- Embracing Medical Education's Global Mission. [Journal Article]
- AMAcad Med 2016 Oct 4
- Shortages of trained health care workers plague low- and middle-income countries around the world. When resources are scarce, the ability to support medical education is severely constrained. While t...
Shortages of trained health care workers plague low- and middle-income countries around the world. When resources are scarce, the ability to support medical education is severely constrained. While there are many important "building blocks" of health systems that need to be bolstered in low- and middle-income countries, the authors propose that U.S. academic medicine can make unique contributions in the realm of human resource development-specifically, increasing the supply of physicians who directly provide health care to the populations they serve and who often manage and lead these health systems. Strengthening medical education in low- and middle-income countries is critical to improving the quantity and quality of physicians to staff and lead these health systems. The authors provide specific examples of how U.S. institutions are pursuing this global endeavor, including the Academic Partnership Providing Access to Healthcare in Kenya, the Medical Education Partnership Initiative throughout Africa, partnerships between U.S. medical schools and with institutions in Qatar and Singapore, and postgraduate medical education efforts in Vietnam and Haiti. They urge that the U.S. academic medicine community embrace this challenge as part of its mission to ensure that all those who, wherever they may live, have the ability, the dedication, and the compassion to pursue a career in medicine be given the opportunity to do so.
- Characterization of duck plague virus stability at extreme conditions of temperature, pH and salt concentration. [Journal Article]
- BBiologicals 2016 Oct 13
- Duck plaque virus (DPV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the ducks from DPV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major ca...
Duck plaque virus (DPV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the ducks from DPV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major causes of DPV outbreaks in the field condition. DPV is not well characterized for its pathogenicity and molecular biology in poultry. In the present study, we discuss briefly about the biology of DPV and its proteins under different conditions of temperature and pH in order to evaluate its infectivity under adverse physical conditions. Our results indicate that the DPV is non-infective above 42 °C and unstable above 65 °C. In addition, change in pH or salt concentrations significantly decreases the stability of the DPV. The study will be useful in estimating an optimum storage condition for DPV vaccines without causing any deterioration in its viability and effectiveness.
- Intranasal delivery of a protein subunit vaccine using a Tobacco Mosaic Virus platform protects against pneumonic plague. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2016 Oct 13
- Yersinia pestis, one of history's deadliest pathogens, has killed millions over the course of human history. It has attributes that make it an ideal choice to produce mass casualties and is a prime c...
Yersinia pestis, one of history's deadliest pathogens, has killed millions over the course of human history. It has attributes that make it an ideal choice to produce mass casualties and is a prime candidate for use as a biological weapon. When aerosolized, Y. pestis causes pneumonic plague, a pneumonia that is 100% lethal if not promptly treated with effective antibiotics. Currently, there is no FDA approved plague vaccine. The current lead vaccine candidate, a parenterally administered protein subunit vaccine comprised of the Y. pestis virulence factors, F1 and LcrV, demonstrated variable levels of protection in primate pneumonic plague models. As the most likely mode of exposure in biological attack with Y. pestis is by aerosol, this raises a question of whether this parenteral vaccine will adequately protect humans against pneumonic plague. In the present study we evaluated two distinct mucosal delivery platforms for the intranasal (IN) administration of LcrV and F1 vaccine proteins, a live bacterial vector, Lactobacillus plantarum, and a Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) based delivery platform. IN administration of L. plantarum expressing LcrV, or TMV-conjugated to LcrV and F1 (TMV-LcrV+TMV-F1) resulted in the similar induction of high titers of IgG antibodies and evidence of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. However, only the TMV-conjugate delivery platform protected against subsequent lethal challenge with Y. pestis. TMV-LcrV+TMV-F1 co-vaccinated mice had no discernable morbidity and no mortality, while mice vaccinated with L. plantarum expressing LcrV or rLcrV+rF1 without TMV succumbed to infection or were only partially protected. Thus, TMV is a suitable mucosal delivery platform for an F1-LcrV subunit vaccine that induces complete protection against pneumonic infection with a lethal dose of Y. pestis in mice.
- Cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Cardiol 2016; 31(6):599-605
- CONCLUSIONS: The mortality and morbidity associated with OSA are reduced in patients well managed with PAP. However, we await the results of large randomized clinical trials to definitely determine whether PAP reduces the rate of cardiovascular events. Current efforts aimed at identifying biomarkers in OSA may offer a strategy for personalized treatment plans of OSA patients.
- Disease Outbreaks as Vehicles for Exploring 'Engaged Citizen' Themes through a Course on the History of Infectious Diseases. [Journal Article]
- FMFEMS Microbiol Lett 2016 Oct 14
- Infectious diseases are potential catalysts for exploring 'engaged citizen' or socioscientific themes given their interwoven economic, political, scientific, and social dimensions. This article descr...
Infectious diseases are potential catalysts for exploring 'engaged citizen' or socioscientific themes given their interwoven economic, political, scientific, and social dimensions. This article describes how an undergraduate course on the history of infectious diseases was modified to explore the impact of two 'engaged citizen' themes (poverty and technology), and to consider the ramifications of those themes on past, present, and future infectious disease outbreaks. Four outbreaks were used as the foundation for the course: plague (1350s), puerperal fever (1840s), cholera (1850s), and syphilis (1930s). The first part of the article describes the general course structure and the role of University-wide 'engaged citizen' themes in its semester-specific construction. The second part of the article demonstrates how poverty and technology 'threads' were explored in each of the four historical contexts, and subsequently how they were considered in current and future contexts; appendices with lesson suggestions are provided. The third and final part of the article discusses how this specific model might be more broadly applied to other microbiology instructional contexts.
- Effects of substrate salinity on oviposition, embryonic development and survival in the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker). [Journal Article]
- JIJ Insect Physiol 2016 Oct 11
- The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker), is an important agricultural pest that oviposits into soil across vast semi-arid and arid regions. This study aimed to determine wheth...
The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker), is an important agricultural pest that oviposits into soil across vast semi-arid and arid regions. This study aimed to determine whether gravid female locusts can discriminate among substrates of increasing salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 ppt NaCl) when attempting oviposition, and quantify the effects of saline substrate on direct developing egg viability, and subsequent hatchling nymph body weight and survival. Gravid female locusts increasingly excavated and withdrew prior to completing oviposition in substrates of increasing salinity, but similar numbers of completed egg pods were observed across treatments. Egg weight at 50% total development time and successful egg development to nymph emergence decreased with increasing substrate salinity. Water balance equilibrium between the egg and the substrate occurred at approximately 12 ppt NaCl corresponding to a water activity of ∼0.995. Eggs oviposited into sand containing ⩽ 12 ppt NaCl weighed ⩾ 6.26 ± 0.91 mg and had ⩾ 76.8% successful development to nymph emergence. Eggs oviposited into sand containing > 12 ppt NaCl weighed ⩽ 5.16 ± 1.27 mg and had ⩽ 45.6% successful development to nymph emergence. Hatchling nymph body weight and survival to second instar also decreased with increasing substrate salinity. Nymphs that hatched and emerged from sand containing ⩽ 12 ppt NaCl weighed ⩾ 5.55 ± 0.43 mg at emergence and had ⩾ 68.9% survival. Nymphs that hatched and emerged from sand containing > 12 ppt NaCl weighed ⩽ 5.28 ± 0.67 mg at emergence and had ⩽ 52.0% survival. These results indicate that C. terminifera is sufficiently resilient to develop and survive in saline substrates over most of their range.
- History of Antibiotics Research. [Journal Article]
- CTCurr Top Microbiol Immunol 2016 Oct 15
- For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the a...
For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set. Then new discoveries accelerated rapidly: Bacteria could be isolated and cultured and were identified as possible agents of diseases as well as producers of bioactive metabolites. At the same time the first synthetic antibiotics were developed and shortly thereafter, thousands of synthetic substances as well as millions of soil borne bacteria and fungi were screened for bioactivity within numerous microbial laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. New antibiotic classes with different targets were discovered as on assembly line production. With the beginning of the twentieth century, many of the diseases which reached epidemic proportions at the time-e.g., cholera, syphilis, plague, tuberculosis, or typhoid fever, just to name a few, could be combatted with new discovered antibiotics. It should be considered that hundred years ago the market launch of new antibiotics was significantly faster and less complicated than today (where it takes 10-12 years in average between the discovery of a new antibiotic until the launch). After the first euphoria it was quickly realized that bacteria are able to develop, acquire, and spread numerous resistance mechanisms. Whenever a new antibiotic reached the market it did not take long until scientists observed the first resistant germs. Since the marketing of the first antibiotic there is a neck-on-neck race between scientists who discover natural or develop semisynthetic and synthetic bioactive molecules and bacteria, which have developed resistance mechanisms. The emphasis of this chapter is to give an overview of the history of antibiotics research. The situation within the pre-antibiotic era as well as in the early antibiotic era will be described until the Golden Age of Antibiotics will conclude this time travel. The most important antibiotic classes, information about their discovery, activity spectrum, mode of action, resistance mechanisms, and current application will be presented.
- Reconstructing the Sixth Century Plague from a Victim. [Journal Article]
- MBMol Biol Evol 2016; 33(11):3028-3029
- Demographic Patterns Distinctive of Epidemic Cemeteries in Archaeological Samples. [Journal Article]
- MSMicrobiol Spectr 2016; 4(4)
- The analysis of biological parameters such as age and sex is particularly relevant to the interpretation of ancient skeletal assemblages related to abrupt mortality crises, and more particularly epid...
The analysis of biological parameters such as age and sex is particularly relevant to the interpretation of ancient skeletal assemblages related to abrupt mortality crises, and more particularly epidemics. In such a context, the mechanisms of selection within a population or part of a population differ according to the pathogen involved. They may also vary depending on the period and location in which the population lived. Here, we illustrate the specificity of plague mortality through the study of several European burial sites contemporary with the first and second plague pandemics. The paleodemographic patterns obtained for different plague outbreaks from the 6th to the 16th centuries reveal some constant features over time and space as well as some differences that suggest a possible evolution in the epidemiological characteristics of the disease.
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- Paleopathology of Human Infections: Old Bones, Antique Books, Ancient and Modern Molecules. [Journal Article]
- MSMicrobiol Spectr 2016; 4(4)
- Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of...
Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of paleogenetics methods to microbial aDNA, that started in the 90s combined to the recent development of new sequencing techniques allowing 'paleogenomics' approaches, have completely renewed the issue of the infections in the past. These advances open up new challenges in the understanding of the evolution of human-pathogen relationships, integrated in "One Health" concept.In this perspective, an integrative multidisciplinary approach combining data from ancient texts and old bones to those of old molecules is of great interest for reconstructing the past of human infections. Despite some too optimistic prediction of their eradication in the late 20th century, some of these ancient human diseases, such as plague, leprosy or tuberculosis, are still present and continue their evolution at the beginning of this 21rst century. Better know the past to predict a part of the future of human diseases remains, more than ever, the motto of the paleopathological science.