- Antidepressant drug use among adolescents during 2004-2013: a population-based register linkage study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Psychiatr Scand 2016 Aug 29.
To study trends in use of antidepressants (ADs) by adolescents, and psychiatric morbidity and use of other psychotropic drugs as a measure of psychiatric comorbidity.One-year prevalence of AD drug use was analyzed for 13- to 17-year-old Norwegians during 2004-2013. Use of other psychotropic drugs and specialist healthcare services was analyzed for incident AD users in 2012, using linked data from the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Norwegian Patient Register.The 1-year prevalence of AD drug use increased from 6.4/1000 to 9.1/1000 during 2004-2013, with the steepest increase from 2010, particularly among girls. The highest prevalence was found in 17-year-old girls (17.8/1000 in 2010, 27.5/1000 in 2013). Of incident AD drug users in 2012, 84.4% had been in contact with specialist health care. As the first drug, 78.4% were prescribed a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The most common types of other psychotropic drugs were melatonin (24.6%), antipsychotic drugs (13.2%), stimulants (8.8%), and anxiolytics (6.0%).Use of ADs among adolescents has increased over the last 3-4 years, particularly among 16- to 17-year-old girls. A total of 85% of incident users had been in contact with specialist health care, which may indicate that drug-therapy is used by adolescents with more severe symptoms.
- Drug therapy management in patients with renal impairment: how to use creatinine-based formulas in clinical practice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2016 Aug 27.
The use of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in daily clinical practice.eGFR is a key component in drug therapy management (DTM) in patients with renal impairment. eGFR is routinely reported by laboratories whenever a serum creatinine testing is ordered. In this paper, we will discuss how to use eGFR knowing the limitations of serum creatinine-based formulas.Before starting a renally excreted drug, an equally effective drug which can be used more safely in patients with renal impairment should be considered. If a renally excreted drug is needed, the reliability of the eGFR should be assessed and when needed, a 24-h urine creatinine clearance collection should be performed. After achieving the best approximation of the true GFR, we suggest a gradual drug dose adaptation according to the renal function. A different approach for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window (NTW) is recommended compared to drugs with a broad therapeutic window. For practical purposes, a therapeutic window of 5 or less was defined as a NTW and a list of NTW drugs is presented. Considerations about the drug dose may be different at the start of the therapy or during the therapy and depending on the indication. Monitoring effectiveness and adverse drug reactions are important, especially for NTW drugs. Dose adjustment should be based on an ongoing assessment of clinical status and risk versus the benefit of the used regimen.When determining the most appropriate dosing regimen serum creatinine-based formulas should never be used naively but always in combination with clinical and pharmacological assessment of the individual patient.
- Actions in response to drug safety signals arising from a spontaneous reporting system: Retrospective study in The Netherlands. [Journal Article]
- Int J Risk Saf Med 2016 Aug 22; 28(2):115-23.
There is limited information on actions taken in response to drug safety signals originating from a spontaneous reporting system (SRS) in pharmacovigilance. In The Netherlands the Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb is an independent organization that works in close collaboration with the Dutch regulatory agency, the Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB).The objective of this study is to gain insight in steps undertaken on signals originating from the SRS and disseminated by Lareb from 2008-2012.For all signals the recommendations of Lareb and the following steps proposed by the MEB were analyzed. Secondary outcomes were prioritization of the signal, the year of dissemination and if Lareb published (inter)nationally about the signal. Pearson's Chi-square (X2) and Mantel-Haenszel statistics were used for statistical analysis.Of all signals disseminated by Lareb from 2008-2012, 90,7% resulted in an action: in 87% a regulatory action and in 36% an (inter)national publication. Generally, Lareb's recommendations correspond to steps undertaken by the MEB.This study found influence of signal prioritization on Lareb's recommendations but not on the steps undertaken by the MEB. Trends over time were only seen for steps undertaken by the MEB. These differences are most probably due to responsibilities of the different EU member states of various drugs.
- Prevalence and risk factors for efavirenz-based antiretroviral treatment-associated severe vitamin D deficiency: A prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Aug; 95(34):e4631.
Initiation of efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with Vitamin D deficiency, but the risk factors including efavirenz pharmacokinetics for cART-induced severe vitamin D deficiency (SVDD) and the impact of anti-tuberculosis (TB) cotreatment are not explored. We investigated the prevalence of SVDD in HIV and TB-HIV coinfected patients and associated risk factors for treatment-induced SVDD.Treatment-naïve Ethiopian HIV patients with (n = 102) or without (n = 89) TB co-infection were enrolled prospectively and received efavirenz-based cART. In TB-HIV coinfected patients, rifampicin-based anti-TB treatment was initiated 4 or 8 weeks before starting cART. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH]D), cholesterol and 4-beta hydroxycholesterol concentrations were measured at baseline, 4, 16, and 48 week of cART. Plasma efavirenz concentrations were determined at 4 and 16 weeks of cART.TB-HIV patients had significantly lower plasma 25 (OH)D3 levels than HIV-only patients at baseline. TB co-infection, low Karnofsky score, high viral load, and high CYP3A activity as measured by plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratios were significant predictors of low 25 (OH)D3 levels at baseline. In HIV-only patients, initiation of efavirenz-based cART increased the prevalence of SVVD from 27% at baseline to 76%, 79%, and 43% at 4, 16, and 48 weeks of cART, respectively. The median 25 (OH)D3 levels declined from baseline by -40%, -50%, and -14% at 4, 16, and 48 weeks of cART, respectively.In TB-HIV patients, previous anti-TB therapy had no influence on 25 (OH)D3 levels, but the initiation of efavirenz-based cART increased the prevalence of SVDD from 57% at baseline to 70% and 72% at the 4 and 16 weeks of cART, respectively. Median plasma 25 (OH)D3 declined from baseline by -17% and -21% at week 4 and 16 of cART, respectively.Our results indicate low plasma cholesterol, high CYP3A activity, and high plasma efavirenz concentrations as significant predictors of early efavirenz-based cART-induced vitamin D deficiency. Low plasma 25 (OH)D3 level at baseline is associated with TB co-infection and HIV diseases progression. Initiation of efavirenz-based cART is associated with high incidence of SVDD, whereas rifampicin based anti-TB therapy co-treatment has no significant effect. Supplementary vitamin D during cART initiation may be beneficial for HIV patients regardless of TB coinfection.
- Claims for disease-modifying therapy by Alberta non-insured health benefits clients. [Journal Article]
- BMC Health Serv Res 2016; 16(1):430.
Uncontrolled disease activity in inflammatory diseases of the joints, skin and bowel leads to morbidity and disability. Disease-modifying therapies are widely used to suppress this disease activity, but cost-coverage is variable. For Treaty First Nations and Inuit people in Canada without alternative private or public health insurance, cost-coverage for disease-modifying therapy is provided through Non-Insured Health Benefits (NIHB). Our objective was to describe the prevalence and patterns of treatment with disease-modifying therapy for the NIHB claimant population, and also examine adjuvant therapy (analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids) use.Cases (n = 2512) were defined by ≥1 claim for a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) or biologic between 1999 and 2012 in the NIHB pharmacy claim database. The proportion of the population with claims for individual agents and drug classes annually was calculated to estimate annual incidence and prevalence rates for use of disease-modifying therapy, and the prevalence of use of individual DMARDs, biologics and adjuvants. Differences in the proportion accessing adjuvant therapies and median doses in the 6 months following initiation of disease-modifying therapies was estimated.The incidence rate of treatment was calculated at an average of 127.5 cases per 100,000 population between 2001 and 2012, and the cumulative prevalence, accounting for patients lost to the database, increased and then stabilized at 1.3 % in the last three years of the study. Annual dispensation of methotrexate, combination DMARD therapy and biologic therapy approached 35 %, 19 %, and 10 % of the cohort respectively. A declining prevalence of claims for acetaminophen (28 % to 15 %) and anti-inflammatories (73 % to 63 %) occurred from 2000 to 2012, however corticosteroid (32 %) and opioid (65 %) dispensation remained stable. The proportion of patients with claims for NSAIDs (69.9 % to 61.1 %, p = 0.002), oral corticosteroids (45.4 % to 33.6 %, p < 0.001) and parenteral corticosteroids (16.2 % to 8.3 %, p = 0.002) decreased in the 6 months following biologic initiation.The proportion of NIHB clients with active claims for disease-modifying therapy is lower than expected based on existing epidemiologic knowledge of the prevalence of inflammatory conditions in the First Nations and Inuit populations. These findings should be further explored in order to optimize treatment outcomes for NIHB claimants with inflammatory disease.
- Thirty Years of Orphan Drug Legislation and the Development of Drugs to Treat Rare Seizure Conditions: A Cross Sectional Analysis. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(8):e0161660.
Epilepsy is a serious chronic health condition with a high morbidity impairing the life of patients and afflicted families. Many epileptic conditions, especially those affecting children, are rare disorders generating an urgent medical need for more efficacious therapy options. Therefore, we assessed the output of the US and European orphan drug legislations.Quantitative analysis of the FDA and EMA databases for orphan drug designations according to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria.Within the US Orphan Drug Act 40 designations were granted delivering nine approvals, i.e. clobazam, diazepam viscous solution for rectal administration, felbamate, fosphenytoin, lamotrigine, repository corticotropin, rufinamide, topiramate, and vigabatrin. Since 2000 the EMA granted six orphan drug designations whereof two compounds were approved, i.e. rufinamide and stiripentol. In the US, two orphan drug designations were withdrawn. Orphan drugs were approved for conditions including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus. Comparing time to approval for rufinamide, which was approved in the US and the EU to treat rare seizure conditions, the process seems faster in the EU (2.2 years) than in the US (4.3 years).Orphan drug development in the US and in the EU delivered only few molecular entities to treat rare seizure disorders. The development programs focused on already approved antiepileptic drugs or alternative pharmaceutical formulations. Most orphan drugs approved in the US are not approved in the EU to treat rare seizures although some were introduced after 2000 when the EU adopted the Orphan Drug Regulation.
- Cultural and linguistic validation of the NHQ-2 Questionnaire: a specific instrument for assessing patient's usability of inhalation devices. [Journal Article]
- Multidiscip Respir Med 2016; 11(1):32.
An increasing number of inhalation devices are presently available in the market. They are differently characterized in terms of their handling and usability, both factors which may affect the outcomes of respiratory treatment. The assessment of the preference and the usability rate of all devices can be carried out by means of specific questionnaires. Before their use, the identification of errors due to the incorrect wording of questions included in the questionnaires, together with the trans-cultural reliability represents the main issues of their cultural and linguistic validation.The New Handling Questionnaire - NHQ-2 is a novel specific questionnaire aimed to measure both the preference and the usability of all kinds of inhalation devices. The method used for its validation has been summarized in the first section of the present paper, while the results of the specific validation and translation process have been described in the second section, together with the grading of improvement achieved over the process. The comprehensibility and the reproducibility rates achieved for both the Italian and the English final versions of the NHQ-2 questionnaire were very high, such as >90 % for each question included.The novel NHQ-2 questionnaire proved very high comprehensibility and reproducibility in both its Italian and English final versions. It can be proposed for the trans-cultural clinical use when the usability, and not only the patients' preference of devices, should be assessed.
- Comparison of second transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion for donor mixed chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for nonmalignant diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 Aug 24.
Donor mixed chimerism (MC) is an increasing problem after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for nonmalignant diseases.In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to retrospectively compare efficacy and safety in 49 patients undergoing second HSCT (n = 13) or donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI; n = 36) as treatment for MC.The response rate to DLI of patients with secondary graft failure (GF) (25.0%) was significantly lower than that of patients without secondary GF (81.3%; P = 0.041). Among patients undergoing DLI, the rates of successful response were significantly higher in patients having at least 30% donor chimerism (94.1%) than in patients having less than 30% donor chimerism (61.1%; P = 0.041). Furthermore, the rates of successful response were significantly higher in patients receiving larger first or maximum doses of DLI. Sixteen (50.0%) of 32 patients without secondary GF attained complete chimerism after DLI. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease and cytopenia was 37.6 and 26.1%, respectively.DLI yields promising response rates in most patients with higher donor chimerism levels, whereas second HSCT is more likely to benefit patients with lower donor chimerism levels.
- Predictors of HbA1c levels in initial users of metformin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Med Res Opin 2016 Aug 23.:1-39.
Objective The aim was to assess demographic and clinical factors as predictors of short (6 months) and long term (18 months) HbA1c levels in diabetes patients initiating metformin treatment. Research design and methods We conducted a cohort study including type 2 diabetes patients who received their first metformin prescription between 2007 and 2013 in the Groningen Initiative to Analyze Type 2 Diabetes Treatment (GIANTT) database. The primary outcome was HbA1c level at follow-up adjusted for baseline HbA1c; the secondary outcome was failing to achieve the target HbA1c level of 53 mmol/mol. Associations were analyzed by linear and logistic regression. Multiple imputation was used for missing data. Additional analyses stratified by dose and adherence level were conducted. Results The cohort included 6,050 patients initiating metformin. Baseline HbA1c at target consistently predicted better HbA1c outcomes. Longer diabetes duration and lower total cholesterol level at baseline were predictors for higher HbA1c levels at 6 months. At 18 months, cholesterol level was not a predictor. Longer diabetes duration was also associated with not achieving the target HbA1c at follow-up. The association for longer diabetes duration was especially seen in patients starting on low dose treatment. No consistent associations were found for comorbidity and comedication. Conclusions Diabetes duration was a relevant predictor of HbA1c levels after 6 and 18 months follow-up in patients initiating metformin treatment. Given the study design, no causal inference can be made. Our study suggests that prompt treatment intensification may be needed in patients who have a longer diabetes duration at treatment initiation.