(pestis fulminans) articles in PubMed
- Distribution Characteristics of Spermophilus dauricus in Manchuria City in China in 2015 through '3S' Technology. [Journal Article]
- Biomed Environ Sci 2016; 29(8):603-608BE
- Plague is a virulent infectious disease in China. In this study, '3S' technology was used to perform spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial interpolation analysis for Spermophilus dauricus (S. ...
Plague is a virulent infectious disease in China. In this study, '3S' technology was used to perform spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial interpolation analysis for Spermophilus dauricus (S. Dauricus, a species of ground squirrel) captured in Manchuria City in 2015. The results were visually inspected. During the two-month (May to July) plague surveillance in 2015, 198 S. dauricus individuals were captured in the study area in Manchuria City (48 monitoring areas) by using a day-by-day catching method. Spatial autocorrelation was conducted using the ArcGIS software, and the following significantly different results were obtained: Moran's I=0.228472, Z-score=2.889126, and P<0.05. Thus, a spatial aggregation was observed. In 2015, the distribution of S. dauricus diminished from west to east and from north to south of Manchuria. Geo Detector software was used to analyze the habitat factors affecting the spatial distribution of S. dauricus. This highly clustered species mainly exists in suburban communities, construction sites, and areas surrounding factories. In future studies, plague surveillances should be performed in areas around Manchuria and Zhalainuoer.
- Stable expression of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 O-antigen genes integrated into the chromosome of live Salmonella oral vaccine vector Ty21a. [Journal Article]
- Pathog Dis 2016 Sep 20PD
- Typhoid fever and shigellosis cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet no anti-Shigella vaccine is currently available. However, to protect against typhoid fever, an approved vaccine, based ...
Typhoid fever and shigellosis cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet no anti-Shigella vaccine is currently available. However, to protect against typhoid fever, an approved vaccine, based on the attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a is available. We have investigated Ty21a as a live oral vaccine vector for expression of heterologous foreign antigens to protect against other diseases (e.g. shigellosis, anthrax, and plague). Shigella LPS is a potent vaccine antigen for serotype-specific protection against Shigellae. We previously reported the construction of a Ty21a derivative expressing S. sonnei O-antigen by insertion of a large (∼12.5 kb) operon comprising the S. sonnei O-antigen biosynthetic genes into a targeted site within the Ty21a chromosome using modified λ red recombineering methods. In the current study, S. dysenteriae 1 O-antigen biosynthetic genes from 2 separate genetic loci, rfp and rfb were assembled and inserted into the Ty21a chromosome by λ red-mediated recombineering to construct strain Ty21a-Sd. To obtain a high level of heterologous LPS expression, the native upstream promoter was replaced with the constitutive lpp promoter, which resulted in Ty21a-Sdl with enhanced heterologous LPS expression. Both Ty21a-Sd and Ty21a-Sdl elicited significant serum antibody responses in mice against both Ty21a and this heterologous Shigella LPS, and conferred protection against virulent S. dysenteriae 1 challenge. This work represents progress toward the goal of a safe and effective vaccine against Shigella.
- Cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea. [Journal Article]
- Curr Opin Cardiol 2016 Sep 20CO
- CONCLUSIONS: The mortality and morbidity associated with OSA are reduced in patients well managed with PAP. However, we await the results of large randomized clinical trials to definitely determine whether PAP reduces the rate of cardiovascular events. Current efforts aimed at identifying biomarkers in OSA may offer a strategy for personalized treatment plans of OSA patients.
- Alternative Locales for the Health Promotion of African American Men: A Survey of African American Men in Chicago Barbershops. [Journal Article]
- J Community Health 2016 Sep 20JC
- African American men (AA) carry unequal burdens of several conditions including cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV. Engagement of diverse populations including AA men in research and health prom...
African American men (AA) carry unequal burdens of several conditions including cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV. Engagement of diverse populations including AA men in research and health promotion practice is vital to examining the health disparities that continue to plague many racially and ethnically diverse communities. To date, there is little research on best practices that indicate locations, community areas and settings to engage AA men in research and health promotion. Traditionally, the AA church has been a key area to engage AA men and women. However, changing tides in attendance of AA parishioners require additional information to identify areas where AAs, particularly, AA men congregate. The AA barbershop has been identified as a place of social cohesion, cultural immersion and solidarity for AA men but specific sub-populations of AA men may be underrepresented. To further investigate additional locales where AA men congregate, this study engaged AA barbers and clients in several urban community barbershops in Chicago, Illinois. 127 AA men over age 18y/o receiving grooming services in 25 Chicago area barbershops across 14 predominantly AA communities were consented and recruited for a quantitative survey study. The self-administered surveys were completed in ~15 min and $10 compensation was provided to men. Descriptive statistics were reported for demographic variables and for frequency of responses for locations to find AA men of specific age ranges for health promotion and screening activities. Outside of the traditionally used churches or barbershops, the top recommended recruitment sites by age were: 18-29y/o- city park or a recreational center; 30-39y/o- gym, bars or the street; 40-49y/o- various stores, especially home improvement stores, and the mall; and 50y/o+- fast food restaurants in the mornings, such as McDonalds, and individual's homes. The study participants also reported that locations where AA men congregate vary by age. Findings from this study illustrate that AA barbers and barbershops remain a key stakeholder in health promotion among AA men. The findings also demonstrate the need for additional research to examine best practices for identifying locations where diverse groups of AA men that vary by age and sexual orientation may congregate in order to support increased health promotion among AA men.
- [Inventory of unsafe abortions: retrospective study of 451 cases treated in Moulay Ismail Military Hospital of instruction, Meknes, Morocco]. [Journal Article]
- Pan Afr Med J 2016; 24:83PA
- Unsafe abortion is a plague spreading around the world but especially in Africa where it is a lucrative market for traditional practitioners which exposes patients to serious complications including ...
Unsafe abortion is a plague spreading around the world but especially in Africa where it is a lucrative market for traditional practitioners which exposes patients to serious complications including death. Our retrospective study of 451 cases represent an exhaustive sample of this practice in Morocco exploring the reasons why women experience an unsafe abortion, what age group is most affected, conditions and complications inherent in this practice. Our study focuses on the need for intervention before pregnancy by developing the concept of contraception among girls from their early years to minimize these non-health practices.
- Boils-A Modern Take on the Plague of Egypt. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Dermatol 2016 Sep 1; 152(9):991JD
- Microbial Genomics of Ancient Plagues and Outbreaks. [Review]
- Trends Microbiol 2016 Sep 8TM
- The recent use of next-generation sequencing methods to investigate historical disease outbreaks has provided us with an unprecedented ability to address important and long-standing questions in epid...
The recent use of next-generation sequencing methods to investigate historical disease outbreaks has provided us with an unprecedented ability to address important and long-standing questions in epidemiology, pathogen evolution, and human history. In this review, we present major findings that illustrate how microbial genomics has provided new insights into the nature and etiology of infectious diseases of historical importance, such as plague, tuberculosis, and leprosy. Sequenced isolates collected from archaeological remains also provide evidence for the timing of historical evolutionary events as well as geographic spread of these pathogens. Elucidating the genomic basis of virulence in historical diseases can provide relevant information on how we can effectively understand the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases today and in the future.
- Molecular history of plague. [Review]
- Clin Microbiol Infect 2016 Sep 8CM
- Plague, a deadly zoonose caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been firmly documented in 39 historical burial sites in Eurasia that date from the Bronze Age to the two historical pandemics spa...
Plague, a deadly zoonose caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been firmly documented in 39 historical burial sites in Eurasia that date from the Bronze Age to the two historical pandemics spanning from the 6(th) to the 18th century. Paleomicrobiological data, including gene and spacer sequences, whole genome sequences and proteins data confirmed that two historical pandemics swept over Europe from probable Asian sources and possible two-way ticket journeys back from Europe to Asia. These investigations made it possible to address questions regarding the potential sources and routes of transmission by completing the standard rodent and rodent-flea scheme. This suggested that plague was transmissible by human ectoparasites such as lice, and that Y. pestis was able to persist for months in the soil, which is a source of reinfection for burrowing mammals. The analyses of seven complete genome sequences from the Bronze Age indicated that Y. pestis was probably not an ectoparasite-borne pathogen in these populations. Further analyses of 14 genomes indicated that the Justinian pandemic strains may have formed a clade distinct from the one responsible for the second pandemic, spanning in the Y. pestis branch 1 which also comprises of the third pandemic strains. Further paleomicrobiology studies must tightly connect with historical and anthropological studies in order to resolve questions regarding the actual sources of plague in ancient populations, alternative routes of transmission and resistance traits. Answering these questions will broaden our concepts on plague epidemiology to face the actuality of this deadly infection in epidemic countries.
- [Ancient Yersinia pestis genomes for tracing the origins and spreading of plague past epidemics]. [Journal Article]
- Med Sci (Paris) 2016 8-9; 32(8-9):681-3MS
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- Plazomicin is effective in a non-human primate pneumonic plague model. [Journal Article]
- Bioorg Med Chem 2016 Aug 27BM
- The efficacy of plazomicin for pneumonic plague was evaluated in a non-human primate model. African Green monkeys challenged with a lethal aerosol of Yersinia pestis [median (range) of 98 (15-331) LD...
The efficacy of plazomicin for pneumonic plague was evaluated in a non-human primate model. African Green monkeys challenged with a lethal aerosol of Yersinia pestis [median (range) of 98 (15-331) LD50s] received placebo (n=12) or 'humanized' dose regimens (6.25, 12.5 or 25mg/kg every 24h) of plazomicin (n=52) after the onset of fever for a duration of 5 or 10days. All animals treated with placebo died, while 36 plazomicin-treated animals survived through study end. The majority (33/36) were either in the 10-day (high-/mid-/low-dose) or 5-day high-dose groups. The findings suggest an exposure range of plazomicin for treatment of pneumonic/bacteremic Y. pestis infection in humans.