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- The contribution of cell surface FcRn in monoclonal antibody serum uptake from the intestine in suckling rat pups. [Journal Article]
- Front Pharmacol 2014.:225.
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in intestinal epithelium is the primary mechanism for transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) from suckled milk to serum; but the factors contributing to the rapid uptake of IgG are poorly understood. These studies help to determine the contribution of cell surface FcRn in IgG uptake in 2-week-old rat pups by varying local pH and binding conditions. Variants of a human wild-type (WT) IgG monoclonal antibody (mAb WT) were assessed for binding affinity (KD) to rat (r)FcRn at pH 6.0 and subsequent off-rate at pH 7.4 (1/s) by surface plasmon resonance. Selected mAbs were administered intra-intestinally in isoflurane-anesthetized 2-week rat pups. Full length mAb in serum was quantified by immunoassay, (r)FcRn mRNA expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and mAb epithelial localization was visualized by immunohistochemistry. After duodenal administration, serum levels of mAb variants correlated with their rFcRn off-rate at pH 7.4, but not their affinity at pH 6.0. The greatest serum levels of IgG were measured when mAb was administered in the duodenum where rFcRn mRNA expression is greatest, and was increased further by duodenal administration in pH 6.0 buffer. More intense human IgG immunostaining was detected in epithelium than the same variant administered at higher pH. These data suggest an increased contribution for cell surface receptor. We conclude that, in the neonate duodenum, receptor off-rates are as important as affinities for FcRn mediated uptake, and cell surface binding of IgG to rFcRn plays contributes to IgG uptake alongside pinocytosis; both of which responsible for increased IgG uptake.
- Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Transglutaminase 2 Expression Enhances Endocytosis Activity in the Mouse Microglial Cell Line BV-2. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuroimmunomodulation 2014 Oct 3.
Objectives:In peripheral macrophages, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) is reported to be involved in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. However, the contribution of TG2 to microglial phagocytosis has not been investigated. In this study, using a microglial cell line, BV-2, we examined the changes in TG2 expression, phagocytosis and pinocytosis in cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Methods:Cells of the mouse microglial cell line BV-2 were stimulated by LPS with or without cystamine, an inhibitor of TG enzyme activity, for 24 h. TG2 expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. TG activity was evaluated using biotinylated pentylamine as a substrate. Pinocytosis was determined by uptake of 1-µm fluorescent microbeads. Phagocytosis was assessed by uptake of dead cells, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which were pretreated with H2O2 for 24 h.
Results:Phagocytosis of dead cells and pinocytosis of fluorescent microbeads were up-regulated by LPS stimulation together with TG2 expression. Blockade of TG enzyme activity by cystamine suppressed TG2 expression, phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
Conclusions:These results suggested that LPS-induced TG2 was involved in the mechanism of pinocytosis and phagocytosis in microglia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Regional lymph nodes in the liver of rats in functional pinealectomy. [Journal Article]
- Bull Exp Biol Med 2014 Sep; 157(5):649-53.
The effects of functional pinealectomy on the morphological organization of the regional lymph nodes in the liver of rats were studied. Shrinkage of follicles (with increased percentage of germinative centers in them) and reduced count of mature lymphoid cells in the medullary cords indicated more intense migration of B cells from these B-dependent zones. High counts of medium and small lymphocytes in the paracortical zone reflected increasing release of circulating T cells from the blood. Intensification of pinocytosis in dendritic (interdegitating) cells and of fibroblastic reticular cells and activation of protein synthesis in plasma cells indicated activation of immune reactions. Increase in the relative area of lymph node sinuses reflected strained status of their drainage system.
- Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates the stimulating activities of chitosan oligosaccharide on macrophages. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Immunopharmacol 2014 Sep 16; 23(1):254-261.
The in vivo and in vitro immunostimulating properties of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan and the mechanisms mediating the effects were investigated. Our data showed that the highly active chitosanase isolated could hydrolyze chitosan to the polymerization degree of 3-8. The resulting COS was an efficient immunostimulator. COS markedly enhanced the proliferation and neutral red phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 macrophages. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by macrophages was significantly increased after incubation with COS. Oral administration of COS in mice could increase spleen index and serum immunoglobin G (IgG) contents. COS was labeled with FITC to study the pinocytosis by macrophages. Results showed that FITC-COS was phagocyted by macrophages and anti-murine TLR4 antibody completely blocked FITC-COS pinocytosis. RT-PCR indicated that COS treatment of macrophages significantly increased TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels. When cells were pretreated with anti-murine TLR4 antibody, the effect of COS on TLR4 and iNOS mRNA induction was decreased. COS-induced NO secretion by macrophages was also markedly decreased by anti-murine TLR4 antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, the present study revealed that COS possesses potent immune-stimulating properties by activating TLR4 on macrophages.
- A tagged parathyroid hormone derivative as a carrier of antibody cargoes transported by the G protein coupled PTH1 receptor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Peptides 2014 Aug 12.
Based on the known fact that the parathyroid hormone (PTH) might be extended at its C-terminus with biotechnological protein cargoes, a vector directing the secretion of PTH1-84 C-terminally fused with the antigenic epitope myc (PTH-myc) was exploited. The functional properties and potential of this analog for imaging PTH1R-expressing cells were examined. The PTH-myc construct was recombinantly produced as a conditioned medium (CM) of transfected HEK 293a cells (typical concentrations of 187nM estimated with ELISAs for PTH). PTH-myc CM induced cyclic AMP formation (10min), with a minor loss of potency relative to authentic PTH1-84, and c-Fos expression (1-3h). Treatment of recipient HEK 293a cells transiently expressing PTH1R with PTH-myc CM (supplemented with a fluorescent monoclonal anti-myc tag antibody, either 4A6 or 9E10) allowed the labeling of endosomal structures positive for Rab5 and/or for β-arrestin1 (microscopy, cytofluorometry). Authentic PTH was inactive in this respect, ruling out a non-specific form of endocytosis like pinocytosis. Using a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody, the endocytosis of the PTH-myc-based antibody complex by endogenous PTH1R was evidenced in MG-63 osteoblastoid cells. The secreted construct PTH-myc represent a bona fide agonist that support the feasibility of transporting cargoes of considerable molecular weight inside cells using arrestin and Rab5-mediated PTH1R endocytosis. PTH-myc is also transported into cells that express PTH1R at a physiological level. Such tagged peptide hormones may be part of a cancer chemotherapy scheme exploiting a modular cytotoxic secondary antibody and the receptor repertoire expressed in a given tumor.
- Delivery of antisense peptide nucleic acids to cells by conjugation with small arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (R/W)9. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(8):e104999.
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are very attractive antisense and antigene agents, but these molecules are not passively taken into cells. Here, using a functional cell assay and fluorescent-based methods, we investigated cell uptake and antisense activity of a tridecamer PNA that targets the HIV-1 polypurine tract sequence delivered using the arginine-rich (R/W)9 peptide (RRWWRRWRR). At micromolar concentrations, without use of any transfection agents, almost 80% inhibition of the target gene expression was obtained with the conjugate in the presence of the endosomolytic agent chloroquine. We show that chloroquine not only induced escape from endosomes but also enhanced the cellular uptake of the conjugate. Mechanistic studies revealed that (R/W)9-PNA conjugates were internalized via pinocytosis. Replacement of arginines with lysines reduced the uptake of the conjugate by six-fold, resulting in the abolition of intracellular target inhibition. Our results show that the arginines play a crucial role in the conjugate uptake and antisense activity. To determine whether specificity of the interactions of arginines with cell surface proteoglycans result in the internalization, we used flow cytometry to examine uptake of arginine- and lysine-rich conjugates in wild-type CHO-K1 and proteoglycan-deficient A745 cells. The uptake of both conjugates was decreased by four fold in CHO-745 cells; therefore proteoglycans promote internalization of cationic peptides, irrespective of the chemical nature of their positive charges. Our results show that arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides, especially (R/W)9, are a promising tool for PNA internalization.
- Endocytosis of collagen by hepatic stellate cells regulates extracellular matrix dynamics. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2014 Oct 1; 307(7):C622-33.
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) generate matrix, which in turn may also regulate HSCs function during liver fibrosis. We hypothesized that HSCs may endocytose matrix proteins to sense and respond to changes in microenvironment. Primary human HSCs, LX2, or mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) [wild-type; c-abl(-/-); or Yes, Src, and Fyn knockout mice (YSF(-/-))] were incubated with fluorescent-labeled collagen or gelatin. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and confocal microscopy were used for measuring cellular internalization of matrix proteins. Targeted PCR array and quantitative real-time PCR were used to evaluate gene expression changes. HSCs and LX2 cells endocytose collagens in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Endocytosed collagen colocalized with Dextran 10K, a marker of macropinocytosis, and 5-ethylisopropyl amiloride, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis, reduced collagen internalization by 46%. Cytochalasin D and ML7 blocked collagen internalization by 47% and 45%, respectively, indicating that actin and myosin are critical for collagen endocytosis. Wortmannin and AKT inhibitor blocked collagen internalization by 70% and 89%, respectively, indicating that matrix macropinocytosis requires phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling. Overexpression of dominant-negative dynamin-2 K44A blocked matrix internalization by 77%, indicating a role for dynamin-2 in matrix macropinocytosis. Whereas c-abl(-/-) MEF showed impaired matrix endocytosis, YSF(-/-) MEF surprisingly showed increased matrix endocytosis. It was also associated with complex gene regulations that related with matrix dynamics, including increased matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) mRNA levels and zymographic activity. HSCs endocytose matrix proteins through macropinocytosis that requires a signaling network composed of PI3K/AKT, dynamin-2, and c-abl. Interaction with extracellular matrix regulates matrix dynamics through modulating multiple gene expressions including MMP-9.
- Extracellular ATP is internalized by macropinocytosis and induces intracellular ATP increase and drug resistance in cancer cells. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cancer Lett 2014 Sep 1; 351(2):242-51.
ATP plays central roles in cancer metabolism and the Warburg effect. Intratumoral ATP concentrations are up to 10(4) times higher than those of interstitial ATP in normal tissues. However, extracellular ATP is not known to enter cancer cells. Here we report that human A549 lung cancer cells internalized extracellular ATP by macropinocytosis as demonstrated by colocalization of a nonhydrolyzable fluorescent ATP and a macropinocytosis tracer high-molecular-weight dextran, as well as by a macropinocytosis inhibitor study. Extracellular ATP also induced increase of intracellular ATP levels, without involving transcription and translation at significant levels, and cancer cells' resistance to ATP-competitor anticancer drugs, likely through the mechanism of ATP internalization. These findings, described for the first time, have profound implications in ATP-sharing among cancer cells in tumors and highlight a novel anticancer target.
- [Ultrastructural changes in endothelial cells of blood capillaries of the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma while treated with melatonin]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vopr Onkol 2014; 60(2):80-3.
In Wistar rats with transplanted Walker 256 carcinosarcoma a use of melatonin as monoagent causes changes in intracellular organization of endothelial cells: reduced volume density of mitochondria, granular cytoplasmic network, micropinocytic vesicles, reduced the number density of free and attached ribosomes, which leads to increased apoptosis of tumor cells of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma.