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nodding spasm [keywords]
- Practice Experience in the Treatment of Infantile Spasms at a Tertiary Care Center. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Neurol 2014 Jul 22.
The current treatment guidelines for treatment of infantile spasms is ambiguous regarding individuals with known etiology and is backed by limited evidence. Recently published survey data reveal diverse treatment variation for infantile spasms. We conducted a retrospective medical record review to better understand the clinical variables which affect treatment selection for new-onset infantile spasms.We systematically extracted demographic data and treatment response of children with new onset infantile spasms over a 3-year period at a single institution. Treatment was divided into three groups: vigabatrin, hormone treatment, and other therapies.Our final cohort had 65 patients; 74% had a known etiology. Sixty-two percent were initially treated with vigabatrin. Other therapies were used more often in known etiology than in unknown etiology as initial treatment (40% vs 6%; P = 0.002). Treatment response at 3 months was not statistically different between unknown etiology and known etiology groups (71% vs 46%; P = 0.08). Overall, initial treatment choice was effective in 35% (23 of 65). Eighty-six percent (37 of 42) who failed the initial medication had subsequent medication trials within 3 months.Etiology was strongly associated with initial treatment choice. The variation in treatment choice at our center reflects the limited evidence derived from well-designed clinical trials.
- Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis of Vigabatrin in Adults and Children with Epilepsy and Children with Infantile Spasms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Pharmacokinet 2014 Aug 30.
Vigabatrin is an inhibitor of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase. The purpose of these analyses was to develop a population pharmacokinetics model to characterize the vigabatrin concentration-time profile for adults and children with refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS) and for children with infantile spasms (IS); to identify covariates that affect its disposition, and to enable predictions of systemic vigabatrin exposure for patients 1-12 months of age.Vigabatrin pharmacokinetic data from six randomized controlled clinical trials and one open-label study were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Data collected from 349 adults with rCPS and 119 pediatric patients with rCPS or IS were used in the analyses.A two-compartment model with first-order elimination and transit-compartment absorption consisting of five transit compartments adequately described the vigabatrin concentration-time data for these adult and pediatric patient populations. An exponential error model was used to estimate inter-individual variability for the transit-rate constant (k tr) (24.2 %), elimination rate constant (k) (14.7 %) and apparent central volume of distribution (V c/F) (18 %). For the study of children with IS, inter-occasion variability was estimated for k tr (58.1 %) and relative bioavailability (F) (26.9 %). Covariate analysis indicated that age, creatinine clearance (CLCR), and body weight were important predictors of vigabatrin pharmacokinetic parameters. Vigabatrin apparent clearance increased with increasing CLCR, consistent with renal excretion (primary pathway of vigabatrin elimination). Rate of vigabatrin absorption was dependent on age. The rate was slower in younger patients, which resulted in a smaller predicted maximum concentration and longer predicted time to maximum concentrations. Vigabatrin V c/F, apparent inter-compartmental clearance between the central and peripheral compartment, and apparent peripheral volume of distribution were increased with greater patient body weights. Sex did not contribute significantly to vigabatrin pharmacokinetic variability.The model adequately described vigabatrin pharmacokinetic and enabled predictions of systemic exposures in pediatric patients 1-12 months of age.
- Early neurodevelopmental screening in tuberous sclerosis complex: a potential window of opportunity. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Neurol 2014 Sep; 51(3):398-402.
Infants born with tuberous sclerosis complex, a genetic condition resulting from a mutation in TSC1 or TSC2, are at increased risk for intellectual disability and/or autism. Features of epilepsy, neuropathology, genetics, as well as timing and type of mechanism-based medications have been proposed as risk factors. Neurodevelopmental outcomes have been reported among these studies; however, few include data about the individuals' early neurodevelopmental profile, a factor that may contribute significantly to these outcomes. Further, there is no clinical standard for the neurodevelopmental assessment of these infants. The paucity of data regarding the natural history of neurodevelopment in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex and the lack of a gold standard for neurodevelopmental evaluation present a significant challenge for clinicians and researchers.During the first year of life, we tracked the onset of infantile spasms, the type and timing of antiepileptic treatments, and the associated response of two age-matched infants with tuberous sclerosis complex. We also employed Capute Scales as a part of a structured neurodevelopmental evaluation to characterize and compare their neurodevelopmental profiles.Infant 1 developed infantile spasms with confirmed hypsarrhythmia at 4 months of age. Treatment with vigabatrin was initiated within 24 hours with near immediate cessation of seizures and no further seizures to date. Expressive language delay was detected at 12 months and treated with speech and/or language therapy. Infant 2 developed complex partial seizures at 1 month. Treatment included levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and the ketogenic diet. Vigabatrin was initiated on detection of hypsarrhythmia after 4 months. Intractable epilepsy persists to date. Global developmental delay was evident by 8 months and treated with physical, occupational, and speech and/or language therapy.Many risk factors have been associated with intellectual disability and/or autism in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex; however, few data are available regarding practical clinical tools for early identification. In our case series, inclusion of the Capute Scales as a part of routine medical care led to the identification of developmental delays in the first 12 months of life and selection of targeted neurodevelopmental interventions. Development of a risk-based assessment using this approach will be the focus of future studies as it may provide a potential window of opportunity for both research and clinical purposes. In research, it may serve as an objective outcome measure. Clinically, this type of assessment has potential for informing clinical treatment decisions and serving as a prognostic indicator of long-term cognitive and psychiatric outcomes.
- Hereditary neurometabolic causes of infantile spasms in 80 children presenting to a tertiary care center. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Neurol 2014 Sep; 51(3):390-7.
Infantile spasms are a devastating infantile epileptic syndrome with multiple etiologies. Hereditary neurometabolic disorders are rarely recognized causes of infantile spasms. The aim of this study was to identify hereditary neurometabolic disorders when they were the cause of infantile spasms in patients presenting to a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia.We conducted a retrospective review of children presenting to the Pediatric Department of King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a 15-year interval.Eighty patients with infantile spasms were identified. A hereditary neurometabolic disorder was diagnosed in 10 patients (12.5%). Of these patients, two had a Leigh-like disorder and one patient had each of the following diagnoses: ethylmalonic aciduria, nonketotic hyperglycinemia, hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, leukodystrophy, short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, molybdenum cofactor deficiency, primary carnitine deficiency, and neonatal hypoglycemia due to panhypopituitarism. This article is the first to report the association of the last three conditions with infantile spasms. Compared with the other etiologies, the hereditary neurometabolic disorder group had a strong history of similar disease in the same family (P = 0.002), and most of the patients were born of consanguineous parents (P = 0.021). In addition, a typical hypsarrhythmia pattern was more common in the hereditary neurometabolic disorder group (P = 0.003). Furthermore, this group had a poor response to therapy (P = 0.04). Otherwise, there were no significant differences regarding the type of spasms, neuroimaging or outcome; however, there was a trend toward poorer outcomes and death in the hereditary neurometabolic disorder group.Hereditary neurometabolic disorders are relatively common causes of infantile spasms in this subpopulation of Saudi patients. An early diagnosis via proper metabolic and genetic testing has significant implications for applying specific treatments and for facilitating proper family counseling.
- Efficacy of long term weekly ACTH therapy for intractable epilepsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Brain Dev 2014 Aug 19.
Background: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy is the first-line therapy for infantile spasms, and is effective for many other intractable epilepsies. While spasms may respond to ACTH for weeks, a substantial proportion of patients develop recurrent seizures over a yearly period. To maintain efficacy, we treated two children with intractable epilepsy with weekly ACTH therapy for 1year and described the changes in clinical seizures, electroencephalograms, developmental assessments and side effects. Subjects and methods: A girl with infantile spasms due to lissencephaly and a boy with atypical absence seizures were studied. In both cases, seizures were frequent and resistant to antiepileptic drugs; electroencephalograms showed continuous epileptiform activities, and the patients' development was delayed and stagnant prior to ACTH treatment. The initial ACTH therapy (daily 0.015mg/kg for 2weeks, 0.015mg/kg every 2days for 1week, 0.0075mg/kg every 2days for 1week), was transiently effective in both cases. The second-round ACTH therapy consisted of the initial ACTH therapy protocol followed by weekly ACTH injections (0.015mg/kg or 0.0075mg/kg) for 1year. Both cases were followed for at least 1year after therapy. Results: In both patients, clinical seizures were completely controlled during and 1year after the second-round AHCH therapy. Continuous epileptiform discharges disappeared, while intermittent interictal epileptiform discharges remained. Both patients showed some developmental gains after achieving seizure control. No serious side effects were recorded. Conclusion: Further studies are warranted to determine if a long-term weekly ACTH is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsy.
- Does vigabatrin treatment for infantile spasms cause visual field defects? An international multicentre study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dev Med Child Neurol 2014 Aug 22.
The aim of this study was to examine whether vigabatrin treatment had caused visual field defects (VFDs) in children of school age who had received the drug in infancy.In total, 35 children (14 males, 21 females; median age 11y, SD 3.4y, range 8-23y) were examined by static Humphrey perimetry, Goldmann kinetic perimetry, or Octopus perimetry. The aetiologies of infantile spasms identified were tuberous sclerosis (n=10), other symptomatic causes (n=3), or cryptogenic (n=22).Typical vigabatrin-attributed VFDs were found in 11 out of 32 (34%) children: in one out of 11 children (9%) who received vigabatrin for <1 year (group 1), in three out of 10 children (30%) who received vigabatrin for 12 to 24 months (group 2), and in seven out of 11 children (63%) who received vigabatrin treatment for longer than 2 years (group 3). VFDs were mild in five and severe in six children. Patients with tuberous sclerosis were at higher risk of VFDs (six out of 10 children). The mean cumulative doses of vigabatrin were 140.5, 758.8, and 2712g in group 1, 2, and 3, respectively.VFDs were found in 34% of the cohort of children in this study. The rate of VFD increased from 9% to 63% as duration of treatment increased. The results of this study showed that the risk-benefit ratio should always be considered when using vigabatrin.
- Infantile spasm: a review article. [Journal Article, Review]
- Iran J Child Neurol 2014; 8(3):1-5.
Infantile spasm (IS) is a convulsive disease characterized by brief, symmetric axial muscle contraction (neck, trunk, and/or extremities). IS is a type of seizure that was first described by West in 1841, who witnessed the seizure in his own son. West's syndrome refers to the classic triad of spasms, characteristic EEG, and neurodevelopmental regression. Most cases involve flexors and extensors, but either of the types may be involved independently. IS, as its name implies, most often occurs during the first year of life with an incidence of approximately 1 per 2000-4000 live births. Most, but not all, patients with this disorder have severe EEG abnormalities; this pattern was originally referred to as hypsarrhythmia by Gibbs and Gibbs. Cases with known etiology or signs of brain damage are considered as symptomatic. The Overall prognosis of the disease is poor. Peak onset age of the epileptic syndrome is 3 to 7 months, which mainly occurs before 2 years of age in 93% of patients. Hypsarrhythmia is the EEG hallmark of IS, which comprised a chaotic, bilaterally asynchronous high-voltage polyspike, and slow wave discharges interspersed with multifocal spikes and slow waves. ETIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION IS AS FOLLOWS: 1) Symptomatic: with identifiable prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes with developmental delay at the presentation time; 2) Cryptogenic: unknown underlying cause, normal development at the onset of spasms, normal neurological exam and neuroimaging, and no abnormality in the metabolic evaluation; 3) Idiopathic: pure functional cerebral dysfunction with complete recovery, no residual dysfunction, normal neuroimaging and normal etiologic evaluation, and normal neurodevelopment.
- Analysis of vigabatrin treatment causing visual field defects in infantile spasms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dev Med Child Neurol 2014 Aug 11.
- Focal dysplasia of the cerebral cortex and infantile spasms associated with somatic 1q21.1-q44 duplication including the AKT3 gene. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Genet 2014 Aug 5.
Somatic and germline duplications or activating mutations of AKT3 have been reported in patients with hemimegalencephaly and megalencephaly. We performed array comparative genomic hybridization on brain tissue and blood in 16 consecutive patients with symptomatic epilepsy due to focal or multilobar malformations of cortical development who underwent surgical treatment of epilepsy. One patient with infantile spasms and a dysplastic left frontal lobe harboured a somatic trisomy of the 1q21.1-q44 chromosomal region, encompassing the AKT3 gene, in the dysplastic brain tissue but not in blood and saliva. Histopathology revealed severe cortical dyslamination, a thin cortex in the premotor area with microgyri and microsulci, immature neurons with disoriented dendrites and areas of cortical heterotopia in the sub-cortical white matter. These cytoarchitectural changes are close to those defining type Ib focal cortical dysplasia. Immunohistochemistry in brain specimens demonstrated hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. These findings indicate that AKT3 upregulation may cause focal malformations of cortical development. There appears to be an etiologic continuum between hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplastic lesions. The extension of brain malformations due to AKT3 upregulation may be related to the embryonic stage when the postzygotic gene alteration occurs.
- The anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin inhibits taurine transport in intestinal and renal cell culture models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Pharm 2014 Jul 22.
The GABA-mimetic anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin is used against infantile spasms. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that vigabatrin is transported via the proton coupled amino acid transporter (PAT1) mediating at least parts of the intestinal absorption of the drug. However, such evidence does not preclude the involvement of other transporters. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate if vigabatrin interacts with taurine transport. The uptake of taurine was measured in intestinal human Caco-2 and canine MDCK cell monolayers in the absence or presence of amino acids such as GABA and vigabatrin. Vigabatrin inhibits the uptake of taurine in Caco-2 and MDCK cells to 31±3 and 53±2%, respectively, at a concentration of 30mM. In Caco-2 cells the uptake of vigabatrin under neutral pH conditions is concentration-dependent and saturable with a Km-value of 27mM (logKm is 1.43±0.09). In conclusion, the present study shows that vigabatrin was able to inhibit the uptake of taurine in intestinal and renal cell culture models. Furthermore, uptake of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells under neutral pH conditions was concentration-dependent and saturable and suggesting that vigabatrin partly was transported via a taurine transporter, which is likely to be TauT.