(pharmacoepidemiology) articles in PubMed
- Predictable threats to public health through delaying universal access to innovative medicines for Hepatitis C: A pharmaceutical standpoint. [Editorial]
- Trop Med Int Health 2016 Sep 27TM
- The new interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) treatment combinations have with the potential to provide a cure for Hepatitis C Virus patients and stop the pandemic, but their high prices kee...
The new interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) treatment combinations have with the potential to provide a cure for Hepatitis C Virus patients and stop the pandemic, but their high prices keep treatment out of reach for most patients in Low- and Middle-Income countries, and the access strategies voluntarily put in place by some pharmaceutical companies remain insufficient to provide treatment to all those in need. This creates room for unregulated markets and pushes desperate patients to look for other ways of buying medicines, leading to potentially unsafe or suboptimal treatment through the development of unregulated supply channels, use of substandard or falsified medicines, and suboptimal prescription and use of DAAs. Market incentives should be in place to push manufacturers to obtain WHO Prequalification and/or registration by a Stringent Regulatory Authority, so as to allow the launch of large-scale governmental (and/or humanitarian) treatment programs with affordable, quality-assured medicines. This is an urgent issue that needs to be addressed now in order to fight an important disease that could be cured and probably eliminated with adequate resources. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Determining prescription durations based on the parametric waiting time distribution. [Journal Article]
- Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016 Sep 26PD
- CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm allows valid estimation of single prescription durations, especially when the WTD reliably separates current users from incident users, and may replace ad-hoc decision rules in automated implementations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Differences between the United States and Japan in labels of oncological drugs. [Journal Article]
- Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016 Sep 26PD
- CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the observed differences are not solely due to differences in clinical outcomes between the two countries, but rather due to differences in regulatory considerations and historical factors in both local and global contexts. Further research is needed to examine the impact of these differences on public health and to determine how and to what extent we should intervene with this status quo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- A sudden and unprecedented increase in low dose naltrexone (LDN) prescribing in Norway. Patient and prescriber characteristics, and dispense patterns. A drug utilization cohort study. [Journal Article]
- Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016 Sep 26PD
- CONCLUSIONS: The TV documentary on LDN in Norway was followed by a large increase in LDN prescribing, and the proportion of LDN users went from an insignificant number to 0.3% of the population. There was a high willingness to use and prescribe off label despite limited evidence. Observed median LDN dose, and age and gender distribution were as expected in typical LDN using patients. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- Meta-Analysis of Effects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors on Cardiovascular Outcomes and All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. [Review]
- Am J Cardiol 2016 Aug 31AJ
- The benefit or risk of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been established. We aimed to assess the com...
The benefit or risk of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been established. We aimed to assess the comparative CV safety and mortality risk associated with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically searched up to January 27, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors of at least 24 weeks of duration. The primary outcomes included all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events. A random-effects network meta-analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. We identified 37 eligible trials involving 29,859 patients that compared 3 SGLT2 inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin) to placebo and other active antidiabetic treatments. Of all direct and indirect comparisons, only empagliflozin compared with placebo was significantly associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.81) and major adverse cardiovascular events (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.93). However, the significant effect of empagliflozin was largely driven by one large randomized trial (EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial). Neither dapagliflozin nor canagliflozin was significantly associated with any harm. In conclusion, current RCT evidence suggests that 3 common SGLT2 inhibitors are not associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and CV outcomes when used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although empagliflozin may have a protective effect, further confirmative data from rigorous RCTs are needed.
- New psychoactive substances: an overview on recent publications on their toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics. [Review]
- Arch Toxicol 2016 Sep 24AT
- This review article covers English-written and PubMed-listed review articles and original studies published between January 2015 and April 2016 dealing with the toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics of n...
This review article covers English-written and PubMed-listed review articles and original studies published between January 2015 and April 2016 dealing with the toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics of new psychoactive substances. Compounds covered include stimulants and entactogens, synthetic cannabinoids, tryptamines, NBOMes, phencyclidine-like drugs, benzodiazepines, and opioids. First, an overview and discussion is provided on timely review articles followed by an overview and discussion on recent original studies. Both sections are then concluded by an opinion on these latest developments. This review shows that the NPS market is still highly dynamic and that the data published on their toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics can hardly keep pace with the appearance of new entities. However, data available are very helpful to understand and predict how NPS may behave in severe intoxication. The currently best-documented parameter is the in vitro metabolism of NPS, a prerequisite to allow detection of NPS in biological matrices in cases of acute intoxications or chronic consumption. However, additional data such as their chronic toxicity are still lacking.
- Palivizumab Exposure and the Risk of Autoimmune Disease: A Cross-National Cohort Study. [Journal Article]
- Paediatr Drugs 2016 Sep 24PD
- CONCLUSIONS: The risk of autoimmune disease was not increased after palivizumab exposure. Given the small number of incident cases of autoimmune disease observed, this finding should be interpreted with caution.
- Usefulness of quality indicators for antibiotic use: case study for the Netherlands. [Journal Article]
- Int J Qual Health Care 2016 Sep 24IJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Benchmarking the above mentioned Dutch QI values to other countries provides direction for three specific strategies to further improve Dutch antibiotic prescribing practice.
- Non-adherence to psoriasis medication as an outcome of limited coping resources and conflicting goals: findings from a qualitative interview study with people with psoriasis. [Journal Article]
- Br J Dermatol 2016 Sep 24BJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Adhering to medication in psoriasis can be an additional source of considerable emotional distress. We interpreted some episodes of non-adherence to psoriasis medication as rational attempts by individuals to minimise distress and to gain control over their life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- Activity Limitation Stages Are Associated with Hospitalization Risk among Medicare Beneficiaries. [Journal Article]
- PM R 2016 Sep 21PM R
- CONCLUSIONS: Activity limitation stages are associated with the risk of first hospitalization in the subsequent year among elderly Medicare beneficiaries. Stages capture clinically interpretable profiles of ADL and IADL functionality and describe preserved functions and activity limitation in an aggregated measure. Stage can inform interventions to ameliorate disability, and thus reduce the risk of a subsequent hospitalization in this population.