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pestis fulminans [keywords]
- IRB Reformation: Is Unfettered Access the Answer? [Journal Article]
- Nurs Sci Q 2015 Jan; 28(1):13-7.
The purpose of this column is to consider if research using only an interview should be evaluated by an institutional review board (IRB) or if it may be considered exempt. A review of atrocities committed by researchers both in the biomedical and psychosocial domains will be considered as a backdrop to the discussion. Issues that plague IRBs will be examined including lack of transparency, overreach of the process, and stipulations that change the nature of research. Finally, recommendations for reform will be entertained.
- Yoga as an alternative intervention for promoting a healthy lifestyle among college students. [Journal Article]
- J Addict Nurs 2014 Oct; 25(4):167-71.
Substance use and abuse continues to plague U.S. college campuses. The literature is replete with information from various disciplines on how to identify and intervene in this public health dilemma impacting college students. Identifications, treatments, and interventions are often based on Western medicine, but there is a growing movement and evidence supporting the effectiveness, value, and usefulness of Eastern therapies to combat this problem. Yoga is one Eastern intervention that has proven beneficial for promoting quality of life and wellness relationship to several acute and chronic illnesses. As a result of advocating for the inclusion of yoga in traditional college settings, two college campuses in Central Illinois introduced yoga courses for students, faculty, and staff. The courses are reviewed, and the positive results reported by students are shared. The information and evidence of yoga's benefits collected in this study warrant consideration by college campuses to initiate this practice enhancing primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in their populations.
- Emergency animal diseases bulletin: crayfish plague. [News]
- Aust Vet J 2014 Nov; 92(11):N8-9.
- SERI Surgical Scaffold as an Adjunct for Circumferential Abdominoplasty and Lower Body Lift. [Journal Article]
- Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2014 Nov; 2(11):e244.
Patients who have undergone massive weight loss typically have poor-quality skin and fascia and thus are prone to experiencing recurrent skin laxity, bulges, and poor scarring after body contouring efforts, even in the hands of experienced surgeons. Moreover, this challenging patient population often has nutritional deficiencies and concomitant medical problems, which may lead to delayed or suboptimal wound healing. A silk-derived biological scaffold (SBS) and its facilitation of autogenous tissue generation may be viewed as a qualitative reinforcement of the superficial fascial system. Therefore, it may help support and stabilize a superficial fascial system that has been weakened by obesity and other factors. When employed in body lifting for patients with massive weight loss who desire long-lasting aesthetic results, it may represent a paradigm shift that has the potential to solve at least some issues that plague this patient population. In the present case of circumferential abdominoplasty and lower body lift, this silk-based bioresorbable scaffold was implanted in one side of the patient's body but not the other. Throughout the 7-month follow-up period, the patient and her husband (who were blinded as to which side received the SBS) and the author consistently observed more favorable results for the SBS side, which included greater postoperative comfort, better shape, higher buttock position, less recurrent laxity, and less descent of the scar.
- Assessment of the Contamination of Some Foodstuffs by Escherichia coli O157 in Benin, West Africa. [Journal Article]
- Int J Microbiol 2014.:417848.
Escherichia coli O157 is a pathogenic bacterium causing haemorrhagic colitis. It represents a serious public health problem in Northern America and Europe, which can plague Africa. Most cases of mentioned poisoning were related to contaminated meat products and vegetables. The present work aimed to estimate the prevalence of E. coli O157 in meat and vegetables in Benin. For this purpose, 6 lots of faeces samples from pigs and 8 from cattle were collected at the farms on the outskirts of Cotonou. Similarly, 20 samples of carcasses, 20 samples of intestines and stomach, and 20 surfaces samples of slaughtering equipment were taken. Vegetables and environment materials in gardens have also been sampled for 84 samples. Bacteriological analyses revealed a percentage of contamination of 50% for pig faeces and 25% for cattle ones. All the meats from stalling parks have been contaminated by this bacterium. For vegetables, 14.6% of samples were contaminated by E. coli O157. The presence of this pathovar in animal breeding and slaughtering environment and in the gardens shows that Benin is not aware of the risks of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of contaminated products. Therefore, it urges including that germ in a systematic search during safety control of food products in Benin.
- Hypoxia-cultured human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are non-oncogenic and have enhanced viability, motility, and tropism to brain cancer. [Journal Article]
- Cell Death Dis 2014.:e1567.
Adult human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) are multipotent cells, which are abundant, easily collected, and bypass the ethical concerns that plague embryonic stem cells. Their utility and accessibility have led to the rapid development of clinical investigations to explore their autologous and allogeneic cellular-based regenerative potential, tissue preservation capabilities, anti-inflammatory properties, and anticancer properties, among others. hAMSCs are typically cultured under ambient conditions with 21% oxygen. However, physiologically, hAMSCs exist in an environment of much lower oxygen tension. Furthermore, hAMSCs cultured in standard conditions have shown limited proliferative and migratory capabilities, as well as limited viability. This study investigated the effects hypoxic culture conditions have on primary intraoperatively derived hAMSCs. hAMSCs cultured under hypoxia (hAMSCs-H) remained multipotent, capable of differentiation into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. In addition, hAMSCs-H grew faster and exhibited less cell death. Furthermore, hAMSCs-H had greater motility than normoxia-cultured hAMSCs and exhibited greater homing ability to glioblastoma (GBM) derived from brain tumor-initiating cells from our patients in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, hAMSCs-H did not transform into tumor-associated fibroblasts in vitro and were not tumorigenic in vivo. Rather, hAMSCs-H promoted the differentiation of brain cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest an alternative culturing technique that can enhance the function of hAMSCs, which may be necessary for their use in the treatment of various pathologies including stroke, myocardial infarction, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and GBM.
- [Identification on host animals for plague by DNA barcoding technology in Shaanxi province]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2014 Sep; 35(9):1042-5.
To apply the DNA barcoding technology for identification on host animal and to establish the host animal DNA bar code database on natural foci of plague in Shaanxi.139 host animals belonging to 3 orders, 6 families and 12 genera and 62 residues belonging to 7 species from 8 different parts of the province, were detected. DNA barcoding technology was used to analyze the DNA CO I gene sequence on the natural foci of plague in Dingbian county.The intra-specific genetic distance was less than 2% while the inter-specific distance ranged from 8.9% to 15.1%. Fourteen major clusters were apparently showed on a Neighbor-Joining tree. Residue samples could be detected regarding the objective gene. Alashan ground squirrel was previously noticed to carry 14 major clusters, which were previously mistakenly named as Citellus dauricus in Dingbian county.DNA barcoding technology could overcome the shortcomings caused by the morphological identification so could be used to identify the host animal and residues in the natural focus of plague.
- Malarial pathocoenosis: beneficial and deleterious interactions between malaria and other human diseases. [Journal Article, Review]
- Front Physiol 2014.:441.
In nature, organisms are commonly infected by an assemblage of different parasite species or by genetically distinct parasite strains that interact in complex ways. Linked to co-infections, pathocoenosis, a term proposed by M. Grmek in 1969, refers to a pathological state arising from the interactions of diseases within a population and to the temporal and spatial dynamics of all of the diseases. In the long run, malaria was certainly one of the most important component of past pathocoenoses. Today this disease, which affects hundreds of millions of individuals and results in approximately one million deaths each year, is always highly endemic in over 20% of the world and is thus co-endemic with many other diseases. Therefore, the incidences of co-infections and possible direct and indirect interactions with Plasmodium parasites are very high. Both positive and negative interactions between malaria and other diseases caused by parasites belonging to numerous taxa have been described and in some cases, malaria may modify the process of another disease without being affected itself. Interactions include those observed during voluntary malarial infections intended to cure neuro-syphilis or during the enhanced activations of bacterial gastro-intestinal diseases and HIV infections. Complex relationships with multiple effects should also be considered, such as those observed during helminth infections. Moreover, reports dating back over 2000 years suggested that co- and multiple infections have generally deleterious consequences and analyses of historical texts indicated that malaria might exacerbate both plague and cholera, among other diseases. Possible biases affecting the research of etiological agents caused by the protean manifestations of malaria are discussed. A better understanding of the manner by which pathogens, particularly Plasmodium, modulate immune responses is particularly important for the diagnosis, cure, and control of diseases in human populations.
- Comparison of virulence between the Yersinia pestis Microtus 201, an avirulent strain to humans, and the vaccine strain EV in rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Vaccin Immunother 2014 Nov 1.:e35119.
Our previous study has demonstrated that Yersinia pestis Microtus 201 is a low virulent strain to the Chinese-origin rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, and can protect it against high dose of virulent Y. pestis challenge by subcutaneous route. To investigate whether the Y. pestis Microtus 201 can be used as a live attenuated vaccine candidate, in this study its intravenous virulence was determined and compared with the live attenuated vaccine strain EV in the Chinese-origin rhesus macaque model. The results showed that the Chinese-origin rhesus macaques can survive intravenous infection with approximately 109 CFU of the Y. pestis Microtus 201, but all the animals succumbed to 1010 CFU of intravenous infection. By contrast, all the animals survive intravenous infection with 1010 CFU of the vaccine EV. Post-mortem examination showed multiple areas of severe abscess in the lungs of the dead animals infected with 1010 CFU of the Y. pestis Microtus 201, whereas histopathology observation, microbiological examination and immunohistochemistry staining showed that the Y. pestis Microtus 201 also invaded hearts, livers, spleens, kidneys and lymph nodes and caused different degrees of pathological changes in these organs. These results indicated that the Y. pestis Microtus 201 is indeed low virulent to monkeys, but it is more virulent than the vaccine EV when administered by intravenous route. The Y. pestis Microtus 201 mainly attack the lungs when administered by intravenous infection, which may be the leading cause of animal death.
- Armies of Pestilence: CNS Infections as Potential Weapons of Mass Destruction. [REVIEW]
- AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2014 Dec 4.
Infectious agents have been investigated, developed, and used by both governments and terrorist groups as weapons of mass destruction. CNS infections, though traditionally considered less often than respiratory diseases in this scenario, may be very important. Viruses responsible for encephalitides can be highly infectious in aerosol form. CNS involvement in anthrax is ominous but should change treatment. Brucellosis, plague, Q fever, and other bacteria can uncommonly manifest with meningoencephalitis and other findings. Emerging diseases may also pose threats. We review infectious agents of particular concern for purposes of biowarfare with respect to CNS manifestations and imaging features.