light sense [keywords]
- Characterizing neuropathic pain profiles: enriching interpretation of painDETECT. [Journal Article]
- Patient Relat Outcome Meas 2016.:93-9.
To psychometrically evaluate painDETECT, a patient-reported screening questionnaire for neuropathic pain (NeP), for discriminating among sensory pain symptoms (burning, tingling/prickling, light touching, sudden pain attacks/electric shock-type pain, cold/heat, numbness, and slight pressure).The seven-item version of painDETECT provides an overall score that targets only sensory symptoms, while the nine-item version adds responses on two items to the overall score, covering pain course pattern and pain radiation. Both versions have relevance in terms of characterizing broad NeP. The nine- and seven-item versions of painDETECT were administered to subjects with confirmed NeP across six conditions identified during office visits to US community-based physicians. Responses on the sensory symptom items were dichotomized into "at least moderate" (ie, moderate, strongly, very strongly) relative to the combined other responses (never, hardly noticed, slightly). Logistic regression of dichotomized variables on the total painDETECT score provided probabilities of experiencing each symptom across the range of painDETECT scores.Both painDETECT versions discriminated among the symptoms with similar probabilities across the score ranges. Using these data, the probability of moderately experiencing each pain sensory item was estimated for a particular score, providing a pain profile. Additionally, the likelihood of experiencing each sensation was determined for a discrete increase in score, ie, the odds of at least a moderate sensation of burning (versus less than a moderate sensation) was 1.29 for a 1-point increase, 3.52 for a 5-point increase, and 12.42 for every 10-point increase in the nine-item painDETECT score.painDETECT differentiates pain profiles across the range of scores such that, for a particular score, the probability of experiencing at least a moderate sensation of each symptom was determined and compared. These results can help characterize NeP symptomatology, enrich interpretation of painDETECT scores, and provide a basis for individualizing NeP management.
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Without Comorbid Psychiatric Conditions: A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Options. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Neuropharmacol 2016 Jul 22.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a disabling condition affecting approximately 2% to 8% of women during reproductive age. It has been recently included in the mood disorder section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, but its treatment as a primary psychiatric illness is still debated, because of the high prevalence of other mental disturbances in PMDD patients. On the other hand, clear clinical guidelines for PMDD patients not suffering from comorbid mental conditions are not yet available. The aim of the present study was therefore to systematically review the original articles pertaining to the treatment of PMDD in adult women free of any current or previous psychiatric comorbidity.We searched PubMed to identify published studies on PMDD, including randomized controlled trials, open-label trials, and case series or case reports involving adult women with no history of comorbid mental conditions. The search was conducted in April 2015.We found 55 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 49 of them focused on pharmacological/chemical agents and the remaining 6 on nonpharmacological interventions.Based on the results of our qualitative synthesis, the best therapeutic option in the treatment of adult PMDD patients free of other mental disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (especially paroxetine and fluoxetine) and low doses of oral estroprogestins. Other interventions, such as light therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, food supplements, and herbal medicines, showed promising effects, but other investigations are needed to confirm their efficacy.
- Investigation of mechanosensation in C. elegans using light field calcium imaging. [Journal Article]
- Biomed Opt Express 2016 Jul 1; 7(7):2877-87.
We describe a new experimental approach to investigate touch sensation in the model organism C. elegans using light field deconvolution microscopy. By combining fast volumetric image acquisition with controlled indentation of the organism using a high sensitivity force transducer, we are able to simultaneously measure activity in multiple touch receptor neurons expressing the calcium ion indicator GCaMP6s. By varying the applied mechanical stimulus we show how this method can be used to quantify touch sensitivity in C. elegans. We describe some of the challenges of performing light field calcium imaging in moving samples and demonstrate that they can be overcome by simple data processing.
- Energizing the Light Harvesting Antenna: Insight from CP29. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biochim Biophys Acta 2016 Jul 17.
How do plants cope with excess light energy? Crop health and stress tolerance are governed by molecular photoprotective mechanisms. Protective exciton quenching in plants is activated by membrane energization, via unclear conformational changes in proteins called antennas. Here we show that pH and salt gradients stimulate the response of such an antenna under low and high energization by all-atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Novel insight establishes that helix-5 (H5) conformation in CP29 from spinach is regulated by chemiosmotic factors. This is selectively correlated with the chl-614 macrocycle deformation and interactions with nearby pigments, that could suggest a role in plant photoprotection. Adding to the significance of our findings, H5 domain is conserved among five antennas (LHCB1-5). These results suggest that Light Harvesting Complexes of Photosystem II, one of the most abundant proteins on earth, can sense chemiosmotic gradients via their H5 domains in an upgraded role from a solar detector to also a chemiosmotic sensor.
- Nuclear fission technology in Spain: History and social concerns. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Public Underst Sci 2016 Jul 19.
This research examines the evolution of nuclear technology in Spain from the early years of the Franco dictatorship to the global financial crisis and technology's influence on Spanish culture. To this end, we take a sociological perspective, with science culture and social perceptions of risk in knowledge societies serving as the two elements of focus in this work. In this sense, this article analyses the transformation of social relationships in light of technological changes. We propose technology as a strategic place to observe the institutional and organisational dynamics of technologic-scientific risks, the expert role and Spain's science culture. In addition, more specifically, within the language of co-production, we 'follow the actor' and favour new forms of citizen participation that promote ethics to discuss technological issues.
- To Give or Not to Give? Interactive Effects of Status and Legitimacy on Generosity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pers Soc Psychol 2016 Jul 18.
Although previous research has demonstrated that generosity can lead to status gains, the converse effect of status on generosity has received less attention. This is a significant gap because groups and society at large rely on the beneficence of all members, especially those holding high-status positions. More broadly, research on the psychology of status remains largely unexplored, which is striking in light of the attention given to other forms of social hierarchy, such as power. The current work focuses on the psychology of status and explores the interactive effects of status and legitimacy on generosity. In particular, we hypothesize that status will decrease generosity when the status hierarchy is perceived as legitimate because status can inflate views of one's value to the group and sense of deservingness. In contrast, we hypothesize that status increases generosity when the status hierarchy is perceived as illegitimate, due to efforts to restore equity through one's generosity. Our results support these hypotheses across 6 studies (a field study and 5 experiments) and empirically demonstrate that the effects of status and legitimacy on generosity can be attributed to concerns about equity in status allocation. (PsycINFO Database Record
- Self-continuity across time in schizophrenia: An exploration of phenomenological and narrative continuity in the past and future. [Journal Article]
- Compr Psychiatry 2016 Aug.:53-61.
Disorders of the self, such as a reduced sense of personal continuity in time, are a core symptom of schizophrenia, but one that is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated two complementary aspects of self-continuity, namely phenomenological and narrative continuity, in 27 patients with schizophrenia, and compared them with 27 control participants.Participants were asked to identify important past events and to narrate a story from their life that included these events. They were also asked to imagine important events that might happen in their personal future and to build a narrative of their future life. The vividness of these important life events and the proportion of self-event connections in the narratives were used as a measure of phenomenological and narrative continuity, respectively.Our study showed patients with schizophrenia experienced less vivid representations of personally significant events (p = .02) for both temporal directions (past and future) (p < .001). In addition, their ability to make explicit connections between personal events and self-attributes in life narratives was also impaired (p = .03), but only in the case of past narratives (p < .001).These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in schizophrenia. The clinical and therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed.
- Using a plenoptic sensor to reconstruct vortex phase structures. [Journal Article]
- Opt Lett 2016 Jul 15; 41(14):3169-72.
A branch point problem and its solution commonly involve recognizing and reconstructing a vortex phase structure around a singular point. In laser beam propagation through random media, the destructive phase contributions from various parts of a vortex phase structure will cause a dark area in the center of the beam's intensity profile. This null of intensity can, in turn, prevent the vortex phase structure from being recognized. In this Letter, we show how to use a plenoptic sensor to transform the light field of a vortex beam so that a simple and direct reconstruction algorithm can be applied to reveal the vortex phase structure. As a result, we show that the plenoptic sensor is effective in detecting branch points and can be used to reconstruct phase distortion in a beam in a wide sense.
- On spectral and temporal coherence of x-ray free-electron laser beams. [Journal Article]
- Opt Express 2016 Jun 13; 24(12):13081-90.
A model for the coherence properties of free-electron lasers (FELs) in time and frequency domains is introduced within the framework of classical second-order coherence theory of nonstationary light. An iterative phase-retrieval algorithm is applied to construct an ensemble of field realizations in both domains, based on single-pulse spectra measured at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode. Such an ensemble describes the specific FEL pulse train in a statistically averaged sense. Two-time and two-frequency correlation functions are constructed, demonstrating that the hard X-ray free-electron laser at LCLS in this case behaves as a quasistationary source with low spectral and temporal coherence. We also show that the Gaussian Schell model provides a good description of this FEL.
- Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion. [Journal Article]
- Opt Express 2016 May 30; 24(11):11483-94.
A video see-through augmented reality three-dimensional display method is presented. The system that is used for dense viewpoint augmented reality presentation fuses the light fields of the real scene and the virtual model naturally. Inherently benefiting from the rich information of the light field, depth sense and occlusion can be handled under no priori depth information of the real scene. A series of processes are proposed to optimize the augmented reality performance. Experimental results show that the reconstructed fused 3D light field on the autostereoscopic display is well presented. The virtual model is naturally integrated into the real scene with a consistence between binocular parallax and monocular depth cues.