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- Influence of nanoparticle shape, size, and surface functionalization on cellular uptake. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2013 Oct; 13(10):6485-98.
With the rapid development of biotechnology and nanomedicine, extensive research has focused on the investigations of delivering large-cargo molecules using nanoparticles through the cell membrane for disease diagnosis and treatment. Various inorganic and polymeric nanoparticles with optimized surface properties have been developed to carry these active cargo molecules such as organic molecules, oligonucleotides and proteins. Phagocytosis and pinocytosis have been suggested as the two major uptake mechanisms for nanoparticles to enter into cellular interior, but such mechanisms are still under debate. In order to enhance the efficiency of cellular uptake of nanoparticles and further understand the physiological process, it is important to investigate detailed interaction mechanisms between nanoparticles and cell membranes. Here, we will review the recent advances of the effect of nanoparticle properties (e.g., nanoparticle shape, size, charge, surface modification, etc.) on cellular uptake mechanisms. These will aid in the future design and development of nanoparticles with improved surface properties for drug and biomolecule delivery. Up to now, novel analytical techniques have been used to examine nanoparticle-cell membrane interactions, but their detailed uptake mechanisms and pathways still need more in-depth research. It is suggested that developing appropriate analytical techniques to study cellular uptake mechanisms of nanoparticles in real time is urgently desired.
- Maturation inside and outside bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) modulated by interferon-α (IFN-α). [Journal Article]
- Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov; 17(3):843-9.
Interferons are made by cells in response to appropriate stimuli such as viruses, bacteria, parasites or tumor cells and are released into the surrounding medium. They then bind to receptors on target cells to allow for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that eradicate pathogens or tumors . IFN-α is produced by leukocytes and is mainly involved in innate immune response against viral or bacterial infections and for tumor control . The aim of this work is to explore the detailed modulation of IFN-α on phenotypic and functional maturation inside and outside murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The maturity of BMDCs post treatment with IFN-α was evaluated with conventional light microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for morphology changes; flow cytometry(FCM) for changes of surface molecules on BMDCs; cytochemistry, acid phosphatase activity(ACP) test, and FITC-dextran bio-assay for biochemistry analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokine production by BMDCs. We have shown that IFN-α 1) up-regulates the expression of MHC II, CD40, CD83, CD80 and CD86 molecules on BMDCs; 2) down-regulates the rates of pinocytosis and phagocytosis by BMDCs as evidenced by the results of decreased ACP, and FITC-dextran bio-assay; 3) enhances the ability of BMDCs to drive T cell function; and 4) induces higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-α secreted by BMDCs. Therefore, we conclude that IFN-α can efficiently promote the maturation of BMDCs through detailed modulation inside and outside BMDCs. Our study has provided more detailed data on changes of BMDCs modulated by IFN-α, and rationale on future application of IFN-α for enhancing host immunity and potent adjuvant administration in the design of DC-based vaccines.
- P2Y4 receptor-mediated pinocytosis contributes to amyloid beta-induced self-uptake by microglia. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Mol Cell Biol 2013 Nov; 33(21):4282-93.
Brain disturbances, like injuries or aberrant protein deposits, evoke nucleotide release or leakage from cells, leading to microglial chemotaxis and ingestion. Recent studies have identified P2Y12 purinergic receptors as triggers for microglial chemotaxis and P2Y6 receptors as mediators for phagocytosis. However, pinocytosis, known as the internalization of fluid-phase materials, has received much less attention. We found that ATP efficiently triggered pinocytosis in microglia. Pharmacological analysis and knockdown experiments demonstrated the involvement of P2Y4 receptors and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt cascade in the nucleotide-induced pinocytosis. Further evidence indicated that soluble amyloid beta peptide 1-42 induced self-uptake in microglia through pinocytosis, a process involving activation of P2Y4 receptors by autocrine ATP signaling. Our results demonstrate a previously unknown function of ATP as a "drink me" signal for microglia and P2Y4 receptors as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
- Silver nanoparticles inhibit vaccinia virus infection by preventing viral entry through a macropinocytosis-dependent mechanism. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Biomed Nanotechnol 2013 Sep; 9(9):1624-35.
Silver nanoparticles have been shown to inhibit viruses. However, very little is known about the mechanism of antiviral activity. This study tested the hypothesis that 25-nm silver nanoparticles inhibited Vaccinia virus replication by preventing viral entry. Plaque reduction, confocal microscopy, and beta-galactosidase reporter gene assays were used to examine viral attachment and entry in the presence and absence of silver nanoparticles. To explore the mechanism of inhibition, viral entry experiments were conducted with silver nanoparticles and small interfering RNAs designed to silence the gene coding for p21-activated kinase 1, a key mediator of macropinocytosis. The silver nanoparticles caused a 4- to 5-log reduction in viral titer at concentrations that were not toxic to cells. Virus was capable of adsorbing to cells but could not enter cells in the presence of silver nanoparticles. Virus particles that had adsorbed to cells in the presence of silver nanoparticles were found to be infectious upon removal from the cells, indicating lack of direct virucidal effect. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for viral entry in the presence of silver nanoparticles was 27.4+/-3.3 microg/ml. When macropinocytosis was blocked, this inhibition was significantly reduced. Thus, macropinocytosis was required for the full antiviral effect. For the first time, this study points to the novel result that a cellular process involved in viral entry is responsible for the antiviral effects of silver nanoparticles.
- Autophagy is involved in oligodendroglial precursor-mediated clearance of amyloid peptide. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Mol Neurodegener 2013.:27.
Accumulation of β-amyloid peptides is an important hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tremendous efforts have been directed to elucidate the mechanisms of β-amyloid peptides degradation and develop strategies to remove β-amyloid accumulation. In this study, we demonstrated that a subpopulation of oligodendroglial precursor cells, also called NG2 cells, were a new cell type that can clear β-amyloid peptides in the AD transgene mice and in NG2 cell line.NG2 cells were recruited and clustered around the amyloid plaque in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, which is Alzheimer's disease mouse model. In vitro, NG2 cell line and primary NG2 cells engulfed β-amyloid peptides through the mechanisms of endocytosis in a time dependent manner. Endocytosis is divided into pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Aβ(42) internalization by NG2 cells was mediated by actin-dependent macropinocytosis. The presence of β-amyloid peptides stimulated the autophagic pathway in NG2 cells. Once inside the cells, the β-amyloid peptides in NG2 cells were transported to lysosomes and degraded by autophagy.Our findings suggest that NG2 cells are a new cell type that can clear β-amyloid peptides through endocytosis and autophagy.
- Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate internalization and propagation of specific proteopathic seeds. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Aug 13; 110(33):E3138-47.
Recent experimental evidence suggests that transcellular propagation of fibrillar protein aggregates drives the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. This phenomenon is now well described in cell and animal models and involves the release of protein aggregates into the extracellular space. Free aggregates then enter neighboring cells to seed further fibrillization. The mechanism by which aggregated extracellular proteins such as tau and α-synuclein bind and enter cells to trigger intracellular fibril formation is unknown. Prior work indicates that prion protein aggregates bind heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the cell surface to transmit pathologic processes. Here, we find that tau fibril uptake also occurs via HSPG binding. This is blocked in cultured cells and primary neurons by heparin, chlorate, heparinase, and genetic knockdown of a key HSPG synthetic enzyme, Ext1. Interference with tau binding to HSPGs prevents recombinant tau fibrils from inducing intracellular aggregation and blocks transcellular aggregate propagation. In vivo, a heparin mimetic, F6, blocks neuronal uptake of stereotactically injected tau fibrils. Finally, uptake and seeding by α-synuclein fibrils, but not huntingtin fibrils, occurs by the same mechanism as tau. This work suggests a unifying mechanism of cell uptake and propagation for tauopathy and synucleinopathy.
- Detailed modulation of phenotypes and functions of bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Oct; 17(2):366-72.
IFN-γ is a cytokine that plays crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular bacterial infections and for tumor control. IFN-γ is also a key activator of macrophages [1,2]. In the present study, we studied detailed modulation of IFN-γ on phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Phenotypic and functional maturation of BMDCs was evaluated by light microscope, flow cytometry(FCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytochemistry method, acid phosphatase activity(ACP), FITC-dextran bio-assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We elucidated that IFN-γ up-regulated the expression of MHC II, CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 molecules on BMDCs, down-regulated the activity of pinocytosis and phagocytosis by BMDCs, and induced higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-α secreted by BMDCs. It is therefore confirmed that IFN-γ can effectively promote the maturation of BMDCs. Our study provides more evidence and rationale on future application of IFN-γ for enhancing host immunity.
- Echovirus 1 entry into polarized Caco-2 cells depends on dynamin, cholesterol, and cellular factors associated with macropinocytosis. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Virol 2013 Aug; 87(16):8884-95.
Enteroviruses invade their hosts by crossing the intestinal epithelium. We have examined the mechanism by which echovirus 1 (EV1) enters polarized intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Virus binds to VLA-2 on the apical cell surface and moves rapidly to early endosomes. Using inhibitory drugs, dominant negative mutants, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to block specific endocytic pathways, we found that virus entry requires dynamin GTPase and membrane cholesterol but is independent of both clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis. Instead, infection requires factors commonly associated with macropinocytosis, including amiloride-sensitive Na(+)/H(+) exchange, protein kinase C, and C-terminal-binding protein-1 (CtBP1); furthermore, EV1 accumulates rapidly in intracellular vesicles with dextran, a fluid-phase marker. These results suggest a role for macropinocytosis in the process by which EV1 enters polarized cells to initiate infection.
- On the fate of MRI Gd-based contrast agents in cells. Evidence for extensive degradation of linear complexes upon endosomal internalization. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Anal Chem 2013 Jun 18; 85(12):5627-31.
Commercial Gd-containing complexes are often used as MRI reporters in cellular labeling procedures as they are internalized into endosomes by pinocytosis. A methodology has been applied to assess the relative stability of three commercial Gd contrast agents following cellular uptake in fibroblasts and macrophages. It has been found that the acyclic series of Gd MRI contrast agents are degraded much more rapidly than their macrocyclic analogues, following endosomal internalization into living cells. This helps to explain their causal role in the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in renally impaired patients. The methodology has also been applied to assess the fate of Gd-DTPA-BMA-loaded liposomes upon their endosomal internalization. Resistant liposomes prevent the degradation of the complex, whereas liposomes designed to release their payload in the acidic environments show a loss of integrity of Gd-DTPA-BMA analogous to the one observed upon internalization of the free complex.
- Hypoxic and Ras-transformed cells support growth by scavenging unsaturated fatty acids from lysophospholipids. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 May 28; 110(22):8882-7.
Cancer cell growth requires fatty acids to replicate cellular membranes. The kinase Akt is known to up-regulate fatty acid synthesis and desaturation, which is carried out by the oxygen-consuming enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1. We used (13)C tracers and lipidomics to probe fatty acid metabolism, including desaturation, as a function of oncogene expression and oxygen availability. During hypoxia, flux from glucose to acetyl-CoA decreases, and the fractional contribution of glutamine to fatty acid synthesis increases. In addition, we find that hypoxic cells bypass de novo lipogenesis, and thus, both the need for acetyl-CoA and the oxygen-dependent SCD1-reaction, by scavenging serum fatty acids. The preferred substrates for scavenging are phospholipids with one fatty acid tail (lysophospholipids). Hypoxic reprogramming of de novo lipogenesis can be reproduced in normoxic cells by Ras activation. This renders Ras-driven cells, both in culture and in allografts, resistant to SCD1 inhibition. Thus, a mechanism by which oncogenic Ras confers metabolic robustness is through lipid scavenging.