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pestis fulminans [keywords]
- [Analysis on the results of etiology and serology of plague in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Feb; 48(2):124-7.
To analyze the results of etiology and serology of plague among human and infected animals in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010.Thirty-seven cases of human infected with plague, 53 541 different animal samples, 5 685 sets of vector insects flea and 49 039 different animal serum samples were obtained between 2001 and 2010. A total of 7 811 samples of serum from healthy farmers and herdsmen in 14 counties in Qinghai from 2005 to 2007 were collected. Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) were detected in visceral and secretions from human, infected animals and vector insects, respectively. Plague antigen was detected by reverse indirect hemagglutination assay (RIHA) in those samples. Indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) was used to test plague FI antibody in serum of human and infected animals.37 human plague cases were confirmed, 21 strains of plague Y. pestis were isolated from human cases and 14 positive were detected out. 133 of 7 811 samples of human serum were IHA positive, with the positive rate at 1.7%. A total of 146 strains of plague were isolated from infected animals and vector insects, 99 out of which were from infected animals, with a ratio of Marmota himalayana at 72.7% (72/99) and the other 47 were from vector insects, with a ratio of callopsylla dolaris at 68.1% (32/47). The number of IHA and PIHA positive were 300 and 10, respectively. A total of 3 animals and 3 insects species were identified as new epidemic hosts for plague. The natural plague focus of Microtus fuscus was discovered and confirmed and coexisted with natural focus of Marmota himalayana in Chengduo county, Yushu prefecture. The epidemic situation of plague is distributed mainly in Haixi, Yushu and Hainan prefectures.From 2001 to 2010, animal infected with plague was detected in successive years and human plague was very common in Qinghai. New infected animals and vector insects species and new epidemic areas were confirmed, hence the trend of plague prevalence for humans and animals is very active in Qinghai province.
- Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the peruvian Amazon. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2014.:4719.
The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.
- Changes in the synganglion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to permethrin: An ultrastructural overview. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Trop 2014 Apr 15.
This study performed the ultra-structural analysis of the changes caused by permethrin in the synganglion of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, aiming to understand the toxic action of this substance at cellular level. The results showed that the neural lamella had its structure changed, allowing the influx of the toxic agent into the nervous tissue. The glial cells of the perineurium, as well as the neural cells of the cortex showed great changes, such as: irregular nuclei with chromatin margination, cytoplasmic vacuolation and degenerating mitochondria. These changes showed that the permethrin would be able to induce the degeneration of the synganglion through an atypical death process, involving apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, a dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the neural cells, suggesting an intense synthesis of the hydrolytic enzymes that would be used in the processes of degradation of the damaged cellular structures (formation of lysosomes). The subperineurium and the neuropile also showed alterations in their structures. Thus, it is suggested that permethrin is a dose-dependent compound able to impair the metabolism of the organism as a whole, once all the other organs and body structures are directly dependent of the neural control. The information obtained in this study can be used in the improvement of the control methods which use permethrin as active substance, helping in the creation of a really efficient acaricide product to fight this important urban plague.
- Health in post-black death London (1350-1538): Age patterns of periosteal new bone formation in a post-epidemic population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Phys Anthropol 2014 Apr 17.
Previous research has shown that the Black Death targeted older adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. This project investigates whether this selectivity of the Black Death, combined with post-epidemic rising standards of living, led to significant improvements in patterns of skeletal stress markers, and by inference in health, among survivors and their descendants. Patterns of periosteal lesions (which have been previously shown, using hazard analysis, to be associated with elevated risks of mortality in medieval London) are compared between samples from pre-Black Death (c. 1,000-1,300, n = 464) and post-Black Death (c. 1,350-1,538, n = 133) London cemeteries. To avoid the assumptions that stress markers alone provide a direct measure of health and that a change in frequencies of the stress marker by itself indicates changes in health, this study assesses age-patterns of the stress marker to obtain a more nuanced understanding of the population-level effects of an epidemic disease. Age-at-death in these samples is estimated using transition analysis, which provides point estimates of age even for the oldest adults in these samples and thus allows for an examination of physiological stress across the lifespan. The frequency of lesions is significantly higher in the post-Black Death sample, which, at face value, might indicate a general decline in health. However, a significant positive association between age and periosteal lesions, as well as a significantly higher number of older adults in the post-Black Death sample more likely suggests improvements in health following the epidemic. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- [Genotyping and its epidemiological significance on Yunnan Yersinia pestis under Fse I enzyme digestion method.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2014 Feb; 35(2):182-185.
To create the fingerprint library of Yunnan Yersinia pestis by pulse field gel electrophoresis(PFGE)with Fse I enzyme digestion method and to study its epidemiological significance.We used rare cutting restriction enzyme Fse? to digest Yunnan Yersinia pestis strains that were isolated from foci including Rattus flavipectus Plague Focus,Apodemus chevrieri-Eothenomys miletus Plague Focus and Yulong Plague Focus. Fingerprints to Bionumerics software were used for cluster analysis.30 tested strains were divided into 16 genotypes with the similarity value as 79.8%-100.0% . 16 genotypes wee formed into 4 clusters, with one consisted of only EV76 while the other three belonged to Rattus flavipectus,Apodemus chevrieri- Eothenomys miletus and Yulong clusters, respectively.PFGE genotypes of Yunnan Yersinia pestis accorded with its ecotypes and biovars, with clustered regional features. The strains isolated from Yulong showed an unique PFGE type, indicating a new clone group was identified.
- [Sources of infection on human plague in Qinghai province]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2014 Feb; 35(2):178-81.
To study the biological and genetic characteristics of 119 strains of Yersinia (Y.) pestis isolated from plague patients in Qinghai province, from 1958-2012.Both regular methods and different region(DFR)molecular typing techniques were used to study the epidemiological characteristics on 119 strains of Y. pestisin Qinghai during 1958-2012. Sources of Y. pestis from two outbreaks, in Nangqian county in 2004 and in Xinghai county in 2009,Qinghai province were also analyzed.105 strains of Y. pestis were identified as Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Ecotype while the other 6 strains as Qilian Mountains Ecotype. 84.03% (100/119) of the tested strains carried 4 virulence factors F1(+), Pst I(+), VW(+) and Pgm(+)). 97.30% (72/74) of the tested strains showed high virulence. Strains that carrying 52×10(6), 65×10(6), 92×10(6) plasmids were distributed in Hainan, Haibei, Haixi,Yushu,Guoluo, Huangnan and Huangyuan counties. Genomovar 5 and 8 were the main genetypes that circling around Qinghai Lake. Genomovar 10 was found in strains of Y. pestisin Nangqian county while Genomovar 8 was found in the strains isolated from human plague patient during the epidemics in Xinghai county in Qinghai.Data from biological and genetic analyses on the epidemics of human plague in Nangqian county in 2004 and in Xinghai county in 2009 demonstrated that methods as DFR genotyping and virulence factors profiles, as well as plasmids profiles were powerful tools in confirming the human plague epidemics and sources of infection.
- [Application of Best Subsets Regression on the risk classification for Spermophilus Dauricus Focus]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2014 Feb; 35(2):170-3.
To study the risk classification of animal plague in Spermophilus Dauricus Focus, using the Best Subsets Regression (BSR) model.Matlab, BSR and exponential smoothing were employed to develop and evaluate a model for risk classification as well as to forecast plague epidemics at the Spermophilus Dauricus Focus. Data was based upon the Inner Mongolia surveillance programs. This model involved 7 risk factors, including density of Spermophilus dauricus, percentage of hosts infested, host flea index, percentage of nests infested, nest flea index, percentage of runways infested, and runway flea index.Forecasting values of the classification model(CM)were calculated and grouped into 3 risk levels. Values that over 2/3 of the CM would indicate the existence of potential epidemics while those below 1/3 would indicate that there were no risk for epidemics but when values that were in between would indicate that there exist for high risk. Annually, during the observation period in the Inner Mongolia Spermophilus Dauricus Foci, the detection of Yersinia pestis gave a risk rating value of 1 which stood for existing epidemics, while nil detection rate generated a 'zero' value which representing the situation of non-epidemic. The overall plague epidemics forecasting surveillance programs in 2012 at the Spermophilus Dauricus Foci indicated that no active plague was obsered. When the forecasting values became over 2/3, combinations of all the risk factors would achieve the consistency rates of 100%. When the forecasting values were below 1/3, combinations of at least the first 4 factors could also achieve the consistency rates of 100%. However, when the forecasting values fell in between, combinations of at least the first 4 factors would achieve the consistency rates of around 50%.Results from our study showed that plague would not be active to become epidemic, in 2012.
- [Study on the spatial and temporal distribution of animal plague in Junggar Basin plague focus]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2014 Feb; 35(2):109-13.
To explore the spatial and temporal distributions of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague focus.Data regarding plague antibody (F1) in serum of Great Gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, R. opimus) which were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Junggar Basin and analyzed. The changing rates on the positivity of F1 that appeared spatially and temporally were also analyzed.A total of 4 825 R. opimus serum samples were collected in 13 administrative regions in Junggar Basin.showed that plague R. opimus existed in two areas-Gurbantonggut desert in the eastern-center and the clay desert of western Junggar Basin. However, in these two areas, the intensity of animal plague prevalence was different. In the former region where Yesinia pestis positive serum was detected from R. opimus, the detected rate of R. opimus was 8.39%. However, in the latter areas, the average positive rate was 1.56%. The changing trends of R. opimus plague prevalence were also varied annually. In the western Junggar Basin, the trend showed a slowly downward profile. The serum positive rate of R. opimus for Yesinia pestis decreased, from 7.59% in 2005 to 0.61% in 2008, and appeared as a resting state that none of the positive sample could be found since then. However, in the eastern-center Junggar Basin area-also named as Gurbantonggut desert which had been divided into 3 segments(western, central and eastern, according to related geographical characteristics), the changing trends of animal plague seemed quite complex. In the western segment, the animal plague had two epidemic peaks-in 2006 and 2010, with the interval of 4 years, with the higher peak of all the three geographic segments as 45.65% in 2010 and the positive serum of R. opimus for plague could be detected each year from 2006 to 2012. However, there were 3 epidemic peaks in the same period in the central and eastern segments. In the central segment, the peaks appeared in 2006, 2009 and 2011, with the intervals as 2.5 years and the average positive rate 8.92% was seen the lowest in Gurbantonggut desert. In the eastern segment, the first 2 peaks appeared the same season as in the central segment, but the third peak appeared in 2012, with the peak interval as 3 years. The positive rate of R. opimus for plague was also different in seasons, with the positive rate higher in autumn than in spring. These findings showed that the animal plague could be continuously prevalent from spring to autumn in the natural foci of plague in the Junggar Basin.Both geographical and temporal fluctuations of animal plague existed in the natural foci of Junggar Basin which was also named as geographical heterogeneity. Consequently, animal plague could be divided into two areas-the clay plains desert in the western and the Gurbantonggut desert in the eastern-center Junggar Basin.
- [Operation preparedness of specialized anti-epidemic brigades during mass events]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 2014 Jan-Feb; (1):76-80.
Operation experience of specialized anti-epidemic brigades (SAEB) for the support of sanitary-epidemiologic welfare during various emergencies is presented. The order of functioning and SAEB objectives during mass events is examined. Analysis of exercise of Stavropol Institute of Plague Control SAEB was carried out, proposals for augmentation of SAEB equipment table by instruments and reagents for indication and genotyping of pathogen strains are examined.
- [The involvement of some flea species in the epizootic process in the Gorno-Altai natural plague focus: spatial and temporary characteristics]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2014 Jan-Mar; (1):29-34.
The relative number of plague pathogen strains isolated from some flea species in different Gorno-Altai natural plague foci substantially varies; this indicator also varies with time. These patterns are due to the difference in the structure of multispecies communities of ectoparasites in these areas and their long-term transformation. As of now, the three species Paradoxopsyllus scorodumovi, Ctenophyllus hirticrus, and Amphalius runatus are widely involved in pathogen transmission in all three foci. These ectoparasites should be referred to as main plague vectors. In each focus, they are joined by other flea species, such as Rhadinopsylla dahurica and Amphipsylla primaris in the Ulandryk focus, Frontopsylla hetera, R. dahurica, Paradoxopsyllus kalabukhovi, and Paramonopsyllus scalodae in the Tarkhatin focus, and P. scalonae and P. kalabukhovi in the Kurai focus, which should be classified as an additional vector.