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- The photochemical determinants of color vision: Revealing how opsins tune their chromophore's absorption wavelength. [Journal Article]
- Bioessays 2014 Jan; 36(1):65-74.
The evolution of a variety of important chromophore-dependent biological processes, including microbial light sensing and mammalian color vision, relies on protein modifications that alter the spectral characteristics of a bound chromophore. Three different color opsins share the same chromophore, but have three distinct absorptions that together cover the entire visible spectrum, giving rise to trichromatic vision. The influence of opsins on the absorbance of the chromophore has been studied through methods such as model compounds, opsin mutagenesis, and computational modeling. The recent development of rhodopsin mimic that uses small soluble proteins to recapitulate the binding and wavelength tuning of the native opsins provides a new platform for studying protein-regulated spectral tuning. The ability to achieve far-red shifted absorption in the rhodopsin mimic system was attributed to a combination of the lack of a counteranion proximal to the iminium, and a uniformly neutral electrostatic environment surrounding the chromophore.
- Effects of high-color-discrimination capability spectra on color-deficient vision. [Journal Article]
- J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2013 Sep 1; 30(9):1780-6.
Light sources with three spectral bands in specific spectral positions are known to have high-color-discrimination capability. W. A. Thornton hypothesized that they may also enhance color discrimination for color-deficient observers. This hypothesis was tested here by comparing the Rösch-MacAdam color volume for color-deficient observers rendered by three of these singular spectra, two reported previously and one derived in this paper by maximization of the Rösch-MacAdam color solid. It was found that all illuminants tested enhance discriminability for deuteranomalous observers, but their impact on other congenital deficiencies was variable. The best illuminant was the one derived here, as it was clearly advantageous for the two red-green anomalies and for tritanopes and almost neutral for red-green dichromats. We conclude that three-band spectra with high-color-discrimination capability for normal observers do not necessarily produce comparable enhancements for color-deficient observers, but suitable spectral optimization clearly enhances the vision of the color deficient.
- Brightness perception of unrelated self-luminous colors. [Journal Article]
- J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2013 Jun 1; 30(6):1248-55.
The perception of brightness of unrelated self-luminous colored stimuli of the same luminance has been investigated. The Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (H-K) effect, i.e., an increase in brightness perception due to an increase in saturation, is clearly observed. This brightness perception is compared with the calculated brightness according to six existing vision models, color appearance models, and models based on the concept of equivalent luminance. Although these models included the H-K effect and half of them were developed to work with unrelated colors, none of the models seemed to be able to fully predict the perceived brightness. A tentative solution to increase the prediction accuracy of the color appearance model CAM97u, developed by Hunt, is presented.
- Quantized visual awareness. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Front Psychol 2013.:869.
The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion, and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia) are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.
- Whole-exome sequencing identifies a novel ALMS1 mutation (p.Q2051X) in two Japanese brothers with Alström syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Mol Vis 2013.:2393-406.
No mutations associated with Alström syndrome (AS), a rare autosomal recessive disease, have been reported in the Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and clinical features of two brothers with AS in a consanguineous Japanese family.Whole-exome sequencing analysis was performed on two brothers with AS and their unaffected parents. We performed a complete ophthalmic examination, including decimal best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp and funduscopic examination, visual-field and color-vision testing, full-field electroretinography, and optical coherence tomography. Fasting blood tests and systemic examinations were also performed.A novel mutation (c.6151C>T in exon 8) in the Alström syndrome 1 (ALMS1) gene that causes a premature termination codon at amino acid 2051 (p.Q2051X), was identified in the homozygous state in the affected brothers and in the heterozygous state in the parents. The ophthalmologic findings for both brothers revealed infantile-onset severe retinal degeneration and visual impairment, marked macular thinning, and severe cataracts. Systemic findings showed hepatic dysfunction, hyperlipidemia, hypogonadism, short stature, and wide feet in both brothers, whereas hearing loss, renal failure, abnormal digits, history of developmental delay, scoliosis, hypertension, and alopecia were not observed in either brother. The older brother exhibited type 2 diabetic mellitus and obesity, whereas the younger brother had hyperinsulinemia and subclinical hypothyroidism.A novel ALMS1 mutation was identified by using whole-exome sequencing analysis, which is useful not only to identify a disease causing mutation but also to exclude other gene mutations. Although characteristic ophthalmologic findings and most systemic findings were similar between the brothers, the brothers differed slightly in terms of glucose tolerance and thyroid function.
- A Tale of Two Retinal Domains: Near-Optimal Sampling of Achromatic Contrasts in Natural Scenes through Asymmetric Photoreceptor Distribution. [Journal Article]
- Neuron 2013 Dec 4; 80(5):1206-17.
For efficient coding, sensory systems need to adapt to the distribution of signals to which they are exposed. In vision, natural scenes above and below the horizon differ in the distribution of chromatic and achromatic features. Consequently, many species differentially sample light in the sky and on the ground using an asymmetric retinal arrangement of short- (S, "blue") and medium- (M, "green") wavelength-sensitive photoreceptor types. Here, we show that in mice this photoreceptor arrangement provides for near-optimal sampling of natural achromatic contrasts. Two-photon population imaging of light-driven calcium signals in the synaptic terminals of cone-photoreceptors expressing a calcium biosensor revealed that S, but not M cones, preferred dark over bright stimuli, in agreement with the predominance of dark contrasts in the sky but not on the ground. Therefore, the different cone types do not only form the basis of "color vision," but in addition represent distinct (achromatic) contrast-selective channels.
- Variational analysis of the mouse and rat eye optical parameters. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biomed Opt Express 2013; 4(11):2585-2595.
Rodent models are increasingly used to study refractive eye development and development of refractive errors; however, there is still some uncertainty regarding the accuracy of the optical models of the rat and mouse eye primarily due to high variability in reported ocular parameters. In this work, we have systematically evaluated the contribution of various ocular parameters, such as radii of curvature of ocular surfaces, thicknesses of ocular components, and refractive indices of ocular refractive media, using variational analysis and a computational model of the rodent eye. Variational analysis revealed that not all variation in ocular parameters has critical impact on the refractive status of the eye. Variation in the depth of the vitreous chamber, thickness of the lens, radius of the anterior surface of the cornea, radius of the anterior surface of the lens, as well as refractive indices for the lens and vitreous, appears to have the largest impact on the refractive error. The radii of the posterior surfaces of the cornea and lens have much smaller contributions to the refractive state. These data provide the framework for further refinement of the optical models of the rat and mouse eye and suggest that extra efforts should be directed towards increasing the linear resolution of the rodent eye biometry and obtaining more accurate data for the refractive indices of the lens and vitreous.
- Introduction to the BODA 2013 feature issue. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biomed Opt Express 2013; 4(11):2507.
The guest editors introduce a feature issue containing papers based on research presented at the BODA 2013 meeting.
- The impact of display angles on the legibility of Sans-Serif 5 × 5 capitalized letters. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Appl Ergon 2013 Nov 27.
This paper introduced a laboratory study on quantifying the impact of display angles 0.0°-90.0° on the legibility of Sans-Serif 5 × 5 Capitalized Letters C, D, E, F, H, K, N, P, R, U, V, and Z, commonly used for acuity tests. This study addressed three issues not tackled in the previous studies, including (a) extremely large incident angles 82.8°-90°, (b) multiple letters other than a single letter E previously used, and (c) the interference of people's normal reading habit on legibility evaluation. A total of 20 young college students with Snellen acuity 20/20 or better and normal color vision participated in this experiment. They were asked to read viewing materials presented at 15 display angles. This study derived two equations and modified an existing legibility index to correct the interference of people's normal reading habit on legibility evaluation at extreme oblique display angles.
- Diagnosis of sirenomelia in the first trimester. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Ultrasound 2013 Nov 27.
Sirenomelia or "mermaid syndrome" is a rare congenital abnormality with an incidence of 1 in 60,000. We report a case diagnosed in the first trimester using two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and color Doppler ultrasound. With increasing emphasis on early diagnosis of fetal abnormalities, this case highlights the importance of looking for anomalies in the first trimester itself. In fact, the diagnosis of sirenomelia should be easier in the first trimester as severe oligohydramnios in later gestation hampers vision. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2013;