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light sense [keywords]
- Investigating Social Support and Network Relationships in Substance Use Disorder Recovery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Subst Abus 2014 Sep 26.:0.
ABSTRACT Background: Social support and characteristics of one's social network have been shown to be beneficial for abstinence and substance use disorder recovery. The current study explores how specific sources of social support relate to general feelings of social support and abstinence-specific self-efficacy. Methods: Data was collected from 31 of 33 individuals residing in five recovery houses. Participants were asked to complete social support and social network measures, along with measures assessing abstinence from substance use, abstinence self-efficacy, and involvement in 12-step groups. Results: A significant positive relationship was found between general social support and abstinence-specific self-efficacy. General social support was also significantly associated with the specific social support measures of sense of community and AA affiliation. Social network size predicted abstinence-related factors such as AA affiliation and perceived stress. Conclusions: These results provide insight regarding individual feelings of social support and abstinence-specific self-efficacy by showing that one's social network-level characteristics are related to one's perceptions of social support. We also found preliminary evidence that individual Oxford Houses influence one's feelings of social support.
- Core Values Versus Common Sense: Consequentialist Views Appear Less Rooted in Morality. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2014 Sep 24.
When a speaker presents an opinion, an important factor in audiences' reactions is whether the speaker seems to be basing his or her decision on ethical (as opposed to more pragmatic) concerns. We argue that, despite a consequentialist philosophical tradition that views utilitarian consequences as the basis for moral reasoning, lay perceivers think that speakers using arguments based on consequences do not construe the issue as a moral one. Five experiments show that, for both political views (including real State of the Union quotations) and organizational policies, consequentialist views are seen to express less moralization than deontological views, and even sometimes than views presented with no explicit justification. We also demonstrate that perceived moralization in turn affects speakers' perceived commitment to the issue and authenticity. These findings shed light on lay conceptions of morality and have practical implications for people considering how to express moral opinions publicly.
- Neuronal mechanism for acute mechanosensitivity in tactile-foraging waterfowl. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Sep 22.
Relying almost exclusively on their acute sense of touch, tactile-foraging birds can feed in murky water, but the cellular mechanism is unknown. Mechanical stimuli activate specialized cutaneous end organs in the bill, innervated by trigeminal afferents. We report that trigeminal ganglia (TG) of domestic and wild tactile-foraging ducks exhibit numerical expansion of large-diameter mechanoreceptive neurons expressing the mechano-gated ion channel Piezo2. These features are not found in visually foraging birds. Moreover, in the duck, the expansion of mechanoreceptors occurs at the expense of thermosensors. Direct mechanical stimulation of duck TG neurons evokes high-amplitude depolarizing current with a low threshold of activation, high signal amplification gain, and slow kinetics of inactivation. Together, these factors contribute to efficient conversion of light mechanical stimuli into neuronal excitation. Our results reveal an evolutionary strategy to hone tactile perception in vertebrates at the level of primary afferents.
- INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS AND DRUG-NUTRIENT IN ENTERAL NUTRITION: A REVIEW BASED ON EVIDENCES. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nutr Hosp 2014; 30(n03):514-518.
Enteral nutrition (EN) provides calories, macronutrients and micronutrients in adequate quantity and quality to meet the patient's needs. Some drugs when crushed and diluted may have their properties altered, including the reduction of bioavailability causing the reduction of the serum concentration of the drug; tube obstruction; drug-drug interaction or drug-nutrient interaction.The study was conducted through review of submitted articles in the databases of the Virtual Health Library (VHL): MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, USA), Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) PUBMED - NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) and COCHRANE.For this survey, 42 articles were identified during database searching. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 08 articles were selected, obtained from the MEDLINE and Lilacs.Some interactions were found such as the aluminium hydroxide and lactulose with the enteral nutrition, which may result in a precipitation and reduction of drug bioavailability. Mineral oil will alter the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and reduces the tube light. Others results were found as phenytoin, warfarin, captopril and furosemide with enteral nutrition may reduce the maximum serum concentration.Drug interactions are more common in day-to-day activities than health professionals may suppose. Knowledge on the matter may also assist in reducing cases of obstruction of tubes, through which enteral nutrition and medications are administered. Thus, the multidisciplinary team, acting together, may have more beneficial effects to the patient.
- Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution. [Journal Article, Review]
- Front Plant Sci 2014.:445.
The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed.
- Sensory perceptions of individuals exposed to the static field of a 7T MRI: A controlled blinded study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Magn Reson Imaging 2014 Sep 19.
To determine the subjective experience of subjects undergoing 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to a mock scanner with no magnetic field.In all, 44 healthy subjects were exposed to both the B0 field of a 7T whole-body MRI and a realistic mock scanner with no magnetic field. Subjects were blinded to the actual field strength and no scanning was performed. After exposure, subjects rated their experience of potential sensory perceptions.The most frequently observed side effect was vertigo while entering the gantry, which was reported by 38.6% (n = 17). Other frequent side effects were the appearance of phosphenes (18.2%, n = 8), thermal heat sensation (15.9%), unsteady gait after exposure (13.6%, n = 6), and dizziness (13.6%). All side effects were reported significantly more often after 7T exposure. Nine subjects (20.5%) did not report any sensory perceptions at all, ie, neither in the 7T scanner nor in the mock scanner.Light, acute, and transient sensory perceptions can occur in subjects undergoing ultrahighfield MRI, of which vertigo seems to be the most frequently reported. Possible psychological effects might contribute to the emergence of such sensory perceptions, as some subjects also reported them to appear in a realistic mock scanner with no magnetic field.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- The Prevalence of Air Regurgitation and Its Consequences After Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy and Dacryocystorhinostomy in Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2014 Sep 17.
To describe the prevalence of air regurgitation into the periocular region in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) patients with a history of conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with a Lester Jones tube and a dacryocystorhinostomy with silicone intubation, as well as problems caused by this regurgitation and methods to cope.A retrospective chart review of patients who either underwent a conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy or dacryocystorhinostomy was performed. Patients were contacted via phone interview. Demographic information, history of sleep apnea, use of CPAP, and presence of air regurgitation and associated complications were recorded. Institutional review board/ethics committee approval was obtained.Two patients who underwent a conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with Lester Jones tube and were on CPAP were identified. Both complained of air regurgitation, sensation of Lester Jones tube moving due to regurgitation, and periodic eye pain. Twenty-two patients who underwent a dacryocystorhinostomy with silicone stent and used CPAP were identified. Of these, 16 (72.7%) complained of air regurgitation. Difficulty sleeping (56.2%), dry eye symptoms upon waking (68.8%), eye pain upon waking (31.3%), and blurry vision upon waking (12.5%) were the commonest complaints due to air regurgitation. A total of 7 (43.7%) patients had to discontinue their CPAP at some point due to symptoms.This study brings to light the prevalence of air regurgitation in dacryocystorhinostomy procedures, and its associated symptoms. Given that this procedure is much more common than conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy, surgeons should consider asking patients before performing surgery whether they use CPAP. Patients should be consented regarding the risk of air regurgitation and associated dry eye, foreign body sensation, and eye pain.
- A phenomenological approach to the ethics of transplantation medicine: sociality and sharing when living-with and dying-with others. [Journal Article]
- Theor Med Bioeth 2014 Oct; 35(5):369-88.
Recent years have seen a rise in the number of sociological, anthropological, and ethnological works on the gift metaphor in organ donation contexts, as well as in the number of philosophical and theological analyses of giving and generosity, which has been mirrored in the ethical debate on organ donation. In order to capture the breadth of this field, four frameworks for thinking about bodily exchanges in medicine have been distinguished: property rights, heroic gift-giving, sacrifice, and gift-giving as aporia. Unfortunately, they all run into difficulties in terms of both making sense of the relational dimensions of postmortem and live organ donations and being normatively adequate in the sense of shedding light and providing guidance on ethical concerns when body parts are donated. For this reason, this article presents a phenomenological framework of giving-through-sharing, based on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's philosophy. This framework makes sense of relational dimensions of postmortem and live organ donation. It also sheds light on three highly debated concerns in organ donation ethics: indebtedness on the part of recipients, the fact that some live donors do not experience donation as a matter of choice, and the potentially painful experience of donors' relatives, who need to make decisions about postmortem organ donation at a time of bereavement. It can indirectly support what may be called a normalization of bodily exchanges in medicine.
- Negative optical torque. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2014.:6386.
Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of "negative optical torque", meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.
- A new comparator account of auditory verbal hallucinations: how motor prediction can plausibly contribute to the sense of agency for inner speech. [Journal Article]
- Front Hum Neurosci 2014.:675.
The comparator account holds that processes of motor prediction contribute to the sense of agency by attenuating incoming sensory information and that disruptions to this process contribute to misattributions of agency in schizophrenia. Over the last 25 years this simple and powerful model has gained widespread support not only as it relates to bodily actions but also as an account of misattributions of agency for inner speech, potentially explaining the etiology of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH). In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the traditional comparator account for inner speech, pointing out serious problems with the specification of inner speech on which it is based and highlighting inconsistencies in the interpretation of the electrophysiological evidence commonly cited in its favor. In light of these analyses we propose a new comparator account of misattributed inner speech. The new account follows leading models of motor imagery in proposing that inner speech is not attenuated by motor prediction, but rather derived directly from it. We describe how failures of motor prediction would therefore directly affect the phenomenology of inner speech and trigger a mismatch in the comparison between motor prediction and motor intention, contributing to abnormal feelings of agency. We argue that the new account fits with the emerging phenomenological evidence that AVHs are both distinct from ordinary inner speech and heterogeneous. Finally, we explore the possibility that the new comparator account may extend to explain disruptions across a range of imagistic modalities, and outline avenues for future research.