- Recent Development of Chitosan Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications. [Journal Article]
- RPRecent Pat Nanotechnol 2016 Oct 25
- CONCLUSIONS: Chitosan is a pseudo-neutral cationic polymer which is formed by the de-acetylation of chitin polymer. Various patent on chitosan and chitosan-nanocomposite were taken into account related to wastewater purification. We have found that chitosan and chitosan-nanocomposite are used for the removal of viruses, bacteria, cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts, soluble and insoluble organic pollutants, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, we also found that chitosan and chitosan-nanocomposite are selected for the removal of transition metals.
- Membrane-based Technologies in the Pharmaceutical Industry and Continuous Production of Polymer-coated Crystals/Particles. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Pharm Des 2016 Oct 25
- CONCLUSIONS: This brief review provides a general introduction to various applications of membrane technologies in the pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical industry with special emphasis on novel membrane techniques for pharmaceutical applications. The method of coating a drug particle with a polymer using the SHFCC method is stable and ready for scale-up for operation over an extended period.
- Chemically driven fluid transport in long microchannels. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chem Phys 2016 Sep 28; 145(12):124119
- Chemical gradients maintained along surfaces can drive fluid flows by diffusio-osmosis, which become significant at micro- and nano-scales. Here, by means of mesoscopic simulations, we show that a co...
Chemical gradients maintained along surfaces can drive fluid flows by diffusio-osmosis, which become significant at micro- and nano-scales. Here, by means of mesoscopic simulations, we show that a concentration drop across microchannels with periodically inhomogeneous boundary walls can laterally transport fluids over arbitrarily long distances along the microchannel. The driving field is the secondary local chemical gradient parallel to the channel induced by the periodic inhomogeneity of the channel wall. The flow velocity depends on the concentration drop across the channel and the structure and composition of the channel walls, but it is independent of the overall channel length. Our work thus presents new insight into the fluid transport in long microchannels commonly found in nature and is useful for designing novel micro- or nano-fluidic pumps.
- Carbon membranes for efficient water-ethanol separation. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chem Phys 2016 Sep 28; 145(12):124708
- We demonstrate, on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, the possibility of an efficient water-ethanol separation using nanoporous carbon membranes, namely, carbon nanotube membranes, nanoporo...
We demonstrate, on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, the possibility of an efficient water-ethanol separation using nanoporous carbon membranes, namely, carbon nanotube membranes, nanoporous graphene sheets, and multilayer graphene membranes. While these carbon membranes are in general permeable to both pure liquids, they exhibit a counter-intuitive "self-semi-permeability" to water in the presence of water-ethanol mixtures. This originates in a preferred ethanol adsorption in nanoconfinement that prevents water molecules from entering the carbon nanopores. An osmotic pressure is accordingly expressed across the carbon membranes for the water-ethanol mixture, which agrees with the classic van't Hoff type expression. This suggests a robust and versatile membrane-based separation, built on a pressure-driven reverse-osmosis process across these carbon-based membranes. In particular, the recent development of large-scale "graphene-oxide" like membranes then opens an avenue for a versatile and efficient ethanol dehydration using this separation process, with possible application for bio-ethanol fabrication.
- Comparative studies on osmosis based encapsulation of sodium diclofenac in porcine and outdated human erythrocyte ghosts. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biotechnol 2016 Oct 20; 240:14-22
- The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes deriv...
The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes derived from two readily available materials - porcine slaughterhouse and outdated transfusion human blood. Starting erythrocytes, empty erythrocyte ghosts and diclofenac loaded ghosts were compared in terms of the encapsulation efficiency, drug releasing profiles, size distribution, surface charge, conductivity, surface roughness and morphology. The encapsulation of sodium diclofenac was performed by an osmosis based process - gradual hemolysis. During this process sodium diclofenac exerted mild and delayed antihemolytic effect and increased potassium efflux in porcine but not in outdated human erythrocytes. FTIR spectra revealed lack of any membrane lipid disorder and chemical reaction with sodium diclofenac in encapsulated ghosts. Outdated human erythrocyte ghosts with detected nanoscale damages and reduced ability to shrink had encapsulation efficiency of only 8%. On the other hand, porcine erythrocyte ghosts had encapsulation efficiency of 37% and relatively slow drug release rate. More preserved structure and functional properties of porcine erythrocytes related to their superior encapsulation and release performances, define them as more appropriate for the usage in sodium diclofenac encapsulation process.
- The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Technol 2016 Oct 24; :1-13
- Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltrati...
Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO performance was evaluated in terms of the water flux, water flux decline and solute rejections of biochemical oxygen demand, and total and soluble phosphorus. The obtained results were compared with the results of FO after only mechanical pretreatment. The FO permeates satisfied the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment.
- Miniature circulatory systems: A new exposure system for ecotoxicological effect assessments in riverine organisms. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol Chem 2016; 35(11):2827-2833
- Long-term effect assessments in ecotoxicological investigations are important, yet there is a lack of suitable exposure systems for these experiments that can be used for riverine species. A cost-eff...
Long-term effect assessments in ecotoxicological investigations are important, yet there is a lack of suitable exposure systems for these experiments that can be used for riverine species. A cost-efficient miniature circulatory system was developed that was evaluated for its applicability in long-term exposures in 2 stream-dwelling species: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and an amphipod (Gammarus roeseli). In an egg-to-fry exposure of S. trutta, the toxicity of 2 reverse osmosis concentrates was investigated as examples. Control hatching rate of yolk sac fry was 75 ± 7% and thus complies with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development validity criterion (≥66%). The reverse osmosis concentrates did not impair the hatching rate in any tested concentration. In G. roeseli, mortality rates remained below 20% during a 21-d cultivation, fulfilling the common validity criterion in ecotoxicological testing. Mortality was significantly lower when the species was fed with conditioned alder leaves instead of an artificial shrimp food. Finally, a toxicity test on G. roeseli using copper as the test substance revealed median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 156 μg/L after 96 h and 99 μg/L after 264 h, which is in line with literature findings using other accepted exposure units. In conclusion, the miniature circulatory system provides a novel and cost-efficient exposure system for long-term investigations on riverine species that may also be applicable for other species of fishes and macroinvertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2827-2833. © 2016 SETAC.
- Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for bacterial monitoring in routine analysis at a drinking water treatment plant. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Hyg Environ Health 2016 Jan 14
- The study of bacterial communities throughout a drinking water treatment plant could provide a basic understanding of the effects of water processing that could then be used to improve the management...
The study of bacterial communities throughout a drinking water treatment plant could provide a basic understanding of the effects of water processing that could then be used to improve the management of such plants. However, it is necessary to develop new analytical techniques that are sufficiently efficient, robust and fast for their effective and useful application in routine analysis. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), as compared to the PhenePlate™ system, for routine analysis in a drinking water treatment plant. To this end we studied a total of 277 colonies isolated in different seasons and from different points throughout the water treatment process, including: raw water, sand filtration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and chlorination. The colonies were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS by direct deposition of the cells on the plate. The colonies were also biochemically fingerprinted using the PhenePlate™ system, clustered according to their similarity and a representative strain was selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and API(®) gallery-based identification. The use of MALDI-TOF MS was reliable compared to the PhenePlate™ system and has the advantage of being faster and relatively cheap. Bacteria typing by MALDI-TOF MS is therefore a promising method to replace conventional routine phenotypic methods for the identification of bacteria in drinking water laboratories, thanks to its robustness. The major limiting factor for MALDI-TOF MS is the lack of a suitable mass spectra database; although each laboratory can develop its own library. This methodology will provide a tracking tool for companies to use in risk management and the detection of possible failures in both the water treatment processes and the distribution network, as well as offering characterization of the intrinsic microbial populations.
- A novel forward osmosis system in landfill leachate treatment for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and for direct fertigation. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2016 Oct 21; 168:112-121
- Landfill leachate (LL) is harmful to aquatic environment because it contains high concentrations of dissolved organic matter, inorganic components, heavy metals, and other xenobiotics. Thus, the reme...
Landfill leachate (LL) is harmful to aquatic environment because it contains high concentrations of dissolved organic matter, inorganic components, heavy metals, and other xenobiotics. Thus, the remediation of LL is crucial for environmental conservation. Here, a potential application of the forward osmosis (FO) filtration process with ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) as a draw solution (DS) was investigated to remediate membrane bioreactor-treated LL (M-LL). After the leachate treatment, the toxicity and removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated using zebrafish and cultured human cells. The water recovery rate was improved using the current protocol up to 86.6% and 91.6% by both the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode and the forward osmosis (FO) mode. Water flux increased with the increasing DS concentrations, but solution velocities decreased with the operation time. Toxicity tests revealed that the M-LL treated by NH4HCO3 had no toxic effect on zebrafish and human cells. Moreover, green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in the transgenic zebrafish Tg(cyp1a:gfp) induced by PAHs was very weak compared to the effects induced by untreated M-LL. Since the diluted DS met local safety requirements of liquid fertilizer, it could be directly applied as the liquid fertilizer for fertigation. In conclusion, this novel FO system using NH4HCO3 as the DS provides a cheap and efficient protocol to effectively remove PAHs and other pollutants in LL, and the diluted DS can be directly applied to crops as a liquid fertilizer, indicating that this technique is effective and eco-friendly for the treatment of different types of LL.
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- Ultrasound assisted forward osmosis concentration of fruit juice and natural colorant. [Journal Article]
- USUltrason Sonochem 2017; 34:426-435
- The present study deals with the effect of higher and lower molecular weight compounds present in the feed on concentration polarization during forward osmosis concentration and its mitigation by the...
The present study deals with the effect of higher and lower molecular weight compounds present in the feed on concentration polarization during forward osmosis concentration and its mitigation by the application of ultrasound. The effects of ultrasound on transmembrane water flux at different forward osmosis membrane orientations and different model feed solutions consisting of sucrose and pectin have also been evaluated. The feed containing sucrose and pectin subjected towards active layer of the membrane was found to be the most suitable orientation. The application of ultrasound (30kHz) significantly reduced the concentration polarization when the feed contains sucrose concentration up to 5%. Whereas, in case of feed containing 0.5% pectin, the ultrasound was not found to be effective in dislodging the gel layer formation resulting in severe external concentration polarization on the membrane surface. In comparison to the ordinary forward osmosis process, the ultrasound-assisted forward osmosis process resulted in higher water fluxes in case of sweet lime juice as well as rose extract containing anthocyanin. The degradation of rose anthocyanin due to ultrasound was found to be 1.82%. Application of ultrasound was found to be an effective way in mitigating concentration polarization on the forward osmosis membrane resulting in increased flux.