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- Ozonation of a mixture of estrogens and progestins in aqueous solution: interpretation of experimental results by computational methods. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- Chemosphere 2012 Nov; 89(11):1323-9.
The degradation of the mixture of steroid hormones including seven estrogens (17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, 17α-dihydroequilin, 17α-ethinyl estradiol, estriol, estrone and equilin) and five progestins (levonorgestrel, gestodene, trimegestrone, medrogestone and progesterone) by ozonation in aqueous solution is investigated. The ozonation process provides high removal (up to 100%) of hormones and estrogenicity in the treated water. Computational methods such as quantum chemistry calculations (QCCs) are applied to interpret the observed results. Quantum chemistry descriptors computed for steroid hormones explain the nature of the reactions and differences in reactivities between estrogen and progestin hormones within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Computed molecular descriptors were combined with physical properties to develop qualitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models (using multiple linear regression algorithm). The developed models have correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.994 for estrogens and 0.997 for progestins, and could be used to predict the removal efficiencies for similar compounds. The frontier molecular orbitals (the HOMO and the LUMO) have a major impact on the reactivity of steroid hormones. The susceptibility of certain functional groups to ozone and possible reactive sites for all steroids was discussed by Frontier Molecular Orbital approach.
- Dydrogesterone and other progestins in benign breast disease: an overview. [Journal Article, Review]
- Arch Gynecol Obstet 2011 Feb; 283(2):369-71.
Progestogens appear to have a dual effect on the cell cycle in breast cells and breast cancer cells. There is initially stimulation of mitotic activity. However, continuous application leads to cell apoptosis. This depends on type, dose and length of progestogen application in relation to estrogen action. In benign breast disease the use of progestogens results not only in reduction of mastodynia, but also a reduction in breast gland size and disappearance of nodularity proven by clinical examination and follow-up including breast ultrasound.
- Breast cancer and steroid metabolizing enzymes: the role of progestogens. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Maturitas 2009 Dec.:S17-21.
It is well documented that breast tissue, both normal and cancerous, contains all the enzymatic systems necessary for the bioformation and metabolic transformation of estrogens, androgens and progesterone. These include sulfatases, aromatase, hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases, sulfotransferases, hydroxylases and glucuronidases. The control of these enzymes plays an important role in the development and pathogenesis of hormone-dependent breast cancer. As discussed in this review, various progestogens including dydrogesterone and its 20alpha-dihydro-derivative, medrogestone, promegestone, nomegestrol acetate and norelgestromin can reduce intratissular levels of estradiol in breast cancer by blocking sulfatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 1 activities. A possible correlation has been postulated between breast cell proliferation and estrogen sulfotransferase activity. Progesterone is largely transformed in the breast; normal breast produces mainly 4-ene derivatives, whereas 5alpha-derivatives are most common in breast cancer tissue. It has been suggested that this specific conversion of progesterone may be involved in breast carcinogenesis. In conclusion, treatment with anti-aromatases combined with anti-sulfatase or 17beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 1 could provide new therapeutic possibilities in the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast cancer.
- Classification and pharmacology of progestins. [Journal Article]
- Maturitas 2008 Sep-Oct; 61(1-2):171-80.
Besides the natural progestin, progesterone, there are different classes of progestins, such as retroprogesterone (i.e. dydrogesterone), progesterone derivatives (i.e. medrogestone) 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives (i.e. chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate), 19-norprogesterone derivatives (i.e. nomegestrol, promegestone, trimegestone, nesterone), 19-nortestosterone derivatives norethisterone (NET), lynestrenol, levonorgestrel, desogestrel, gestodene, norgestimate, dienogest) and spironolactone derivatives (i.e. drospirenone). Some of the synthetic progestins are prodrugs, which need to be metabolized to become active compounds. Besides the progestogenic effect, which is in common for all progestins, there is a wide range of biological effects, which are different for the various progestins and have to be taken into account, when medical treatment is considered.
- Estrogen sulfotransferases in breast and endometrial cancers. [Journal Article, Review]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009 Feb.:88-98.
Estrogen sulfotransferase is significantly more active in the normal breast cell (e.g., Human 7) than in the cancer cell (e.g., MCF-7). The data suggest that in breast cancer sulfoconjugated activity is carried out by another enzyme, the SULT1A, which acts at high concentration of the substrates. In breast cancer cells sulfotransferase (SULT) activity can be stimulated by various progestins: medrogestone, promegestone, and nomegestrol acetate, as well as by tibolone and its metabolites. SULT activities can also be controlled by other substances including phytoestrogens, celecoxib, flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, resveratrol), and isoflavones. SULT expression was localized in breast cancer cells, which can be stimulated by promegestone and correlated with the increase of the enzyme activity. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), which acts at nanomolar concentration of estradiol, can inactivate most of this hormone present in the normal breast; however, in the breast cancer cells, the sulfotransferase denoted as SULT1A1 is mainly present, and this acts at micromolar concentrations of E(2). A correlation was postulated among breast cancer cell proliferation, the effect of various progestins, and sulfotransferase stimulation. In conclusion, it is suggested that factors involved in the stimulation of the estrogen sulfotransferases could provide new possibilities for the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast and endometrial cancers.
- Progestins in the menopause in healthy women and breast cancer patients. [Journal Article, Review]
- Maturitas 2009 Apr 20; 62(4):343-8.
At present, more than 200 progestin compounds are synthetized, but their biological effects are different: this is function of their structure, receptor affinity, metabolic transformations, the target tissues considered, dose. The action of progestins in breast cancer is controversial; some studies indicate an increase in breast cancer incidence, others show no differences, and yet others indicate a decrease. Many studies agree that treatment with progestins plus estrogens at a low dose and during a limited period (less than 5 years) can have beneficial effects in peri- and post-menopausal women. It was demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone), as well as tibolone and its metabolites, can block the enzymes involved in estradiol bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer. Progesterone is converted into various metabolic products: in normal breast tissue the transformation is mainly to 4-ene derivatives, whereas in the tumor tissue 5alpha-pregane derivatives are predominant. Aromatase activity is the last step in the formation of estrogens by the conversion of androgens. In recent studies it was shown that 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, a metabolite found mainly in normal breast tissue and having anti-proliferative properties, can act as an anti-aromatase agent. The data suggest the possible utilization of this compound in breast cancer prevention. In conclusion, in order to clarify and better understand the response of progestins in breast cancer (incidence and mortality), as well as in hormone replacement therapy or in endocrine dysfunction, new clinical trials are necessary using other progestins in function of the dose and period of treatment.
- Presence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in surface water of agricultural, suburban and mixed-use areas. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Environ Monit Assess 2009 Jul; 154(1-4):349-59.
The occurrence of pharmaceutically active chemicals (PACs) in the natural aquatic environment is recognized as an emerging issue due to the potential adverse effects these compounds pose to aquatic life and humans. This study presents the monitoring of two major categories of PACs in surface water: steroid hormones and antibiotics. Surface water samples were collected in the fall season from 21 locations in suburban (4), agricultural (5) and mixed (12) use suburban and agricultural areas. The water samples collected were analyzed using GC/MS for aqueous concentration of eleven steroid hormones: six natural (17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, 17alpha-dihydroequilin, progesterone) and five synthetic (gestodene, norgestrel, levonorgestrel, medrogestone, trimegestone). In addition, 12 antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, lincomycin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, erythromycin, tylosin tartrate) were analyzed using LC/MS. Steroid hormones detected in surface water were: 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-dihydroequilin, estriol, estrone, progesterone and trimegestone. Estrone had the highest detection frequency of >90% with concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 2.6 ng/l. The second most frequently detected estrogen was estriol (>80%) with concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 19 ng/l. The detection frequency varied at different sampling locations. No antibiotics were detected in the 21 streams sampled. This study aims to give a better understanding on the presence, fate and transport of PACs derived from humans and animals.
- Progestins and breast cancer. [Journal Article, Review]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2007 Oct.:32-41.
Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically inactive sulfates. The action of progestins in breast cancer is very controversial; some studies indicate an increase in breast cancer incidence, others show no difference and still others a significant decrease. Progestin action can also be a function of combination with other molecules (e.g. estrogens). In order to clarify and better understand the response of progestins in breast cancer (incidence, mortality), as well as in hormone replacement therapy or endocrine dysfunction, new clinical trials are needed studying other progestins as a function of the dose and period of treatment.
- Correlation of estrogen sulfotransferase activity and proliferation in normal and carcinomatous human breast. A hypothesis. [Journal Article]
- Anticancer Res 2007 Sep-Oct; 27(5A):3219-25.
Sulfotransferases are present in normal and cancerous human breast tissues. The purpose of this article is to present a hypothetical correlation of sulfotransferase activity with proliferation in breast cancer.Sulfotransferases were evaluated in breast cancer cells by determining the transformation of non-conjugated estrogens to the sulfates. Proliferation was evaluated by the action on cell growth or the size of a transplanted tumor. The effect was obtained using the progestins: nomegestrol acetate, promegestone, and medrogestone, as well as tibolone and its metabolites at concentrations of 5 x 10(-5) to 5 x 10(-9) M.A possible correlation of sulfotransferase activity stimulation and cell growth inhibition provoked by the various progestins used, or by tibolone and its metabolites was shown.It is suggested that the antiproliferative effect of these compounds could be related to the decrease of bioactive estradiol by the formation of its biologically inactive sulfate as a consequence of the stimulatory effect by the various progestins or tibolone on sulfotransferase activity.
- Free synthetic and natural estrogen hormones in influent and effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment plants. [Journal Article]
- Water Environ Res 2007 Sep; 79(9):969-74.
Three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in southeastern Pennsylvania were sampled to determine the presence and concentrations of 12 natural and synthetic estrogen hormones in the wastewater influent and effluent. The target estrogens were 17alpha-estradiol, estrone, estriol, equilin, 17alpha-dihydroequilin, 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, gestodene, norgestrel, levonorgestrel, medrogestone, and trimegestone. One WWTP uses a biofilm reactor (packed-bed trickling filter),and the other two use suspended-growth media (continuously stirred activated sludge reactor and sequential batch reactor). Estrone was detected in all the three plants; estriol and estradiol were detected at two WWTPs; and 17 alpha-dihydroequilin and 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol were detected at one WWTP. The concentration of estrogens in the influent and effluent of the three treatment plants ranged from 1.2 to 259 ng/L and 0.5 to 49 ng/L, respectively. The percentage removal of estrogens from the aqueous phase ranged from 41 to 99%, except in the case of 17alpha-dihydroequilin; the removal of 17alpha-dihydroequilin was negligible. The suspended-growth media systems showed higher removal efficiencies for estrogens than the biofilm system. The analytical method uses a Varian C-18 solid-phase extraction (Varian Inc., Palo Alto, California), followed by a derivatization with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The detection limits for the estrogen compounds ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/L using a sample size of 1 L. The method recoveries ranged from 71 to 120%, and the relative standard deviation ranged from 6 to 14% for all the hormones.