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- Accurate and self-consistent procedure for determining pH in seawater desalination brines and its manifestation in reverse osmosis modeling. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Water Res 2014 Jul 11.:187-195.
Measuring and modeling pH in concentrated aqueous solutions in an accurate and consistent manner is of paramount importance to many R&D and industrial applications, including RO desalination. Nevertheless, unified definitions and standard procedures have yet to be developed for solutions with ionic strength higher than ∼0.7 M, while implementation of conventional pH determination approaches may lead to significant errors. In this work a systematic yet simple methodology for measuring pH in concentrated solutions (dominated by Na(+)/Cl(-)) was developed and evaluated, with the aim of achieving consistency with the Pitzer ion-interaction approach. Results indicate that the addition of 0.75 M of NaCl to NIST buffers, followed by assigning a new standard pH (calculated based on the Pitzer approach), enabled reducing measured errors to below 0.03 pH units in seawater RO brines (ionic strength up to 2 M). To facilitate its use, the method was developed to be both conceptually and practically analogous to the conventional pH measurement procedure. The method was used to measure the pH of seawater RO retentates obtained at varying recovery ratios. The results matched better the pH values predicted by an accurate RO transport model. Calibrating the model by the measured pH values enabled better boron transport prediction. A Donnan-induced phenomenon, affecting pH in both retentate and permeate streams, was identified and quantified.
- Evaluation of hepatic damage by reactive metabolites - administration with consideration of circadian variation of murine hepatic glutathione levels -. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Sci 2014; 39(4):537-44.
Generally, reactive metabolites are detoxified by conjugation with glutathione (GSH). A GSH-depleted model was prepared by administering L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), which can be used to detect hepatic damage by reactive metabolites. However, BSO may cause adverse effects on other organs, such as renal damage by reactive metabolites because it depletes GSH in the whole body. The present study was designed to examine whether it was possible to specifically detect hepatic damage by reactive metabolites without reducing renal GSH levels by administering BSO in a time course when hepatic GSH levels are naturally reduced. Male BALB/c mice were administered reverse osmosis (RO) water or 20 mmol/l BSO in drinking water for 4 days. Subsequently, animals in the RO water group were orally administered 500 mg/kg acetaminophen (APAP) at 9:00 or 15:00 and in the BSO group at 9:00 for 4 days. As a result, severe hepatic damage and necrosis of the renal proximal tubules were observed in the BSO/APAP administration at 9:00 group, and all animals died on 1 or 2 days after APAP administration. Hepatic damage was clearly increased in the RO water/APAP administration at 15:00 group compared with the RO water/APAP administration at 9:00 group. However, renal damage and deaths were not observed. This BSO administration model may detect renal damage induced by reactive metabolites. Using an administration time course, whereby hepatic GSH levels were naturally reduced, hepatic damage by reactive metabolites can be detected without secondary renal effects.
- Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Water Res 2014 Jul 9.:160-176.
Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic observations in membrane fouling simulators revealed formation of specific particle deposition patterns for different diamond and ladder feed spacer orientations. A three-dimensional numerical model combining fluid flow with a Lagrangian approach for particle trajectory calculations could describe very well the in-situ observations on particle deposition in flow cells. Feed spacer geometry, positioning and cross-flow velocity sensitively influenced the particle transport and deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were not influenced by permeate production. This combined experimental-modeling approach could be used for feed spacer geometry optimization studies for reduced (bio)fouling.
- Electrochemical treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate on boron-doped electrodes in undivided and divided cell configurations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2014 Jul 4.:111-116.
An undivided electrolytic cell may offer lower electrochlorination through reduction of chlorine/hypochlorite at the cathode. This study investigated the performance of electrooxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate using boron-doped diamond electrodes in membrane-divided and undivided cells. In both cell configurations, similar extents of chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal were obtained. Continuous formation of chlorinated organic compounds was observed regardless of the membrane presence. However, halogenation of the organic matter did not result in a corresponding increase in toxicity (Vibrio fischeri bioassay performed on extracted samples), with toxicity decreasing slightly until 10AhL(-1), and generally remaining near the initial baseline-toxicity equivalent concentration (TEQ) of the raw concentrate (i.e., ∼2mgL(-1)). The exception was a high range toxicity measure in the undivided cell (i.e., TEQ=11mgL(-1) at 2.4AhL(-1)), which rapidly decreased to 4mgL(-1). The discrepancy between the halogenated organic matter and toxicity patterns may be a consequence of volatile and/or polar halogenated by-products formed in oxidation by OH electrogenerated at the anode. The undivided cell exhibited lower energy compared to the divided cell, 0.25kWhgCOD(-1) and 0.34kWhgCOD(-1), respectively, yet it did not demonstrate any improvement regarding by-products formation.
- Heterologous expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Ammopiptanthus nanus confers high salt and heat tolerance to Escherichia coli. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gene 2014 Jul 18.
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the synthesis of glycine betaine, a regulator of osmosis, and therefore BADH is considered to play a significant role in response of plants to abiotic stresses. Here, based on the conserved residues of the deduced amino acid sequences of the homologous BADH genes, we cloned the AnBADH gene from the xerophytic leguminous plant Ammopiptanthus nanus by using reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA is 1868bp long without intron, and contains an open reading frame of 1512bp, and 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions of 294 and 62bp. It encodes a 54.71kDa protein of 503 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shares high homology, conserved amino acid residues and sequence motifs crucial for the function with the BADHs in other leguminous species. The sequence of the open reading frame was used to construct a prokaryotic expression vector pET32a-AnBADH, and transform Escherichia coli. The transformants expressed the heterologous AnBADH gene under the induction of isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside, and demonstrated significant enhancement of salt and heat tolerance under the stress conditions of 700mmolL(-1) NaCl and 55°C high temperature. This result suggests that the AnBADH gene might play a crucial role in adaption of A. nanus to the abiotic stresses, and have the potential to be applied to transgenic operations of commercially important crops for improvement of abiotic tolerance.
- Scalable Antifouling Reverse Osmosis Membranes Utilizing Perfluorophenyl Azide Photochemistry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Macromol Rapid Commun 2014 Jul 8.
We present a method to produce anti-fouling reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that maintains the process and scalability of current RO membrane manufacturing. Utilizing perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA) photochemistry, commercial reverse osmosis membranes were dipped into an aqueous solution containing PFPA-terminated poly(ethyleneglycol) species and then exposed to ultraviolet light under ambient conditions, a process that can easily be adapted to a roll-to-roll process. Successful covalent modification of commercial reverse osmosis membranes was confirmed with attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. By employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it was determined that PFPAs undergo UV-generated nitrene addition and bind to the membrane through an aziridine linkage. After modification with the PFPA-PEG derivatives, the reverse osmosis membranes exhibit high fouling-resistance.
- [Influence of reverse osmosis concentrate on physicochemical parameters of Sini decoction material system and their relevance]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2014 Apr; 39(8):1421-5.
By studying the process of reverse osmosis system for traditional Chinese medicine materials physicochemical parameters affecting the osmotic pressure of its relevance, new compound system reverse osmosis process design methods were explored.Three concentrations materials for high, middle and low were dubbed with Sini decoction as a model drug, and pretreated by 50 thousand relative molecular weight cut-off ultrafiltration membrane. The viscosity, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, TDS, pH value and osmotic pressure of each sample were determined after the reverse osmosis to study the physical and chemical parameters between their respective correlations with the osmotic pressure, and characterized by HPLC chromatograms showing changes before and after the main chemical composition of samples of reverse osmosis.Conductivity-osmotic pressure, salinity-osmotic pressure of the linear correlation coefficient, TDS-osmotic pressure between the three sets of parameters were 0.963 8, 0.932 7, 0.973 7, respectively. Reverse osmosis concentrate and its characteristic spectrum ultrafiltrate HPLC similarity were up to 0. 968 or more, except the low concentrations. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between the three physicochemical parameters (conductivity, salinity, TDS) and osmotic pressure of each sample system, and there is also significant linear correlation between salinity, conductivity, TDS. The original chemical composition of Sini decoction material concentrate was completely remained after the process of reverse osmosis.
- Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Water Res 2014 Jul 7.
Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from <10 to 143 ng/L was observed at all but one site, but the reasons for the variation in formation remain unclear. Activated sludge, biological activated carbon (BAC), and UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation.
- Opportunities and challenges in application of forward osmosis in food processing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2014 Jul 18.
Abstract Food processing and preservation technologies must maintain the fresh like characteristics of the food while providing an acceptable and convenient shelf life as well as assuring safety and nutritional value. Besides, the consumers demand for highest quality convenience foods in terms of natural flavor and taste, free from additives and preservatives necessitated the development of a number of membrane based nonthermal approaches to the concentration of liquid foods, of which forward osmosis has proven to be most valuable. A series of recent publications in scientific journals have demonstrated novel and diverse uses of this technology for food processing, desalination, pharmaceuticals as well as for power generation. Its novel features, which include the concentration of liquid foods as at ambient temperature and pressure without significant fouling of membrane made the technology commercially attractive. This review aims to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. At the same time, it presents a comprehensive account of recent advances in forward osmosis technology as related to the major issues of concern in its rapidly growing applications in food processing such as concentration of fruits and vegetables juices (grape, pineapple, red raspberry, orange, tomato Juice and red radish juices) and natural food colorants (anthocyanin and betalains extracts). Several vibrant and vital issues such as recent developments in the forward osmosis membrane and concentration polarization aspects have also been addressed. The asymmetric membrane used for forward osmosis poses newer challenges to account both external and internal concentration polarization leading to significant reduction in flux. The recent advances and developments in forward osmosis membrane processes, mechanism of water transport, characteristics of draw solution and membranes as well as applications of forward osmosis in food processing have been discussed.
- Removal of pharmaceuticals from MWTP effluent by nanofiltration and solar photo-Fenton using two different iron complexes at neutral pH. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Water Res 2014 Jun 30.:23-31.
In recent years, membrane technologies (nanofiltration (NF)/reverse osmosis (RO)) have received much attention for micropollutant separation from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP) effluents. Practically all micropollutants are retained in the concentrate stream, which must be treated. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been demonstrated to be a good option for the removal of microcontaminants from water systems. However, these processes are expensive, and therefore, are usually combined with other techniques (such as membrane systems) in an attempt at cost reduction. One of the main costs in solar photo-Fenton comes from reagent consumption, mainly hydrogen peroxide and chemicals for pH adjustment. Thus, in this study, solar photo-Fenton was used to treat a real MWTP effluent with low initial iron (less than 0.2 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (less than 2 mM) concentrations. In order to work at neutral pH, iron complexing agents (EDDS and citrate) were used in the two cases studied: direct treatment of the MWTP effluent and treatment of the concentrate stream generated by NF. The degradation of five pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, flumequine, ibuprofen, ofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole) spiked in the effluent at low initial concentrations (μg L(-1)) was monitored as the main variable in the pilot-plant-scale photo-Fenton experiments. In both effluents, pharmaceuticals were efficiently removed (>90%), requiring low accumulated solar energy (2 kJUV L(-1), key parameter in scaling up the CPC photoreactor) and low iron and hydrogen peroxide concentrations (reagent costs, 0.1 and 1.5 mM, respectively). NF provided a clean effluent, and the concentrate was positively treated by solar photo-Fenton with no significant differences between the direct MWTP effluent and NF concentrate treatments.