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pestis fulminans [keywords]
- Direct neutralization of type III effector translocation by the variable region of a monoclonal antibody to the LcrV protein of Yersinia pestis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Vaccine Immunol 2014 Mar 5.
Plague is an acute infection caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis. Antibodies that are protective against plague target LcrV, an essential virulence protein and component of a type III secretion system of Y. pestis. Secreted LcrV localizes to the tip of type III needles on the bacterial surface and its function is necessary for translocation of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into the cytosol of host cells infected by Y. pestis. Translocated Yops counteract macrophage functions, for example, by inhibiting phagocytosis (YopE) or inducing cytotoxicity (YopJ). Although LcrV is the best-characterized protective antigen of Y. pestis, the mechanism of protection by anti-LcrV antibodies is not fully understood. Antibodies bind to LcrV at needle tips, neutralize Yop translocation and promote opsonophagocytosis of Y. pestis by macrophages in vitro. However, it is unclear if LcrV antibodies neutralize Yop translocation directly, or indirectly by promoting opsonophagocytosis. To determine if the protective IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7.3 is directly neutralizing, an IgG2a subclass variant, a deglycosylated variant, F(ab')2 and Fab were tested for the ability to inhibit Yop translocation into Y. pestis-infected macrophages in vitro. Macrophage cytotoxicity and cellular fractionation assays show that the Fc of mAb 7.3 is not required to neutralize YopJ or YopE translocation. In addition, use of Fc receptor-deficient macrophages or cytocholasin D to inhibit actin polymerization confirmed that opsonophagocytosis is not required for mAb 7.3 to neutralize translocation. These data indicate that binding of the variable region of mAb 7.3 to LcrV is sufficient to directly neutralize Yop translocation.
- Integrity of scientific content and authorship disputes continue to plague scientific journals. [Journal Article]
- DNA Cell Biol 2014 Mar; 33(3):121.
- A sexually transmitted disease: History of AIDS through philately. [Journal Article]
- J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc 2011; 12(3):192-6.
AIDS has become the new plague; a disease that is not only physically and psychologically debilitating, but culturally and socially devastating as well. Like the plague, AIDS has caused fear, prejudice and even panic in society. Although there are remarkable improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, AIDS continues its grim passage around the globe. After a slight downturn in the early 1990's, it then returned with a vengeance. By the end of the 20(th) century, AIDS was reliably estimated to have caused over 20 million deaths throughout the world. At the same time, 40 million people were estimated to be HIV positive. This paper provides an overview of the history of AIDS, including the discovery and its progress in the world through philately. Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items. Philately involves more than just stamp collecting, it contains the study of the design and educational impact of a philatelic material. We have presented AIDS stamps produced world-wide to emphasize the history of AIDS.
- [Suicidal ideation and completed suicide in the decameron]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2014; 25(1):38-41.
To extend our understanding of suicidal ideation and completed suicide via examination of a medieval Italian text-in particular, examination of the role of social and environmental triggers in such events. Previous studies have successfully examined the texts of ancient Greco-Roman, Old Norse, and Finnish civilizations to better understand the circumstances associated with suicidal ideation and completed suicide. Those texts included depictions of suicide by people without any apparent mental disorder in response to painful social/environmental circumstances.The Decameron, a collection of 100 short stories written by Giovanni Boccaccio in 1349-51, was examined in detail. The setting of The Decameron is during the Black Death and concerns a group of 10 people that leave plague-ridden Florence for a holiday in the countryside. On each of the 10 days of their trip, each individual tells a story, which in total form the 100 stories of Boccaccio's work. For the present study, all mentions of suicidal ideation and completed suicide were listed and arranged with appropriate headings.In total, 9 accounts of suicidal ideation and 4 accounts of completed suicide were identified, all of which were in response to social stressors, particularly romantic problems.Suicidal ideation and completed suicide in response to social stressors was a feature of The Decameron and it is feasible that this may have been a feature of medieval Italian culture. This would be in agreement with the findings of other studies that suggest that although commonly occurring in response to mental disorder, suicide can occur independently of such disorder as a result of a predicament in which an individual finds him/herself.
- Editorial: Yersinia pestis survives in neutrophils and sends a PS to macrophages: bon appetit! [Journal Article]
- J Leukoc Biol 2014 Mar; 95(3):383-5.
- 'The chearful haunts': John Armstrong (1709-1779), physician, poet, satirist and leveller of medical knowledge. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Biogr 2014 Jan 27.
John Armstrong, the first honours graduate of the University of Edinburgh School of Medicine, was famous in his day for a lengthy didactic poem entitled The Art of Preserving Health (1744). He is now obscure except to scholars specializing in the 18th century and, when discussed at all, often dismissed as a failed physician who wrote mediocre poetry in a quest for money and fame. A new exegesis by Adam Budd exhumes Armstrong as an original voice who offered timely and reassuring advice to Britons as they braced for another epidemic of plague; who depicted illness through the lens of a vulnerable and sympathetic physician, and who was perhaps above all else a leveller of medical knowledge. Elaborating on Budd's thesis, it would seem that Armstrong, a complicated man, has frequently been misread and was in some ways ahead of his time.
- Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery - trafficking in persons. [Journal Article]
- Croat Med J 2014 Feb 28; 55(1):3-9.
A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology.
- Dr Wu Lien-teh: modernising post-1911 China's public health service. [Journal Article]
- Singapore Med J 2014 Feb; 55(2):99-102.
young Chinese doctor from a small British colony gaining fame for his role in ending a pneumonic plague in faraway north-east China is indeed a remarkable story. Wu Lien-teh (1879-1960), although standing at only 5 feet 2 inches, short even by Chinese standards, towered over many of his contemporaries because of his dedicated medical work. He was also prominent in the advancement of social and cultural causes. In particular, he campaigned against the opium trade, which had caused irreparable harm to health in China and Southeast Asia.
- Pharmacy practice and its challenges in Yemen. [Journal Article]
- Australas Med J 2014; 7(1):17-23.
Pharmacy practice in Yemen was established in 1875 in Aden.To describe pharmacy practice as it currently exists in Yemen, the challenges the profession faces, and to recommend changes that will improve pharmaceutical care services.This study has two parts. Part 1 comprised a literature search performed between May and July 2011 to identify published studies on pharmacy practice in Yemen. Full text papers, abstracts, and reports in Arabic or English between 1970 and 2011 were reviewed. Part 2 consisted of a qualitative study with face-to-face interviews with a representative sample of pharmacists, staff from the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPHP), and patients.The analysis revealed several issues that plague pharmacy practice in Yemen: Fewer than 10 per cent of pharmacists working in pharmacies and drug stores are graduates of governmentrecognised colleges.Most Yemeni pharmacists are dissatisfied with their work conditions and opportunities.Medicines are expensive and hard to access in Yemen, and counterfeit medicines are a serious problem.Few regulations and standards exist for pharmacists and pharmaceutical care.Pharmaceutical marketing plays an important role in marketing and selling products in Yemen.A dearth of standards, regulations, and laws are hurting pharmacy practice in the country and potentially endangering peoples' lives.In order to improve pharmacy practice in Yemen, many changes are needed, including updating the pharmacy curriculum taught, implementing industry standards for pharmacy practice, implementing and reinforcing laws, and integrating pharmacists more fully in the healthcare industry. Additionally, the quality of the pharmacy workforce needs to be improved, and there needs to be increased awareness by the public, physicians, other healthcare professionals, and policy makers about the value of pharmacists.
- Insertion sequence distribution bias in Archaea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mob Genet Elements 2014 Jan 1; 4(1):e27829.
Insertion sequences (IS) are common transposable elements in Archaea. Intergenic IS elements are usually less harmful than intragenic ISs, simply because they are less likely to disrupt host gene function. However, because regulatory sequences are intergenic and upstream of genes, we hypothesized that not all intergenic regions are selectively equivalent for IS insertion. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the distributions of intergenic IS elements within 155 fully sequenced archaeal genomes. Of the 22 genomes with enough IS elements for statistical analysis, five have significantly fewer ISs between divergently oriented neighboring genes than expected by chance, and seven have significantly more ISs between convergently oriented genes. Furthermore, of the 85 genomes with at least one expected IS within each of the three possible neighboring gene orientations (i.e., divergent, convergent, and tandem), 73 genomes have fewer ISs between divergently oriented genes than expected, and 60 have more ISs between convergently oriented genes than expected (both values deviate significantly from binomial probabilities of random distribution). We suspect that these non-random IS distributions are molded by natural selection resulting from differential disruption of neighboring gene regulation, and that this selective pressure has affected transposable element distributions in prokaryotes for billions of years.