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- T-bet in the spot light: roles in distinct T-cell fate determination. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Immunol 2013 May 20.
The transcription factor T-bet was originally described to be important for the differentiation of the CD4(+) Th1 subset. More recent investigations implicate T-bet in the lineage commitment of a variety of innate immune cells also. The T-bet appears to have a dual role in the immune system. Under certain conditions T-bet provides a beneficial role, whereas the exaggerated expression of T-bet in certain innate lymphoid cells can be detrimental to the host. Therefore, this transcription factor needs to be carefully regulated. The feedback control and the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the expression of T-bet remain to be fully elucidated.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 20 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cmi.2013.18.
- The molecular phylogenetic signature of Bali cattle revealed by maternal and paternal markers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Biol Rep 2013 May 20.
Bali cattle is a domestic cattle breed that can be found in Malaysia. It is a domestic cattle that was purely derived from a domestication event in Banteng (Bos javanicus) around 3,500 BC in Indonesia. This research was conducted to portray the phylogenetic relationships of the Bali cattle with other cattle species in Malaysia based on maternal and paternal lineage. We analyzed the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene and SRY of Y chromosome obtained from five species of the Bos genus (B. javanicus, Bos gaurus, Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bos grunniens). The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was used as an outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships were observed by employing several algorithms: Neighbor-Joining (PAUP version 4.0), Maximum parsimony (PAUP version 4.0) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes 3.1). Results from the maternal data showed that the Bali cattle formed a monophyletic clade, and together with the B. gaurus clade formed a wild cattle clade. Results were supported by high bootstrap and posterior probability values together with genetic distance data. For the paternal lineage, the sequence variation is low (with parsimony informative characters: 2/660) resulting an unresolved Neighbor-Joining tree. However, Bali cattle and other domestic cattle appear in two monophyletic clades distinct from yak, gaur and selembu. This study expresses the potential of the COI gene in portraying the phylogenetic relationships between several Bos species which is important for conservation efforts especially in decision making since cattle is highly bred and hybrid breeds are often formed. Genetic conservation for this high quality beef cattle breed is important by maintaining its genetic characters to prevent extinction or even decreased the genetic quality.
- Evidence for a common progenitor of epithelial and mesenchymal components of the liver. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 May 17.
Tissues of the adult organism maintain the homeostasis and respond to injury by means of progenitor/stem cell compartments capable to give rise to appropriate progeny. In organs composed by histotypes of different embryological origins (e.g. the liver), the tissue turnover may in theory involve different stem/precursor cells able to respond coordinately to physiological or pathological stimuli. In the liver, a progenitor cell compartment, giving rise to hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, can be activated by chronic injury inhibiting hepatocyte proliferation. The precursor compartment guaranteeing turnover of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (perisinusoidal cells implicated with the origin of the liver fibrosis) in adult organ is yet unveiled. We show here that epithelial and mesenchymal liver cells (hepatocytes and HSCs) may arise from a common progenitor. Sca+ murine progenitor cells were found to coexpress markers of epithelial and mesenchymal lineages and to give rise, within few generations, to cells that segregate the lineage-specific markers into two distinct subpopulations. Notably, these progenitor cells, clonally derived, when transplanted in healthy livers, were found to generate epithelial and mesenchymal liver-specific derivatives (i.e. hepatocytes and HSCs) properly integrated in the liver architecture. These evidences suggest the existence of a 'bona fide' organ-specific meso-endodermal precursor cell, thus profoundly modifying current models of adult progenitor commitment believed, so far, to be lineage-restricted. Heterotopic transplantations, which confirm the dual differentiation potentiality of those cells, indicates as tissue local cues are necessary to drive a full hepatic differentiation. These data provide first evidences for an adult stem/precursor cell capable to differentiate in both parenchymal and non-parenchymal organ-specific components and candidate the liver as the instructive site for the reservoir compartment of HSC precursors as yet non-localized in the adult.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 17 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.49.
- Survival and differentiation defects contribute to neutropenia in glucose-6-phosphatase-β (G6PC3) deficiency in a model of mouse neutrophil granulocyte differentiation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 May 17.
Differentiation of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils) occurs through several steps in the bone marrow and requires a coordinate regulation of factors determining survival and lineage-specific development. A number of genes are known whose deficiency disrupts neutrophil generation in humans and in mice. One of the proteins encoded by these genes, glucose-6-phosphatase-β (G6PC3), is involved in glucose metabolism. G6PC3 deficiency causes neutropenia in humans and in mice, linked to enhanced apoptosis and ER stress. We used a model of conditional Hoxb8 expression to test molecular and functional differentiation as well as survival defects in neutrophils from G6PC3(-/-) mice. Progenitor lines were established and differentiated into neutrophils when Hoxb8 was turned off. G6PC3(-/-) progenitor cells underwent substantial apoptosis when differentiation was started. Transgenic expression of Bcl-XL rescued survival; however, Bcl-XL-protected differentiated cells showed reduced proliferation, immaturity and functional deficiency such as altered MAP kinase signaling and reduced cytokine secretion. Impaired glucose utilization was found and was associated with ER stress and apoptosis, associated with the upregulation of Bim and Bax; downregulation of Bim protected against apoptosis during differentiation. ER-stress further caused a profound loss of expression and secretion of the main neutrophil product neutrophil elastase during differentiation. Transplantation of wild-type Hoxb8-progenitor cells into irradiated mice allowed differentiation into neutrophils in the bone marrow in vivo. Transplantation of G6PC3(-/-) cells yielded few mature neutrophils in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Transgenic Bcl-XL permitted differentiation of G6PC3(-/-) cells in vivo. However, functional deficiencies and differentiation abnormalities remained. Differentiation of macrophages from Hoxb8-dependent progenitors was only slightly disturbed. A combination of defects in differentiation and survival thus underlies neutropenia in G6PC3(-/-) deficiency, both originating from a reduced ability to utilize glucose. Hoxb8-dependent cells are a model to study differentiation and survival of the neutrophil lineage.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 17 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.39.
- Prevalence of the lmo0036-0043 gene cluster encoding arginine deiminase and agmatine deiminase systems in Listeria monocytogenes. [Journal Article]
- New Microbiol 2013 Apr; 36(2):187-92.
Arginine deiminase and agmatine deiminase systems are involved in acid tolerance, and their encoding genes form the cluster lmo0036-0043 in Listeria monocytogenes. While lmo0042 and lmo0043 were conserved in all L. monocytogenes strains, the lmo0036-0041 region of this cluster was identified in all lineages I and II, and the majority of lineage IV (83.3%) strains, but absent in all lineage III and a small fraction of lineage IV (16.7%) strains, suggesting that the presence of the complete lmo0036-0043 cluster is dependent on lineages. lmo0036-0043-complete and -deficient lineage IV strains exhibit specific ascB-dapE profiles, which might represent two subpopulations with distinct genetic characteristics.
- Forward genetic screen for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor formation identifies new genes and pathways driving tumorigenesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Genet 2013 May 19.
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are sarcomas of Schwann cell lineage origin that occur sporadically or in association with the inherited syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1. To identify genetic drivers of MPNST development, we used the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based somatic mutagenesis system in mice with somatic loss of transformation-related protein p53 (Trp53) function and/or overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Common insertion site (CIS) analysis of 269 neurofibromas and 106 MPNSTs identified 695 and 87 sites with a statistically significant number of recurrent transposon insertions, respectively. Comparison to human data sets identified new and known driver genes for MPNST formation at these sites. Pairwise co-occurrence analysis of CIS-associated genes identified many cooperating mutations that are enriched in Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K-AKT-mTOR and growth factor receptor signaling pathways. Lastly, we identified several new proto-oncogenes, including Foxr2 (encoding forkhead box R2), which we functionally validated as a proto-oncogene involved in MPNST maintenance.
- 3D shape-based analysis of cell line-specific compound response in cancers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Graph Model 2013 Apr 27.:41-46.
The rapid increase in the volume of high-throughput anticancer chemical screening data requires a better interpretation of the relationships between diverse chemical structures and their varied effects in distinct cancer subtypes. Unexpected compound efficacy or resistance in cancer cells has been difficult to explain, in part because there has been no systematic analysis of compound response profiles in cancer cells with different genotypic backgrounds. In this study, we compared 2D chemical- and 3D shape-based similarity search methods to study the structure-activity relationships of anticancer compounds in a collection of heterogeneous cancer cell lines. The 3D shape-based metric provided better resolution than the 2D chemical topology-based method for identifying compound pairs with similar cellular response profiles. We confirmed that the 3D method exclusively identified compound pairs with different chemical scaffolds that stimulated highly similar cellular responses. The present analyses provide useful guidelines for investigating the lineage- and genotype-specific activities of diverse compounds and their mechanisms of action.
- Restitutio ad integrum: a dream or a real possibility? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nephrol Dial Transplant 2013 May 17.
The subject of organ regeneration has attracted substantial investigative attention and has been extensively reviewed. Therefore, I shall focus on several only recently emerged issues and on those aspects of stem cell-mediated regeneration which, although are important in my opinion, have nevertheless evaded the radar of scientific pursuit. Specifically, I shall describe the recent work on the prominence of local lineage-restricted stem cells, as opposed to the bone marrow-derived or circulating ones, in regeneration. This will be followed by an attempt to re-interpret a bulk of published data on the beneficial effects of cell therapy with the focus on the secretome of stem cells. Multiple factors that conspire to cause insufficient or failed regeneration in adult mammals will be screened with emphasis placed on the mechanical forces, senescence and exhaustion, each leading to phenotypical switch and/or stem cell incompetence. Finally, I shall enumerate several potential pathways to induce or restore stem cell competence. Although a significant amount of work has been performed in the non-renal field, I would hope that some of the mechanisms and concepts discussed herein will eventually trickle into kidney regeneration.
- Extensive chromosomal reshuffling drives evolution of virulence in an asexual pathogen. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Genome Res 2013 May 16.
Sexual recombination drives genetic diversity in eukaryotic genomes and fosters adaptation to novel environmental challenges. Although strictly asexual microorganisms are often considered as evolutionary dead ends, they comprise many devastating plant pathogens. Presently, it remains unknown how such asexual pathogens generate the genetic variation that is required for quick adaptation and evolution in the arms race with their hosts. Here we show that extensive chromosomal rearrangements in the strictly asexual plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae establish highly dynamic lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions that act as a source for genetic variation to mediate aggressiveness. We show that such LS regions are greatly enriched for in planta-expressed effector genes, encoding secreted proteins that enable host colonization. The LS regions occur at the flanks of chromosomal breakpoints and are enriched for retrotransposons and other repetitive sequence elements. Our results demonstrate that asexual pathogens may evolve by prompting chromosomal rearrangements, enabling rapid development of novel effector genes. Likely, chromosomal reshuffling can act as a general mechanism for adaptation in asexually propagating organisms.
- Over expression of miR-10a and miR-375 and down regulation of YAP1 in medullary thyroid carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 May 16.
MicroRNAs are a primordial mechanism of gene expression control that appear to be crucial to cellular development and may play an important role in tumor development. Much is known about the genetics of medullary thyroid carcinomas, as approximately 25% are hereditary and harbor germ line activating mutations in the RET gene. Somatic RET mutations are also seen in roughly 50% of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas. Few studies, however, have evaluated the role of microRNA expression in these tumors. DNA and RNA were extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 15 medullary thyroid carcinomas [10 with RET mutations (3 hereditary) and 5 without RET mutations] and 5 non-tumor thyroid glands. miRNA expression of 754 targets was quantitated by real time PCR using the ABI OpenArray miRNA assay. Three miRNAs showed significant differential expression and were validated in a larger cohort of 59 cases by real-time PCR. Expression of potential downstream targets and upstream regulators were also investigated by real-time PCR. miR-375 and miR-10a were significantly overexpressed, while miR-455 was underexpressed in medullary thyroid carcinomas. Expression of all 3 miRNAs were validated in the larger cohort of cases (miR-375, p = 3.3x10(-26); miR-10a, p = 5.6x10(-14); miR-455, p = 2.4x10(-4)). No significant differences in miRNA expression were found between RET mutation positive and negative tumors nor between sporadic and hereditary tumors. Expression of the potential downstream targets of miR-375, YAP1 (a growth inhibitor) and SLC16a2 (a transporter of thyroid hormone), was downregulated in the tumors suggesting that miR-375 is a negative regulator of the expression of these genes. Thus, differential expression of miR-375, miR-10a and miR-455 may be important for tumor development and/or the reflect c-cell lineage of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, the growth inhibitor YAP1 is identified as a potential important downstream target of miR-375.