- Influenza A Virus Surveillance in the Invasive American Mink (Neovison vison) from Freshwater Ecosystems, Northern Spain. [Journal Article]
- ZPZoonoses Public Health 2016 Dec 05
- Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. ...
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV. Sera from 689 American mink from Northern Spain captured between 2011 and 2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against IAVs using a commercial competition cELISA. Positive sera were further analysed with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Fifteen of the 689 (2.2%, 1.3-3.6 CI95% ) of the American minks analysed were ELISA positive. No significant differences were observed between years of capture, provinces, river basins, sexes or ages of the animals. All seropositive sera resulted negative to the panel strains used in the HI assay, showing that the most relevant strains circulating in swine, the most relevant avian subtypes (H5 and H7) and the H10N4 subtype isolated in minks have not been circulating in this free-ranging exotic carnivore from Spain. In the light of these results, the free-range American mink from Northern Spain do not seem to have an important role in the epidemiology of IAVs.
- Diabetic cachectic neuropathy: An uncommon neurological complication of diabetes. [Journal Article]
- SAS Afr Med J 2016 Dec 01; 106(12):1190-1191
- A 40-year-old female patient with diabetes of 12 years' duration, with poor drug compliance, presented with a 4-month history of rapid progressive weight loss, burning sensations in the feet, abdomin...
A 40-year-old female patient with diabetes of 12 years' duration, with poor drug compliance, presented with a 4-month history of rapid progressive weight loss, burning sensations in the feet, abdominal swelling, and constipation with occasional episodes of epigastric pain. On examination, she was chronically ill-looking with a body mass index of 17.1 kg/m2, grossly distended abdomen (initially mistaken for gravid abdomen). Blood pressure measurements in the supine and standing positions were 200/130 mmHg and 180/100 mmHg, respectively. Neurological examination revealed stocking-pattern loss of pain, temperature, and light touch modalities. Vibration sensation was impaired up to the malleoli bilaterally, with impairment of joint position sense of both big toes. Random blood sugar level was 16.4 mmol/L; glycosylated haemoglobin was 13.2% with a haematocrit of 33.0%. Renal indices, uric acid, liver function tests and fasting lipid profile were all within normal limits. An abdominal ultrasound scan showed distended bowel loops. The vibration perception threshold average using biothesiometry was 27.3 mV.
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following elevated mean arterial pressures for cervical spinal cord injury. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Spinal Cord Med 2016 Dec 05; :1-4
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome secondary to therapeutic blood pressure increase in the setting of cervical spine fracture with neurological deficits. The patients had resolution of symptoms following discontinuation of the MAP goals. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a life-threatening condition characterized by seizures, confusion, visual disturbance, and headaches alongside neuroradiological findings indicative of posterior cerebral hemispheric white matter edema. (1 , 2) PRES has been described in association with abrupt blood pressure elevation, autoimmune disorders, or transplantation. (1 - 4) In this case report PRES presented with typical status epilepticus (5) but in an unexpected clinical setting, immediately after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) and posterior cervical fusion (PCF) with laminectomy of C5-C6.
- Are Lasers superior to lights in the photoepilation of Fitzpatrick V and VI skin types? - A comparison between Nd:YAG laser and Intense pulsed light. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cosmet Laser Ther 2016 Dec 02; :1-17
- CONCLUSIONS: Both Nd:YAG and IPL are equally effective for epilation of the darker skin types. Nd:YAG is associated with mild burning sensation in a significant number of patients. Patient satisfaction scores were comparable in both the groups.
- An Economic Geography of the United States: From Commutes to Megaregions. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(11):e0166083
- The emergence in the United States of large-scale "megaregions" centered on major metropolitan areas is a phenomenon often taken for granted in both scholarly studies and popular accounts of contempo...
The emergence in the United States of large-scale "megaregions" centered on major metropolitan areas is a phenomenon often taken for granted in both scholarly studies and popular accounts of contemporary economic geography. This paper uses a data set of more than 4,000,000 commuter flows as the basis for an empirical approach to the identification of such megaregions. We compare a method which uses a visual heuristic for understanding areal aggregation to a method which uses a computational partitioning algorithm, and we reflect upon the strengths and limitations of both. We discuss how choices about input parameters and scale of analysis can lead to different results, and stress the importance of comparing computational results with "common sense" interpretations of geographic coherence. The results provide a new perspective on the functional economic geography of the United States from a megaregion perspective, and shed light on the old geographic problem of the division of space into areal units.
- Animal Cryptochromes: Divergent Roles in Light Perception, Circadian Timekeeping and Beyond. [Journal Article]
- PPPhotochem Photobiol 2016 Nov 28
- Cryptochromes are evolutionarily related to the light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase, serving as major regulators of circadian rhythms in insects and vertebrate animals. There are two types o...
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily related to the light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase, serving as major regulators of circadian rhythms in insects and vertebrate animals. There are two types of cryptochromes in the animal kingdom: Drosophila-like CRYs that act as non-visual photopigments linking circadian rhythms to the environmental light/dark cycle, and vertebrate-like CRYs that do not appear to sense light directly, but control the generation of circadian rhythms by acting as transcriptional repressors. Some animals have both types of CRYs, while others possess only one. Cryptochromes have two domains, the photolyase homology region (PHR) and an extended, intrinsically disordered C-terminus. While all animal CRYs share a high degree of sequence and structural homology in their PHR domains, the C-termini are divergent in both length and sequence identity. Recently, cryptochrome function has been shown to extend beyond its pivotal role in circadian clocks, participating in regulation of the DNA damage response, cancer progression, and glucocorticoid signaling, as well as being implicated as possible magnetoreceptors. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on the discovery of animal cryptochromes, examine similarities and differences of the two types of animal cryptochromes, and explore some of the divergent roles for this class of proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Rich but poor: life in the Roman period with extreme rheumatoid arthritis. [Review]
- CRClin Rheumatol 2016 Nov 26
- In a Sidonian sarcophagus, from the Late Antique/early Christian period, skeletal remains of two persons were found. One of them, male, 30-50 years old, was found almost completely ankylosed, with hi...
In a Sidonian sarcophagus, from the Late Antique/early Christian period, skeletal remains of two persons were found. One of them, male, 30-50 years old, was found almost completely ankylosed, with highly osteoporotic bones and prominent erosion of joint surfaces. We diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis based on the eroded odontoid process, mandibular condyles, distal humerus, proximal and distal ulna, as well ankylosed hand and foot bones. Despite the fact that ankyloses of vertebrae and sacroiliac joint could point towards ankylosing spondylitis, the lack of typical vertebral ankyloses and new bone formation led to exclusion. In a practical sense, due to the advanced stage of the disease, the man was fixed in the supine position, on the left, with his head turned to the right. Apparently, he could not move and had problems with chewing and breathing. But, the high standard of provided healthcare probably enabled him to survive in advanced stages of the disease. This case shed light on the antiquity of the disease, its medical, and social context and provided the example of most extreme osteological changes reported in the paleopathological and medical literature.
- Prion-Like Polymerization in Immunity and Inflammation. [Journal Article]
- CSCold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2016 Nov 23
- The innate immune system relies on receptors that sense common signs of infection to trigger a robust host-defense response. Receptors such as RIG-I and NLRP3 activate downstream adaptors mitochondri...
The innate immune system relies on receptors that sense common signs of infection to trigger a robust host-defense response. Receptors such as RIG-I and NLRP3 activate downstream adaptors mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), respectively, to propagate immune and inflammatory signaling. Recent studies have indicated that both MAVS and ASC form functional prion-like polymers to propagate immune signaling. Here, we summarize the biochemical, genetic, and structural studies that characterize the prion-like behavior of MAVS and ASC in their respective signaling pathways. We then discuss prion-like polymerization as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of signal transduction in innate immunity in light of the similarity between the NLRP3-ASC, the NLRP3-ASC pathway in mammals, and the NWD2-HET-s pathway in fungi. We conclude by outlining the unique advantages to signaling through functional prions and potential future directions in the field.
- Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange. [Journal Article]
- STSci Technol Adv Mater 2015; 16(5):055007
- Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The g...
Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700-850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.
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- With a Little Help From My Family: A Mixed-Method Study on the Outcomes of Family Support and Workload. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Psychol 2016; 12(4):584-603
- Our aim was to investigate some predictors and outcomes of family-to-work enrichment (FWE) via a mixed-method approach. We sampled 447 married employees of an Italian factory. Survey results from Stu...
Our aim was to investigate some predictors and outcomes of family-to-work enrichment (FWE) via a mixed-method approach. We sampled 447 married employees of an Italian factory. Survey results from Study 1 showed that emotional support from family positively predicted FWE, while this latter mediated the associations between the former on one side, and work engagement and life satisfaction on the other. Moreover, extra-household support directly associated positively with life satisfaction. Evidence from 20 anthropological in-depth interviews (Study 2) returned a more complex picture, highlighting the gendered role of partners inside couples, the importance of kinship support, the sense and the value of filiation and parenthood in their connection with job roles, the complex and continuous interplay between family and life domains. In combination, results from both studies stressed the importance of family support; additionally, evidences from Study 2 suggested that FWE could be better understood taking into account crossover dynamics and the compresence of work-to-family enrichment and conflict. In sum, these studies contributed to shed light on FWE dynamics, an under-researched topic in Italy, whose knowledge could be of great empirical and practical value.