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lymphocyte differentiation [keywords]
- Deregulation of Apoptotic Factors Bcl-xL and Bax Confers Apoptotic Resistance to Myeloid- Derived Suppressive Cells and Contributes to their Persistence in Tumors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biol Chem 2013 May 15.
Myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous immature myeloid cells that accumulate in response to tumor progression. Compelling data from mouse models and human cancer patients showed that tumor-induced inflammatory mediators induce MDSC differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying MDSC persistence is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that tumor-induced MDSCs exhibit significantly decreased spontaneous apoptosis as compared to myeloid cells with the same phenotype from tumor-free mice. Consistent with the decreased apoptosis, cell surface Fas receptor decreased significantly in tumor-induced MDSCs. Screening for changes of key apoptosis mediators downstream the Fas receptor revealed that expression levels of IRF8 and Bax are diminished, whereas expression of Bcl-xL is increased in tumor-induced MDSCs. We further determined that IRF8 binds directly to Bax and Bcl-x promoter in primary myeloid cells in vivo, and IRF8-deficient MDSCs-like cells also exhibit increased Bcl-xL and decreased Bax expression. Analysis of CD69 and CD25 levels revealed that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are partially activated in tumor-bearing host. Strikingly, FasL but not perforin and granzymes were selectively activated in CTLs in the tumor-bearing host. ABT-737 significantly increased the sensitivity of MDSCs to Fas-mediated apoptosis in vitro. More importantly, ABT-737 therapy increased MDSCs spontaneous apoptosis and decreased MDSC accumulation in tumor-bearing mice. Our data thus determined that MDSCs use down-regulation of IRF8 to alter Bax and Bcl-xL expression to deregulate the Fas-mediated apoptosis pathway to evade elimination by host CTLs. Therefore, targeting Bcl-xL is potentially effective in suppression of MDSC persistence in cancer therapy.
- Adoptive transfusion of tolerance dendritic cells prolongs the survival of cardiac allograft: a systematic review of 44 basic studies in mice. [Journal Article]
- J Evid Based Med 2012 Aug; 5(3):139-53.
Objective:Tolerogenic DCs (Tol-DCs), a group of cells with imDC phenotype, can stably induce T cells low-reactivity and immune tolerance. We systematically reviewed the adoptive transfusion of Tol-DCs induced by different ways to prolong cardiac allograft survival and its possible mechanism. Method: MEDLINE (1966 to March 2011), EMbase (1980 to March 2011), and ISI (inception to March 2011) were searched for identification of relevant studies. We used allogeneic heart graft survival time as endpoint outcome to analyze the effect of adoptive transfusion of Tol-DC on cardiac allograft. By integrating studies' information, we summarized the mechanisms of Tol-DC in prolonging cardiac grafts.
Results:Four methods were used to induce Tol-DC in all of the 44 included studies including gene-modified, drug-intervened, cytokine-induced, and other-derived (liver-derived & spleen-derived) DCs. The results showed that all types of Tol-DC can effectively prolong graft survival, and the average extension of graft survival time for each group was as follows: 22.02 ± 21.9 days (3.2 folds to control group) in the gene modified group, 25.94 ± 16.9 days (4.3 folds) in the drug-intervened groups, 9.00 ± 8.13 days (1.9 folds) in the cytokine-induced group, and 10.69 ± 9.94 days (2.1 folds) in the other-derived group. The main mechanisms of Tol-DCs to prolong graft survival were as follows: (1) induceT-cell hyporeactivity (detected by MLR); (2) reduce the effect of cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL); (3) promote Th2 differentiation; (4) induce Treg; (5) induce chimerism.
Conclusion:For fully MHC mismatched allogeneic heart transplant recipients of inbred mouse, adoptive transfusion of Tol-DC, which can be gene-modified, drug-intervened, cytokine-induced, spleen-derived or liver-derived, can clearly prolong the survival of cardiac allograft or induce immune tolerance. Gene-modified and drug-induced Tol-DC can prolong graft survival most obviously. Having better reliability and stability than drug-induction, gene-modification is the best way to induce Tol-DCs at present. One-time intravenous infusion of 2 × 10(6) Tol-DC is a simple and feasible way to induce long-term graft survival. Multiple infusions will prolong it but increase the risk and cost. Adoptive transfusion of Tol-DC in conjunction with immunosuppressive agents may also prolong the graft survival time.
- Associations of T helper 1, 2, 17 and regulatory T lymphocytes with mortality in severe sepsis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflamm Res 2013 May 14.
DESIGN:T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes might play important roles in patients with severe sepsis. The association of Th17 or Treg lymphocytes with survival is also unclear.
METHODS:Eighty-seven patients with severe sepsis were enrolled from our intensive care units between August 2008 and July 2010. Leukocyte antigens and clinical data were determined on day 1 in all patients and on day 7 in first-year patients.
RESULTS:The percentages in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and circulatory counts of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes in survivors were higher than those in non-survivors. Th1/CD4(+) ratios and circulatory Th1 lymphocyte counts in survivors were higher than in non-survivors. Absolute counts of Th17 and Treg lymphocytes in survivors were higher than in non-survivors. The percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in survivors' PBMCs were increased after 6 days. Th17/CD4(+) ratios and circulatory Th17 lymphocyte counts in survivors were increased after 6 days.
CONCLUSIONS:Higher Th1 differentiation and total CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts were associated with higher survival. The association of circulatory Th17 and Treg lymphocytes with mortality in severe sepsis may be due to the change in total CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In survivors, Th17 differentiation and counts were restored.
- Regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by Notch. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Rev Immunol 2013 May 13.
Coordinated function of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system in vertebrates is essential to promote protective immunity and to avoid immunopathology. The Notch signalling pathway, which was originally identified as a pleiotropic mediator of cell fate in invertebrates, has recently emerged as an important regulator of immune cell development and function. Notch was initially shown to be a key determinant of cell-lineage commitment in developing lymphocytes, but it is now known to control the homeostasis of several innate cell populations. Moreover, the roles of Notch in adaptive immunity have expanded to include the regulation of T cell differentiation and function. The aim of this Review is to summarize the current status of immune regulation by Notch. A better understanding of Notch function in both innate and adaptive immunity will hopefully provide multiple avenues for therapeutic intervention in disease.
- The effect of decellularization of tracheal allografts on leukocyte infiltration and of recellularization on regulatory T cell recruitment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biomaterials 2013 May 7.
Tracheal transplantation without immunosuppressive therapy has been accomplished with a tissue-engineering approach using decellularized biological scaffolds in combination with recipient progenitor cells. The mechanisms of immune response directed towards these tracheal allografts have not been fully determined. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of these grafts at the protein level, and functionally, in vitro and in vivo in a large animal model. Long-segment circumferential tracheal allografts were decellularized using two different protocols and recellularized using recipient mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and tracheal epithelial progenitor cells (TEC). Residual MHCI and MHCII immunostaining was found surrounding the submucosal glands despite cyclical decellularization. In an in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay, CD4+ T cells continued to proliferate on decellularized pieces and this proliferation was inhibited by co-culture with autologous MSC. Allografts were heterotopically transplanted under a muscle flap in the neck of the recipients and decellularization was found to delay leukocyte infiltration but resulted in eventual cartilage degradation. Recellularization prevented this infiltration up to 3 weeks post-transplantation and allowed for preservation of the cartilage. The immune cells found within these grafts included a significant number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Furthermore, gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β1, involved in proliferation, differentiation and function of regulatory T cells was found in these grafts. These results indicate that the immunological modification induced by recellularized tracheal scaffolds is an active process involving the recruitment of immunosuppressive cells, rather than simply the removal of donor-derived antigenic components.
- [Influence of mesenchymal stromal cells on B-cell line growth and immunoglobulin synthesis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Tsitologiia 2013; 55(1):45-51.
A number of publications contain contradictory data about influence of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on B-lymphocyte growth, differentiation and production of immunoglobulins (Ig). The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of MSC derived from adipose tissue of healthy donors and cancer patients on the proliferation and Ig synthesis of lymphoblastoid cell line Namalva and myeloma cell line U266. Co-cultivation of Namalva cells with MSC stimulated their proliferation, decreased the doubling time and the minimal effective seeding dose and therefore made cloning of these lymphoblastoid cells possible. The presence of MSC supported the survival and proliferation of Namalva cells cultivated in growth factor deficient medium. MSC also stimulated proliferation of U266 myeloma cells. Both MSC derived from adipose tissue from the healthy donors and from patients with breast cancer effectively stimulated B-cell lines proliferation. Presence of MSC in mixed cultures had no influence on the production of IgM or IgE by Namalva or U266 cells respectively. Co-cultivation of Namalva or U266 with MSC resulted in the formation of close intercellular contacts between cells of both types.
- In vitro evidence of the presence of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in cervical cancer and their role in protecting cancer cells from cytotoxic T cell activity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stem Cells Dev 2013 May 8.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been isolated from different tumors and it has been suggested that they support tumor growth through immunosuppression processes that favor tumor cell evasion from the immune system. To date, however, the presence of MSCs in cervical cancer (CeCa) and their possible role in tumor growth remains unknown. Herein, we report on the presence of MSCs in cervical tissue, both in normal conditions (NCx-MSCs) and in CeCa (CeCa-MSCs), and described several biological properties of such cells. Our study showed similar patterns of cell surface antigen expression, but distinct differentiation potentials, when we compared both cervical MSCs populations to MSCs from normal bone marrow (BM-MSCs, the gold standard). Interestingly, CeCa-MSCs were negative for the presence of human papiloma virus (HPV), indicating that these cells are not infected by such a viral agent. Also interesting, and in contrast to NCx-MSCs, CeCa-MSCs induced significant downregulation of surface HLA class I molecules (HLA-A*0201) on CaSki cells and other CeCa cell lines. We further observed that CeCa-MSCs inhibited antigen-specific T cell recognition of CaSki cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). HLA class I downregulation on CeCa cells correlated with production of IL-10 in cell co-cultures. Importantly, this cytokine strongly suppressed recognition of CeCa cells by CTLs. In summary, this study demonstrates the presence of MSCs in CeCa and suggests that tumor-derived MSCs may provide immune protection to tumor cells by inducing down-regulation of HLA class I molecules. This mechanism may have important implications in tumor growth.
- Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics and probiotics on intestinal microarchitecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. [Journal Article]
- J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2013 May.:68-73.
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and/or probiotics (LBP) on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count, goblet cells (GC) count and differentiation and intestinal micro-architecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. Day-old broilers (n = 250) were randomly divided into five groups. Fifty birds were reared within the thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Remaining birds were subjected to cyclic heat stress from day 21 to 42 (35° C, 75% RH, 8 h/d). The birds were fed corn-soy-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS), or 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP), or their combination (HS-SYN). The birds were slaughtered on day 42. Tissue samples were collected from mid-duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin or combined Alcian blue and PAS technique. All differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. The IEL count increased in all intestinal segments of the HS group compared with the TNZ group and decreased in all supplemented groups compared with the HS group. Compared with the TNZ, heat stress reduced villus height, crypt depth and surface area in duodenum and ileum, and increased crypt depth in ileum. Villus width decreased in duodenum and jejunum compared with the TNZ group. Supplementation of LBP, MOS and SYN reversed all these changes in duodenum, while only increased villus height and surface area in ileum. In jejunum, the villus height and surface area increased with HS-LBP, and crypt depth increased with HS-MOS. The number of GC containing acid mucins (duodenum and ileum) and mixed mucins (ileum) were increased in the HS compared with the TNZ. Supplementation of MOS, LBP and SYN maintained the enhanced activity of goblet cells. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of MOS and/or LBP may be helpful in alleviating some of the detrimental effects of heat stress on microstructure of the broiler gut.
- T cell subsets differently regulate osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2013 May 7.
T lymphocytes play a key role in the regulation of bone homeostasis and bone healing. The inflammatory response at the site of bone injury is essential to the initiation of the bone repair program; however, an uncontrolled exposure to inflammatory environment has a negative effect on tissue regeneration - indeed, activated T cells were shown to inhibit osteogenic differentiation on human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Whether resting T cells can induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and what role specific T cells subset play in this process is still elusive. In this study, we sought to analyse the osteogenic gene expression profile of whole T cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells isolated from healthy donors and investigated whether secreted factors from each group modulate osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs. Gene expression profiling identified a pool of 51 genes involved at various stages in bone growth which are expressed above detectable levels in CD4 and CD8 T cells. Most genes of this pool were expressed at higher levels in the CD4 subset. In vitro mineralization assays revealed that conditioned medium from CD4 T cells, but not from CD8 cells, significantly increased mineralization in osteogenic cultures of human MSCs; furthermore, mRNA expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MSCs was significantly upregulated in the presence of CD4-conditioned medium but not with that obtained from CD8. The results show a differential role for CD4 and CD8 T cells in supporting bone formation and identify an osteogenic gene signature of each subset. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Regulation of asymmetric cell division and polarity by Scribble is not required for humoral immunity. [Journal Article]
- Nat Commun 2013.:1801.
The production of protective antibody requires effective signalling of naive B cells following encounter with antigen, and the divergence of responding B lymphocytes into distinct lineages. Polarity proteins have recently been proposed as important mediators of both the initial B cell response, and potentially of asymmetric cell division. Here we show that, although polarity proteins of the Scribble complex, Scribble, Dlg1 and Lgl1, are expressed and polarized during early B cell activation, their deficiency has no effect on the in vivo outcome of immunization or challenge with influenza infection. Furthermore, we find a striking correlation in the differentiation outcome of daughters of single founder B cells in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that B cell differentiation does not require polarity proteins of the Scribble complex, and the findings do not support a role for asymmetric cell division in B cell activation and differentiation.