis was made on subsequent neuropathological examination.The Fe load was significantly increased in the claustrum, caudate nucleus and putamen of FTLD brains and to a lesser degree in the globus pallidus, thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. In the other neurodegenerative diseases no Fe accumulation was observed, except for a mild increase in the caudate nucleus of AD brains. In VaD brains no Fe increase was detected.Only FTLD displays a significant Fe load, suggesting that impaired Fe homeostasis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disease entity.
- Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-D(b.) [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nature 2014 Mar 30.
The formation of precise connections between retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) involves the activity-dependent elimination of some synapses, with strengthening and retention of others. Here we show that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule H2-D(b) is necessary and sufficient for synapse elimination in the retinogeniculate system. In mice lacking both H2-K(b) and H2-D(b) (K(b)D(b)(-/-)), despite intact retinal activity and basal synaptic transmission, the developmentally regulated decrease in functional convergence of retinal ganglion cell synaptic inputs to LGN neurons fails and eye-specific layers do not form. Neuronal expression of just H2-D(b) in K(b)D(b)(-/-) mice rescues both synapse elimination and eye-specific segregation despite a compromised immune system. When patterns of stimulation mimicking endogenous retinal waves are used to probe synaptic learning rules at retinogeniculate synapses, long-term potentiation (LTP) is intact but long-term depression (LTD) is impaired in K(b)D(b)(-/-) mice. This change is due to an increase in Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors. Restoring H2-D(b) to K(b)D(b)(-/-) neurons renders AMPA receptors Ca(2+) impermeable and rescues LTD. These observations reveal an MHC-class-I-mediated link between developmental synapse pruning and balanced synaptic learning rules enabling both LTD and LTP, and demonstrate a direct requirement for H2-D(b) in functional and structural synapse pruning in CNS neurons.