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pestis fulminans [keywords]
- Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Risk Assessment of Emerging Infectious Diseases in Shaoxing City in Southern China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Jpn J Infect Dis 2014; 67(6):417-422.
This study aimed to assess the likelihood of an outbreak or epidemic of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in Shaoxing city, China, and its resulting impact to provide decision makers with quantitative, directive results. Factors related to the risk of EIDs were selected through meeting with experts and were arranged in a hierarchical structure. These evaluation factors were also weighted to allow the use of a point system for evaluation. As a result, 14 evaluation factors comprising a 3-layer hierarchy were generated. The riskiest top 10 EIDs were HIV/AIDS (consistency index [CI] = 3.206), cholera (CI = 3.103), SARS (CI = 2.804), acute schistosomiasis (CI = 2.784), malaria (CI = 2.777), legionellosis (CI = 2.743), avian influenza A/H5N1 (CI = 2.734), dengue fever (CI = 2.702), Escherichia coli O157:H7 enteritis (CI = 2.593), and plague (CI = 2.553). The risk assessment was specifically intended to support local and national government agencies in the management of high risk EIDs in their efforts to (i) make resource allocation decisions, (ii) make high-level planning decisions, and (iii) raise public awareness of the EID risk. The results showed that the EID risk in Shaoxing could be effectively assessed through an analytic hierarchy process.
- [Fowl plague and avian influenza A viruses of poultry and birds. Diagnosis, control measures and practical experiences.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2014 Nov 17; 42(6)
The causes of the notifiable fowl plague are high and low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 but also other haemagglutinin subtypes If the intravenous pathogenicity index is greater than 1.2. The German fowl plague order (Geflügelpest-Verordnung) differentiates between highly pathogenic influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7, if multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecules are detected by virus isolation, antigen or genome determination and low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7 if either the intravenous pathogenicity index is lower than 1.2 or no basic amino acids are present at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecule. Aspects of diagnosis, control including culling, therapy and vaccination are reviewed. The currently available means and their limitations of a therapy of fowl plague by oral administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (e. g. oseltamivir) are described. Following granted permission, individually marked valuable zoo and pet birds may be vaccinated using licensed inactivated vaccines. Vector vaccines have not been used in Germany so far. Avian influenza A viruses of other haemagglutinin subtypes (H1-H4, H6, H8-H18) may also cause infections and severe disease. These subtypes are not subject to governmental interventions and disease can be prevented by timely use of inactivated vaccines.
- Pandemic fear and literature: observations from Jack London's The Scarlet Plague. [Journal Article]
- Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Oct; 20(10):1753-7.
- A seasonal SIR metapopulation model with an Allee effect with application to controlling plague in prairie dog colonies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biol Dyn 2014 Nov 17.:1-29.
For wildlife species living among patchy habitats, disease and the Allee effect (reduced per capita birth rates at low population densities) may together drive a patch's population to extinction, particularly if births are seasonal. Yet local extinction may not be indicative of global extinction, and a patch may become recolonized by migrating individuals. We introduce deterministic and stochastic susceptible, infectious, and immune epidemic models with vector species to study disease in a metapopulation with an Allee effect and seasonal birth and dispersal. We obtain conditions for the existence of a strong Allee effect and existence and stability of a disease-free positive periodic solution. These general models have application to many wildlife diseases. As a case study, we apply them to evaluate dynamics of the sylvatic plague in prairie dog colonies interconnected through dispersal. We further evaluate the effects of control of the vector population and control by immunization on plague eradication.
- Improving medication adherence in hypercholesterolemia: challenges and solutions. [REVIEW]
- Vasc Health Risk Manag 2014.:615-625.
Medication nonadherence is a prevalent public health issue that contributes to significant medical costs and detrimental health outcomes. This is especially true in patients with hypercholesterolemia, a condition affecting millions of American adults and one that is associated with increased risk for coronary and cerebrovascular events. Considering the magnitude of outcomes related to this disease, the medical community has placed significant emphasis on addressing the treatment for high cholesterol, and progress has been made in recent years. However, poor adherence to therapy continues to plague health outcomes and more must be understood and done to address suboptimal medication taking. Here we provide an overview of the reasons for poor medication adherence in patients with hypercholesterolemia and describe recent efforts to curb nonadherence. Suggested approaches for improving medication taking in patients with high cholesterol are also provided to guide practitioners, patients, and payers.
- Natural peste des petits ruminants virus infection in Black Bengal goats: virological, pathological and immunohistochemical investigation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Vet Res 2014 Nov 14; 10(1):263.
BackgroundPeste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), also known as Goat Plague, occurs in goats, sheep and related species. It is caused by a morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. In Bangladesh PPR is endemic and it causes serious economic losses. Pathology of PPR has been reported in different goat and sheep breeds from natural and experimental infections. Field results are better indicators of pathogenicity of the circulating virus. The severity of the disease varies with species, breed and immune status of the host. Pathological investigations of natural outbreaks of PPR in Balck Bengal goats are very limited. The current investigation was aimed at describing pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in Black Bengal goats.ResultsA total of 28 outbreaks were investigated clinically and virologically. Average flock morbidity and mortality were 75% and 59%, respectively, with case fatality rate of 74%. Necropsy was conducted on 21 goats from 15 outbreaks. The major gross lesions were congestion of gastrointestinal tract, pneumonia, engorged spleen, and oedematous lymphnodes. Histopathological examination revealed severe enteritis with denudation of intestinal epithelium, severe broncho-interstitial pneumonia with macrophages within lung alveoli and extensive haemorrhages with depletion of lymphoid cells and infiltration of macrophages in the sinuses of spleen. In lymph nodes, the cortical nodules were replaced by wide sinusoids with severe depletion of lymphocytes, infiltration of mononuclear cells and some giant cells in sub-capsular areas and medullary sinuses. PPR virus antigen was found in pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in lungs. Viral RNA could be detected by RT-PCR in 69 out of 84 nasal swab, 59 out of 84 blood and 21 out of 21 lymph node samples. Sequence analyses revealed closeness of Bangladeshi strains with other recent Asian isolates.ConclusionNatural outbreaks of PPR in Black Bengal goats in Bangladesh resulted in 75% and 59% flock morbidity and mortality, respectively, with a case fatality rate of 74%. The striking histo-morphologic diagnosis of PPR was acute pneumonia and severe gastro-enteritis. A detailed experimental pathological study on Black Bengal goats infected with recent isolates is required.
- Bacterial programming of host responses: coordination between type I interferon and cell death. [Journal Article, Review]
- Front Microbiol 2014.:545.
During mammalian infection, bacteria induce cell death from an extracellular or intracellular niche that can protect or hurt the host. Data is accumulating that associate type I interferon (IFN) signaling activated by intracellular bacteria with programmed death of immune effector cells and enhanced virulence. Multiple pathways leading to IFN-dependent host cell death have been described, and in some cases it is becoming clear how these mechanisms contribute to virulence. Yet common mechanisms of IFN-enhanced bacterial pathogenesis are not obvious and no specific interferon stimulated genes have yet been identified that cause sensitivity to pathogen-induced cell death. In this review, we will summarize some bacterial infections caused by facultative intracellular pathogens and what is known about how type I IFN signaling may promote the replication of extracellular bacteria rather than stimulate protection. Each of these pathogens can survive phagocytosis but their intracellular life cycles are very different, they express distinct virulence factors and trigger different pathways of immune activation and crosstalk. These differences likely lead to widely varying amounts of type I IFN expression and a different inflammatory environment, but these may not be important to the pathologic effects on the host. Instead, each pathogen induces programmed cell death of key immune cells that have been sensitized by the activation of the type I IFN response. We will discuss how IFN-dependent host cell death may increase host susceptibility and try to understand common pathways of pathogenesis that lead to IFN-enhanced bacterial virulence.
- Three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its biological functions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Virol 2014 Nov 7.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), an acute, violent, infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, remains widespread in most parts of the world. It can lead to a major plague of livestock and an economical catastrophe. Structural studies of FMD virus (FMDV) have greatly contributed to our understanding of the virus life cycle and provided new horizons for the control and eradication of FMDV. To examine host-FMDV interactions and viral pathogenesis from a structural perspective, the structures of viral structural and non-structural proteins are reviewed in the context of their relevance for virus assembly and dissociation, formation of capsid-like particles and virus-receptor complexes, and viral penetration and uncoating. Moreover, possibilities for devising novel antiviral treatments are discussed.
- [Regional genotyping and the geographical distribution regarding Yersinia pestis isolates in China]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2014 Aug; 35(8):943-8.
To type Yersinia (Y.)pestis isolates under different regions (DFR)and to observe their geographical distributions in China.23 DFRs primers and PMT1 (plasmid)primer were used to verify the DFR genomovars of Y. pestiss strains from 11 plague foci in China. A total of 3 044 Y. pestis isolates were involved for analysis on DFR profiles with the characteristics of geographical distribution.52 genomovars were verified in 3 044 Y. pestis strains in China in which 19 genomovars as major and 33 genomovars as minor genomovar. 21 new genomovars, namely genomovar 32 to genomovar 52 were described on the basis of 31 genomovars previously confirmed. Three new genomovars belonged to new major genomovars, namely Himalayan marmot natural plague foci of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau newly added genomovar 32 and genomovar 44 as major genomovars. Mongolian gerbil natural plague foci of Inner Mongolia plateau were newly added genomovar 50 as one of the major genomovars.Among 21 new genomovars, 3 were major genomars, with Chinese Y. pestis DFR as the major genomars which had obvious distribution characteristics.
- [Isolation and molecular characterization on Abbey Lake Orthobunyavirus (Bunyaviridae) in Xinjiang, China]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2014 Aug; 35(8):939-42.
To monitor and discover medically important mosquito-borne viruses circulating in Xinjiang, China.Mosquitoes were collected from Abbey Lake wetland in Bortala, in Northern Xinjiang. Viral isolates were obtained through innoculating and serial passaging into susceptible mammalian host cells (BHK-21), identified by cytopathogenic effect (CPE) observation and plague forming assay. Genetic identification of viral isolates was conducted by RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.A virus strain which causing CPE on BHK-21 cells, was isolated from the predominant Culex modestus (36.6%) and tentatively designated as Abbey Lake virus. Information on molecular identification revealed that Abbey Lake virus belonged to Orthobunyavirus genus within Bunyaviridae. Partial sequences (651 bp and 980 bp) of viral genomic S and M segment showed that Abbey Lake virus was phylogenetically related to Germiston virus that uniquely found in South Africa with 90.6% nucleotides and 95.0% amino acids similarities in S segment. However, viral M segment displayed much variability with 78.6% nucleotides and 86.1% amino acid similarities, suggesting a new member of Orthobunyavirus genus was discovered in the area.In this study,Abbey Lake virus was isolated and characterized indicating its potential circulation nature of this newly-emerged mosquito-borne virus.