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pestis fulminans [keywords]
- [Preparation and biological activity analysis of chimeric antibody against capsular F1 antigen of Yersinia pestis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Dec; 29(12):1299-302.
Objective To express human-mouse chimeric antibody against Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen (F1 antigen) and analyze its biological activities. Methods The heavy chain gene of the chimeric antibody was obtained by fusing the variable region gene of the mouse mAb heavy chain with human IgG1 constant region gene. The light chain gene of the chimeric antibody was obtained by fusing the variable region gene of the mouse mAb light chain with the human kappa constant region gene. Both the heavy and light chain genes of the chimeric antibody were further verified by sequencing. The chimeric antibody heavy and light chain genes were inserted into EcoR I/Not I of pcDNA3.1 (+) to construct expression plasmids termed pcDNA3.1-L and pcDNA3.1-H, respectively. Then, two plasmids were mixed and transfected into CHO-S cells. Finally, the stable cell clone secreting chimeric antibody was obtained by G418 selection. The culture supernatants of serum-free medium were collected and the chimeric antibody was purified by MabSelect SuRe affinity chromatography. The purified chimeric antibody was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA and evaluated in the protective effect in vivo. Results PCR and sequencing analysis proved that plasmids pcDNA3.1-H and pcDNA3.1-L were correctly constructed. Dot blot showed that a cell line with high-level expression of chimeric antibody was obtained. SDS-PAGE and western blot showed that the chimeric antibody was successfully purified. ELISA showed that the chimeric antibody could specifically bind to F1 antigen. In vivo activity assay showed that 80% BALB/c mice treated with the chimeric antibody survived from 36 MLD virulent Yersinia pestis. Conclusion The chimeric antibody against F1 antigen with neutralizing activity was successfully expressed in CHO-S cells, which laid a foundation for the preparation of anti-plague passive immunity agents.
- [Health culture in the Statute of Lastovo.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Med Hist Adriat 2013; 11(2):285-290.
The aim of this article was to define the elements of health culture in the Statute of Lastovo, from its declaration in 1310 to amendments made in the 18th century. The source we used was a recently published translation of the Statute from Latin, in which we identified the lawmaker's stipulations directly or indirectly related to public health of the times. The Statute stipulates several preventive measures to keep plague at bay and to control it if it breaks out. Stipulations on communal slaughterhouses and fish markets, even if not directly intended to address healthcare issues, brought a definite improvement to public hygiene and sanitation. Penal provisions for the perpetrators included death, whipping, branding, cutting fingers off, standing on logs, and pillorying. The article concludes that even though the Statute of Lastovo is quite comprehensive and voluminous, it does not give much space to health culture, in fact, even less space than other Medieval statutes of towns along the east coast of the Adriatic.
- [Possibilities of instrumental methods of diagnosis of unstable atherosclerotic plaques of carotid arteries.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Angiol Sosud Khir 2013; 19(3):37-44.
Today there exists a wide variety of laboratory and instrumental methods aimed at diagnosing an unstable carotid aortosclerotic plaque. Assessment of the laboratory indices is not sufficiently effective since it does not allow of revealing the fact of the formation of an unstable plague at early stages and to determine its localization. The instrumental methods employed (ultrasonographic study, magnetic resonance imaging, multiplanar computed tomography, positron emission tomography) were focussed on detecting pathomorphological markers of instability - thickness of the fibrous coating, structural plaques, the presence of erosions, ulcerations, haemorrhages, calcifications, lipid nucleus, activity of the cellular processes inside the plaque. The revealed signs promote early diagnosis of unstable atherosclerotic plaque with the determination of its localization. Nevertheless, they do not provide evidence about the danger of its rupture, whereas the overwhelming majority of acute vascular catastrophes including acute impairments of cerebral circulation is directly associated with arterial thrombosis resulting from rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque. Therefore, search for new methods aimed at prediction of complications of the atherosclerotic plaque which would be employed in routine clinical practice still remain urgently important today. The most promising is the study of the state of the atherosclerotic plaques of carotid arteries for prediction of acute impairment of cerebral circulation.
- Targeting the type III secretion system to treat bacterial infections. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Opin Ther Targets 2013 Dec 3.
Introduction: Causative agents of pneumonia, gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and plague all utilize a type III secretion inhibitors (T3SS) to directly inject proteins into human cells and cause disease. These bacterial pathogens are frequently resistant to antibiotics and novel treatment options are needed. The T3SS is essential for virulence and can be inhibited to prevent disease. Areas covered: T3SS structure and assembly are introduced in this review, highlighting targets for T3SS-specific therapeutics. Promising inhibitors of type III secretion (T3S), their modes of action, and successful techniques for their identification are reviewed. T3S inhibitor research has focused on small molecules identified in high-throughput screens, although recently inhibitors have also been identified or engineered by rational design. Promising compounds have emerged that inhibit T3S and attenuate virulence in several pathogens, including an engineered antibody in clinical trials. T3S inhibitor research may yield effective treatments and prophylactics that are effective against a wide range of human pathogens. Expert opinion: More techniques are needed to identify the mode of action for compounds identified in high-throughput screens, a long-standing challenge. Although only a few groups have attempted rational design of inhibitors, the approach has seen initial success and mechanistic follow-up studies are greatly simplified.
- 'A broom in the hand of the almighty': the plague and the unruly poor. [Journal Article]
- Clio Med 2013.:216-59.
- [Association between blood pressure level and incidence of carotid artery plaque in middle-aged and elderly people]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 2013 Jul; 41(7):611-5.
To explore the association between blood pressure level and incidence of carotid arterial plaque in middle-aged and elderly people.A total of 5852 individuals were randomly stratified from the 101 510 health examination survey participants in Tangshan Kailuan Company community during 2006-2007. A total of 5440 people (age above 40 years old, free of stroke, TIA and myocardial infarction) were enrolled in the final analysis. A questionnaire survey, blood biochemical analysis and carotid artery ultrasound examination were finished by trained medical staff. Sixteen individuals without carotid artery plaques information and 35 individuals without blood pressure information were excluded. Finally, a total of 5389 participants [3235 male, mean age: (54.7 ± 11.8) years] were analyzed. According to 2010 Chinese guideline to prevention and treatment of hypertension and blood pressure level classification, participants were divided into normotensive group (n = 1377), high normal blood pressure group (n = 1971) and hypertensive group (n = 2041). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of the carotid artery plaques.Age, male gender, BMI, IMT, TG, FBG, smoking and alcohol drinking rate were significantly higher in high normal blood pressure group than in normotensive group (all P < 0.05), LDL-C, HDL-C, hs-CRP and TC were similar between these two groups. Incidence of carotid artery plaques in normotensive, high normal blood pressure and hypertensive groups was 24.8%, 37.4%, 60.2% respectively. The risk of carotid artery plaques was increased to 38% and 163% in high normal and hypertensive groups compared to normotensive group, the OR ratio was 1.38 (95%CI: 1.15-1.66) and 2.63 (95%CI: 2.18-3.18), respectively. After adjusting gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, TG, TC, HDL-C, FBG, hs-CRP and BMI, the risk of developing carotid artery plague was increased in proportion to increasing blood pressure and the OR value was 1.24 (95%CI:1.01-1.52) , 1.69 (95%CI:1.34-2.15) and 2.66 (95%CI:2.20-3.21) in high normal group I [SBP/DBP 121-129/80-84 mm Hg(1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa)] and high normal group II (SBP/DBP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg) and hypertensive group, respectively.The cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of carotid artery plague increase in proportion to blood pressure level in this cohort. The detection rate of carotid artery plague is already significantly increased in individuals with high normal blood pressure.
- A Cerium(IV)-Carbon Multiple Bond. [Journal Article]
- Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2013 Dec 2; 52(49):13016-9.
Straightforward access to a cerium(IV)-carbene complex was provided by one-electron oxidation of an anionic "ate" cerium(III)-carbene precursor, thereby avoiding decomposition reactions that plague oxidations of neutral cerium(III) compounds. The cerium(IV)-carbene complex is the first lanthanide(IV)-element multiple bond and involves a twofold bonding interaction of two electron pairs between cerium and carbon.
- Comparing Bacterial Community Composition between Healthy and White Plague-Like Disease States in Orbicella annularis Using PhyloChip™ G3 Microarrays. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(11):e79801.
Coral disease is a global problem. Diseases are typically named or described based on macroscopic changes, but broad signs of coral distress such as tissue loss or discoloration are unlikely to be specific to a particular pathogen. For example, there appear to be multiple diseases that manifest the rapid tissue loss that characterizes 'white plague.' PhyloChip™ G3 microarrays were used to compare the bacterial community composition of both healthy and white plague-like diseased corals. Samples of lobed star coral (Orbicella annularis, formerly of the genus Montastraea) were collected from two geographically distinct areas, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park, to determine if there were biogeographic differences between the diseases. In fact, all diseased samples clustered together, however there was no consistent link to Aurantimonas coralicida, which has been described as the causative agent of white plague type II. The microarrays revealed a large amount of bacterial heterogeneity within the healthy corals and less diversity in the diseased corals. Gram-positive bacterial groups (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes) comprised a greater proportion of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to healthy samples. Diseased samples were enriched in OTUs from the families Corynebacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Streptococcaceae. Much previous coral disease work has used clone libraries, which seem to be methodologically biased toward recovery of Gram-negative bacterial sequences and may therefore have missed the importance of Gram-positive groups. The PhyloChip™data presented here provide a broader characterization of the bacterial community changes that occur within Orbicella annularis during the shift from a healthy to diseased state.