Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- Phase I trial of the combination of the Akt inhibitor nelfinavir and chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Radiother Oncol 2013 May 3.
PURPOSE:To investigate the toxicity of nelfinavir, administered during preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:Twelve patients were treated with chemoradiotherapy to 50.4Gy combined with capecitabine 825mg/m(2) BID. Three dose levels (DL) of nelfinavir were tested: 750mg BID (DL1), 1250mg BID (DL2) and an intermediate level of 1000mg BID (DL3). Surgery was performed between 8 and 10weeks after completion of CRT. Primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), defined as any grade 3 or higher non-hematological or grade 4 or higher hematological toxicity.
RESULTS:Eleven patients could be analyzed: 5 were treated in DL1, 3 in DL2 and 3 in DL3. The first 3 patients in DL1 did not develop a DLT. In DL2 one patient developed gr 3 diarrhea, 1 patient had gr 3 transaminase elevation and 1 patient had a gr 3 cholangitis with unknown cause. An intermediate dose level was tested in DL3. In this group 2 patients developed gr 3 diarrhea and 1 patient gr 3 transaminase elevation and gr 4 post-operative wound complication. Three patients achieved a pathological complete response (pCR).
CONCLUSIONS:Nelfinavir 750mg BID was defined as the recommended phase II dose in combination with capecitabine and 50.4Gy pre-operative radiotherapy in rectal cancer. First tumor response evaluations are promising, but a further phase II study is needed to get more information about efficacy of this treatment regimen.
- Nelfinavir Inhibits Intra-Mitochondrial Calcium Influx and Protects Brain against Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Mice. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e62448.
Nelfinavir (NLF), an antiretroviral agent, preserves mitochondrial membranes integrity and protects mature brain against ischemic injury in rodents. Our study demonstrates that in neonatal mice NLF significantly limits mitochondrial calcium influx, the event associated with protection of the brain against hypoxic-ischemic insult (HI). Compared to the vehicle-treated mice, cerebral mitochondria from NLF-treated mice exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to the Ca(2+)-induced membrane permeabilization, greater ADP-phosphorylating activity and reduced cytochrome C release during reperfusion. Pre-treatment with NLF or Ruthenium red (RuR) significantly improved viability of murine hippocampal HT-22 cells, reduced Ca(2+) content and preserved membrane potential (Ψm) in mitochondria following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Following histamine-stimulated Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum, in contrast to the vehicle-treated cells, the cells treated with NLF or RuR also demonstrated reduced Ca(2+) content in their mitochondria, the event associated with preserved Ψm. Because RuR inhibits mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, we tested whether the NLF acts via the mechanism similar to the RuR. However, in contrast to the RuR, in the experiment with direct interaction of these agents with mitochondria isolated from naïve mice, the NLF did not alter mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx, and did not prevent Ca(2+) induced collapse of the Ψm. These data strongly argues against interaction of NLF and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter. Although the exact mechanism remains unclear, our study is the first to show that NLF inhibits intramitochondrial Ca(2+) flux and protects developing brain against HI-reperfusion injury. This novel action of NLF has important clinical implication, because it targets a fundamental mechanism of post-ischemic cell death: intramitochondrial Ca(2+) overload → mitochondrial membrane permeabilization → secondary energy failure.
- A conceptually new treatment approach for relapsed glioblastoma: Coordinated undermining of survival paths with nine repurposed drugs (CUSP9) by the International Initiative for Accelerated Improvement of Glioblastoma Care. [Journal Article]
- Oncotarget 2013 Apr; 4(4):502-30.
To improve prognosis in recurrent glioblastoma we developed a treatment protocol based on a combination of drugs not traditionally thought of as cytotoxic chemotherapy agents but that have a robust history of being well-tolerated and are already marketed and used for other non-cancer indications. Focus was on adding drugs which met these criteria: a) were pharmacologically well characterized, b) had low likelihood of adding to patient side effect burden, c) had evidence for interfering with a recognized, well-characterized growth promoting element of glioblastoma, and d) were coordinated, as an ensemble had reasonable likelihood of concerted activity against key biological features of glioblastoma growth. We found nine drugs meeting these criteria and propose adding them to continuous low dose temozolomide, a currently accepted treatment for relapsed glioblastoma, in patients with recurrent disease after primary treatment with the Stupp Protocol. The nine adjuvant drug regimen, Coordinated Undermining of Survival Paths, CUSP9, then are aprepitant, artesunate, auranofin, captopril, copper gluconate, disulfiram, ketoconazole, nelfinavir, sertraline, to be added to continuous low dose temozolomide. We discuss each drug in turn and the specific rationale for use- how each drug is expected to retard glioblastoma growth and undermine glioblastoma's compensatory mechanisms engaged during temozolomide treatment. The risks of pharmacological interactions and why we believe this drug mix will increase both quality of life and overall survival are reviewed.
- Preventing the autophagic survival response by inhibition of calpain enhances the cytotoxic activity of bortezomib in vitro and in vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2013 Apr 10.
PURPOSE:Bortezomib, a first-generation proteasome inhibitor, induces an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, which ultimately leads to dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and apoptotic cell death. This study investigated the role of the Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme, calpain, in bortezomib cytotoxicity. A novel therapeutic combination was evaluated in which HIV protease inhibitors were used to block calpain activity and enhance bortezomib cytotoxicity in myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS:Bortezomib-mediated cell death was examined using assays for apoptosis (Annexin V staining), total cell death (trypan blue exclusion), and growth inhibition (MTT). The effects of calpain on bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity were investigated using siRNA knockdown or pharmaceutical inhibitors. Enzyme activity assays and immunofluorescence analysis were used to identify mechanistic effects.
RESULTS:Inhibition of the Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease calpain, either by pharmacologic or genetic means, enhances or accelerates bortezomib-induced myeloma cell death. The increase in cell death is not associated with an increase in caspase activity, nor is there evidence of greater inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting an alternate, calpain-regulated mechanism of bortezomib-induced cell death. Bortezomib initiates an autophagic response in myeloma cells associated with cell survival. Inhibition of calpain subverts the cytoprotective function of autophagy leading to increased bortezomib-mediated cell death. Combination therapy with bortezomib and the calpain-blocking HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, reversed bortezomib resistance and induced near-complete tumor regressions in an SCID mouse xenograft model of myeloma.
- Co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine for initial treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD005481.
UNAIDS estimates that 34 million people are currently living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide. Currently recommended regimens for initiating HIV treatment consist of either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) combined with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). However, there may be some patients for whom NNRTIs and PIs may not be appropriate. This is an update of the review published in the Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009.To evaluate the effects of any fixed-dose combination of three NRTIs (co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine) for initial treatment of HIV infection.Between December 2010 and July 2011, we used standard Cochrane methods to search electronic databases and conference proceedings with relevant search terms without limits to language or publication status.We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a minimum follow-up time of six months which compared co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine with either PI-based or NNRTI-based therapy among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients aged at least 13 years.Three authors independently selected eligible studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data; resolving discrepancies by consensus. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD), as appropriate, with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and conducted meta-analysis using the random-effects method because of significant statistical heterogeneity (P<0.1).We identified 15 potentially eligible RCTs, four of which met our inclusion criteria. The four included RCTs were conducted in the United States of America (USA); USA, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, and Panama; USA and Mexico; and Botswana, respectively. The RCTs compared co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine to treatment based on efavirenz (NNRTI), nelfinavir (PI), atazanavir (PI), and co-formulated lopinavir-ritonavir (PI), respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference in virological suppression between co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine and NNRTI- or PI-based therapy (4 trials; 2247 participants: RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.36). However, the results showed significant heterogeneity (I(2)=79%); with co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine inferior to NNRTI (1 trial, 1147 participants: RR 0.35, 95%CI 0.26 to 0.49) but with a trend towards co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine being superior to PI (3 trials, 1110 participants: RR 1.07, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.16; I(2)=0%). We found no significant differences between co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine and either PI or NNRTI on CD4+ cell counts (3 trials, 1687 participants: MD -0.01, 95%CI -0.11 to 0.09; I(2)=0%), severe adverse events (4 trials: RR 1.22, 95%CI 0.78 to 1.92; I(2)=62%) and hypersensitivity reactions (4 trials: RR 4.04, 95% CI 0.41 to 40.02; I(2)=72%). Only two studies involving PIs reported data on the lipid profile. One study found that the mean increase in total cholesterol from baseline to 96 weeks was significantly lower with co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine than with nelfinavir, but there were no differences with triglyceride levels. The second study found the fasting lipid profile to be comparable in both co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine and atazanavir arms at 48 weeks.The significant heterogeneity of effects for most outcomes evaluated was largely due to differences in the control therapy used in the included trials (i.e. NNRTIs or PIs). Using the GRADE approach, we rated the overall quality of the evidence on the relative effects of co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine for initial treatment of HIV infection as moderate. The main reason for downgrading the quality of the evidence was imprecision of the findings. The estimate of the treatment effect for each outcome has wide confidence intervals, which extend from the fixed-dose NRTI combination regimen being appreciably better to the regimen being appreciably worse than PI- or NNRTI-based regimens.This review provides evidence that co-formulated abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine remains a viable option for initiating antiretroviral therapy, especially in HIV-infected patients with pre-existing hyperlipidaemia. The varied geographical locations of the included trials augment the external validity of these findings. We are moderately confident in our estimate of the treatment effects of the triple NRTI regimen as initial therapy for HIV infection. In the context of the GRADE approach, such moderate quality of evidence implies that the true effects of the regimen are likely to be close to the estimate of effects found in this review; but there is a possibility that they could be substantially different. Further research should be geared towards defining the subgroup of HIV patients for whom this regimen will be most beneficial.
- Nelfinavir suppresses insulin signaling and nitric oxide production by human aortic endothelial cells: protective effects of thiazolidinediones. [Journal Article]
- Ochsner J 2013; 13(1):76-90.
In human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, exposure to a protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen increases cardiovascular disease and endothelial dysfunction. However, the mechanisms of PI-induced effects on endothelial cells (ECs) are not known. Furthermore, strategies to suppress these deleterious outcomes of PIs need to be developed. Insulin-induced PI3K/Akt signaling and endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation regulates NO production by ECs that maintain vascular homeostasis. We evaluated whether nelfinavir (NEL), a potent HIV-1 PI that suppresses Akt phosphorylation, can alter insulin-induced NO production in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and whether insulin sensitization of HAECs via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists, thiazolidinediones, can ameliorate these side effects.Real-time NO production in HAECs was monitored by fluorimetric dyes DAF-FM DA and DAF-2 DA. Immunodetection studies were used to determine the phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS, insulin receptor-β (IR-β), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and PI3K/p85α. Expression of eNOS messenger RNA was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.In vitro exposure (72 hours) of HAECs to NEL (0.25-2 μg/mL) decreased both basal (2.5-fold) and insulin-induced NO production (4- to 5-fold). NEL suppressed insulin-induced phosphorylation of both Akt and eNOS at serine residues 473 and 1177, respectively. NEL decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of IR-β, IRS-1, and PI3K. Coexposure to troglitazone (TRO; 250 nM) ameliorated the suppressive effects of NEL on insulin signaling and NO production. Coexposure to TRO also increased eNOS expression in NEL-treated HAECs.Our findings indicate that treatment with potent insulin sensitizers may protect against PI-mediated endothelial dysfunction during long-term HAART.
- First Report on a T69-ins Insertion in CRF06_cpx HIV Type 1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2013 Apr 15.
Abstract Insertion mutations at codon 69 (T69-ins insertion) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase confer full resistance to all approved nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. To date, nearly all reports on T69-ins insertions have described subtypes B and rarely subtypes A, C, and F of HIV-1. Here, we provide the first report of a T69-ins insertion in circulating recombinant form (CRF) 06_cpx in a patient who had been treated with a zidovudine/didanosine combination for 18 months and then shifted to lamivudine, stavudine, and nelfinavir for 76 months. Thereafter, the patient was additively administered Korean red ginseng. This is the first report on the appearance of the T69-ins insertion mutation in CRF HIV-1.
- Identification of endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agents by antagonizing autophagy: a new potential strategy for identification of anti-cancer therapeutics in B-cell malignancies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Leuk Lymphoma 2013 Apr 16.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a vital function in multiple cellular processes. There is a growing interest in developing therapeutic agents that can target the ER in cancer cells, inducing a stress response that leads to cell death. However, ER stress-inducing agents can also induce autophagy, a survival strategy of cancer cells. Therefore, by inhibiting autophagy we can increase the efficacy of the ER stress-inducing agents. Nelfinavir, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with anti-cancer properties, can induce ER stress. Nelfinavir's effects on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are yet to be elucidated. Herein we demonstrate that nelfinavir induces ER morphological changes and stress response, along with an autophagic protective strategy. Our data reveal that chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, significantly increases nelfinavir cytotoxicity. These results identify a novel strategy potentially effective in CLL treatment, by repositioning two well-known drugs as a combinatorial therapy with anti-cancer properties.
- Sequence Variability in p6 gag Protein and gag/pol Coevolution in Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 Subtype F Genomes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2013 Mar 26.
Abstract Polymorphisms occurring at the p6gag protein of HIV-1 have been previously found to have an impact on viral fitness and antiretroviral (ARV) resistance, mainly on subtype B genomes. We compared p6gag variability in a large group of 165 subtype F gag-pol sequences, with 36 subtype B sequences from the same study source, and identified sites of gag-pol coevolution under ARV selection pressure. Subtype-specific differences in the frequency of point mutations, insertions, and deletions previously associated with ARV resistance were found. Also, in our dataset of subtype F genomes a strong association between mutation P5L in the p1/p6 cleavage region of gag and the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance mutation N88D(PR) was found with no impact on the preference for any of the NFV resistance pathways.
- Nelfinavir augments proteasome inhibition by bortezomib in myeloma cells and overcomes bortezomib and carfilzomib resistance. [Journal Article]
- Blood Cancer J 2013.:e103.
HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) are oral drugs for HIV treatment. HIV-PI have antitumor activity via induction of ER-stress, inhibition of phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and the proteasome, suggesting antimyeloma activity. We characterize the effects of all approved HIV-PI on myeloma cells. HIV-PI were compared regarding cytotoxicity, proteasome activity, ER-stress induction and AKT phosphorylation using myeloma cells in vitro. Nelfinavir is the HIV-PI with highest cytotoxic activity against primary myeloma cells and with an IC near therapeutic drug blood levels (8-14 μM), irrespective of bortezomib sensitivity. Only nelfinavir inhibited intracellular proteasome activity in situ at drug concentrations <40 μM. Ritonavir, saquinavir and lopinavir inhibited p-AKT comparable to nelfinavir, and showed similar synergistic cytotoxicity with bortezomib against bortezomib-sensitive cells. Nelfinavir had superior synergistic activity with bortezomib/carfilzomib in particular against bortezomib/carfilzomib-resistant myeloma cells. It inhibited not only the proteasomal β1/β5 active sites, similar to bortezomib/carfilzomib, but in addition the β2 proteasome activity not targeted by bortezomib/carfilzomib. Additional inhibition of β2 proteasome activity is known to sensitize cells for bortezomib and carfilzomib. Nelfinavir has unique proteasome inhibiting activity in particular on the bortezomib/carfilzomib-insensitive tryptic (β2) proteasome activity in intact myeloma cells, and is active against bortezomib/carfilzomib-resistant myeloma cells in vitro.