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nodding spasm [keywords]
- [A male case of subcortical band heterotopia with somatic mosaicism of DCX mutation]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- No To Hattatsu 2013 Sep; 45(5):371-4.
This report describes a male case of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) with somatic mosaicism of doublecortin (DCX) mutation. His brain MRI revealed bilateral SBH with anterior dominant pachygyria. Although he had infantile spasms from 5-months old and showed mild developmental delay, he responded well to vitamin B6 and ACTH therapy. We conducted DCX mutation analysis using peripheral blood lymphocytes of the proband and his parents. Only the present case showed the mixture pattern of missense mutation (c. 167 G>C) and normal sequence of DCX gene indicating that the present case resulted from somatic mosaicism of de novo DCX mutation. Male patients with DCX mutations generally present with the classical type of lissencephaly, severe developmental delay, and intractable epilepsy. However, somatic mosaic mutation of DCX can lead to SBH in males.
- Early epileptic encephalopathies associated with STXBP1 mutations: Could we better delineate the phenotype? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Genet 2013 Nov 1.
STXBP1 (MUNC18.1), encoding syntaxin binding protein 1, is a gene causing epileptic encephalopathy. Mutations in STXBP1 have first been reported in early onset epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-bursts, then in infantile spasms and, more recently, in patients with non syndromic mental retardation without epilepsy. We analyzed clinical evolution and brain magnetic resonance imaging in 7 patients (6 females, 1 male) with early onset epileptic encephalopathies associated with STXBP1 mutations. We documented a peculiar brain MRI aspect characterized by frontal hypoplasia and a thin and dysmorphic corpus callosum. The course of the epilepsy was relatively benign. These clinical and neuroradiological features could orient the clinician in selecting patients' candidate to genetic testing for STXBP1 gene.
- Epileptic and electroencephalographic manifestations of guanidinoacetate-methyltransferase deficiency. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epileptic Disord 2013 Oct 28.
Aim. Describe the seizure-related manifestations of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency in two new cases and compare these to the related literature. Methods. We reviewed the clinical and electroencephalographic manifestations of two siblings with GAMT deficiency. We also performed a thorough literature review of all cases of GAMT deficiency, using the PubMed database, and compared our findings to those previously reported. Results. One sibling presented with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome while the second had manifestations of late-onset West syndrome. Based on a literature search, we found that the clinical picture of GAMT deficiency has been described in a total of 58 cases, including our two patients, 45 of whom had at least some description of EEG and/or seizure manifestation. Epilepsy was present in 81%, with age at onset usually between 10 months and 3 years. Drug resistance was observed in approximately 45%. Initial seizures were febrile, tonic, or tonic-clonic. Drop attacks and generalised seizures were the most frequent seizure type. Absence and febrile seizures also occurred. Less frequently, focal seizures and late-onset infantile spasms (one prior case) were observed. Multifocal spikes and generalised <3-Hz-spike slow waves were common while only one prior single case report of hypsarrhythmia was described. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome was common, while progressive myoclonic epilepsy was also, less frequently, reported. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the second report of the occurrence of West syndrome in GAMT deficiency. The majority of patients with GAMT deficiency have seizures and approximately half are drug-resistant. Late-onset of hypsarrhythmia and/or epileptic spasms could potentially prove to be a distinctive, albeit infrequent, feature of this treatable metabolic disorder.
- YouTube as a Source of Information for Children with Paroxysmal Episodes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Klin Padiatr 2013 Oct 24.
Whereas to date the internet is a main source of information for many parents, there are no restrictions regarding data presentation. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of internet material concerning paroxysmal episodes.We rated videos on YouTube for several conditions like infantile spasms, absence seizures, Sandifer syndrome, sleep myoclonus, and shuddering attacks. Videos were classified into different categories of certainty of diagnosis according to expert opinion based on a 4 point Likert scale followed by calculation of interrater reliability. Also the quality of supplemental information was assessed, as well as whether videos were helpful from a neuropaediatrican's point of view in counselling patients and their parents.In sleep myoclonus, absences and infantile spasms correlation between title of videos and classification by expert opinion was good. There was more discrepancy with the videos concerning Sandifer syndrome and shuddering attacks. Interrater reliability was low for Sandifer syndrome, fair for absences, shuddering attacks and sleep myoclonus and moderate for infantile spasms. Some supplemental information was rated to be helpful but other information was found to be misleading or even unsettling for patients and their parents.We consider that video material on YouTube can generally not be considered as helpful for parents because of a significant disagreement between experts, even for the most well defined disorders in our study.
- A new familial infantile form of diffuse brain-sclerosis. [Historical Article, Journal Article]
- Brain 2013 Sep; 136(Pt 9):2649-51.
- Ictal Electroencephalography and Electromyography Features in Symptomatic Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy with Late-Onset Spasms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuropediatrics 2013 Oct 13.
Aim Recently, epilepsy with late-onset epileptic spasms (ES) has been reported to be distinct from West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. We identified the characteristics of this clinical entity by analyzing clinical data, including ictal electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in symptomatic patients.Methods We evaluated retrospectively eight symptomatic patients with epilepsy with late-onset ES. All patients underwent video-EEG analysis for more than 24 hours and have been followed up for at least 1 year. Interictal EEG, ictal EEG, ictal EMG, coexistence seizures, response to treatment, and intellectual or daily activity level were assessed. Ictal EMG was evaluated by spectral analysis.Results All patients exhibited neurological deterioration and had multiple seizure types; seven of them had intractable seizures. Interictal EEG showed no typical hypsarrhythmia in any case. Ictal EMG analysis revealed that the predominant seizure types presenting with the tonic component were distributed among ES, spasms followed by tonic seizures (SFT), and tonic seizures.Conclusions The clinical characteristics of our patients were identical to infantile epileptic encephalopathy with late-onset spasms. Our patients had ES, SFT, and tonic seizures as the core seizure types, developed ES beyond the age of 1 year, and showed neurological deterioration. These may be essential symptoms of this clinical entity.
- Predictors of seizure-free outcome after epilepsy surgery for pediatric tuberous sclerosis complex. [Journal Article]
- Epilepsia 2013 Nov; 54(11):1913-21.
Variable predictors of postsurgical seizure outcome have been reported in children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We analyzed a large surgical series of pediatric TSC patients in order to identify prognostic factors crucial for selection of subjects for epilepsy surgery.Thirty-three children with TSC who underwent excisional epilepsy surgery at Miami Children's Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 29 clinical, neuropsychological, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical variables were analyzed and related to seizure outcomes. Univariate Barnard's exact test, Wilcoxon's rank-sum test, and multivariate statistical Cox's model were used to examine the significance of associations between the variables and seizure outcome.Eighteen patients (55%) have been seizure-free 2 years after (final) surgery; postoperative complications occurred in five subjects (15%). Complete removal of epileptogenic tissue detected by both MRI and intracranial EEG, regional scalp interictal EEG patterns, and agreement of interictal and ictal EEG localization were the most powerful predictors of seizure-free outcome. Other significant predictors included occurrence of regional scalp ictal EEG patterns, fewer brain regions affected by tubers, presence of preoperative hemiparesis, and one-stage surgery. Remaining factors such as age at seizure onset, incidence of infantile spasms or other seizure types, duration of epilepsy, seizure frequency, mental retardation, as well as types and extent of resections did not influence outcome.Perioperative features rather than preoperative variables are the most important determinants of postsurgical seizure outcome in patients with TSC. Our findings may assist in the surgical management of these patients.
- A novel mutation in STXBP1 causing epileptic encephalopathy (late onset infantile spasms) with partial respiratory chain complex IV deficiency. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Med Genet 2013 Dec; 56(12):683-5.
STXBP1 (MUNC18.1), encoding syntaxin binding protein 1, has been reported in Ohtahara syndrome, a rare epileptic encephalopathy with suppression burst pattern on EEG, in patients with infantile spasms and in a few patients with nonsyndromic mental retardation without epilepsy. We report a patient who presented late onset infantile spasms. Epilepsy was controlled but the patient developed severe mental delay. A first diagnosis of mitochondrial disease was based on clinical presentation and on a partial deficit of respiratory chain complex IV, but molecular screening for mitochondrial genes was negative. The sequencing of STXBP1 gene found a de novo nonsense mutation (c.585C>G/p.Tyr195X). This observation widens the clinical spectrum linked to STXBP1 mutations with the description of a patient with late onset infantile spasms. It raises the question of the value of epilepsy genes screening in patients with uncertain, partial or unconfirmed mitochondrial dysfunction.
- MRI findings in infants with infantile spasms after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Neurol 2013 Dec; 49(6):401-5.
To evaluate the predominant pattern of brain injury and the anatomic areas of injury in children with infantile spasms following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.A nested case-control study of infantile spasms in children with term neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was performed. All patients had T1/T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging performed on the third day of life. Using a validated scoring system, the magnetic resonance imaging was classified as: normal, watershed, basal ganglia/thalamus, total, or focal-multifocal. Two study investigators scored additional anatomic areas of injury (cortical extent, levels of the brainstem, hypothalamus) on T1/T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging blinded to the outcome. The predominant pattern of brain injury and anatomic areas of injury were compared between patients who developed infantile spasms and randomly selected controls.Eight patients who developed infantile spasms were identified among a cohort of 176 term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (4.5%). There were no significant differences in the perinatal and neonatal course between newborns who developed infantile spasms and controls who did not. The development of infantile spasms after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was significantly associated with basal ganglia/thalamus and total brain injury (P = 0.001), extent of cortical injury greater than 50% (odds ratio = 11.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-158.5, P = 0.01), injury to the midbrain (odds ratio = 13, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-172, P = 0.007) and hypothalamic abnormalities (P = 0.01).The development of infantile spasms after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalami on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when extensive cortical injury and/or injury to the midbrain is present.
- A new mutation in MT-ND1 m.3928G>C p.V208L causes Leigh disease with infantile spasms. [Journal Article]
- Mitochondrion 2013 Nov; 13(6):656-61.
New mutations in mitochondrial DNA encoded genes of complex I are rarely reported. An infant developed Leigh disease with infantile spasms. Complex I enzyme activity was deficient and response to increasing coenzyme Q concentrations was reduced. Complex I assembly was intact. A new mutation in MT-ND1 m.3928G>C p.V208L, affecting a conserved amino acid in a critical domain, part of the coenzyme Q binding pocket, was present at high heteroplasmy. The unaffected mother did not carry measurable mutant mitochondrial DNA, but concern remained for gonadal mosaicism. Prenatal testing was possible for a subsequent sibling. The ND1 p.V208L mutation causes Leigh disease.