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- Adherence to raloxifene therapy: assessment methods and relationship with efficacy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 May 22.
Response to therapy depends on patient compliance but accurate assessment is difficult and adequate levels of adherence are uncertain. Adherence to raloxifene treatment may be assessed more accurately by electronic monitoring than by counting returned tablets. The level of adherence is positively associated with the degree of bone response.
INTRODUCTION:Adherence to study medication is usually estimated by counting returned tablets. This method relies on subjects' honesty and may be inaccurate. We aimed to assess adherence more accurately, and examine its effect on measures of bone response, by using electronic monitoring.
METHODS:Osteopenic women, ages 50 to 80, were prescribed daily raloxifene for 2 years. Electronic bottle caps (Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), Aardex) recorded the date and time on opening. Returned tablets were also counted. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in duplicate at the spine and hip at baseline and 2 years. We also measured urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) at baseline, 1 and 2 years. We calculated the percentage changes in BMD and NTX from mean baseline to mean follow up measurements. Percentage adherence was assessed by both methods for 71 subjects that completed the study.
RESULTS:The two methods correlated significantly (p <0.001, Spearman's rho = 0.73) but the tablet count showed a higher median adherence than the MEMS caps (95.7 vs. 85.0 %, p <0.001), with greater divergence at lower adherence levels. MEMS adherence in 65 subjects with complete data correlated with NTX response (p <0.01, rho = -0.33) but with BMD response only at the femoral neck. However, adherence in the lowest quartile was associated with poorer BMD response at all sites (p <0.05).
CONCLUSION:Tablet counts may give similar results overall but conceal substantial individual non-adherence. Monitoring caps may assess adherence more accurately than tablet counts and would be the preferred method in clinical trials. The degree of adherence is associated with both bone turnover and BMD responses to anti-resorptive therapy.
- Economic evaluation of breast cancer prevention agents: comparing tamoxifen, raloxifene and exemestane. [Journal Article]
- Value Health 2013 May; 16(3):A140-1.
- Characterization of raloxifene glucuronidation. Potential role of UGT1A8 genotype on raloxifene metabolism in vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2013 May 16.
Raloxifene is a 2nd-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and the prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is extensively metabolized by glucuronidation to form raloxifene-6-glucuronide (ral-6-Gluc) and raloxifene-4'-glucuronide (ral-4'-Gluc). The goal of the present study was to determine whether functional polymorphisms in active UGTs could play a role in altered raloxifene glucuronidation in vivo. Using homogenates from HEK293 UGT-overexpressing cell lines, raloxifene was shown to be glucuronidated primarily by the hepatic UGTs 1A1 and 1A9 and the extra-hepatic UGTs 1A8 and 1A10; no detectable raloxifene glucuronidation activity was found for UGT2B enzymes. Functional UGT1A1 transcriptional promoter genotypes were significantly (ptrend=0.005) associated with ral-6-Gluc formation in human liver microsomes, and, consistent with the decreased raloxifene glucuronidation activities observed in vitro with cell line over-expressing UGT1A8 variants, the UGT1A8*2 variant was significantly (p=0.023) correlated with total raloxifene glucuronide formation in human jejunum homogenates. While ral-4'-Gluc exhibited 1/100th the anti-estrogenic activity of raloxifene itself as measured by binding to the estrogen receptor, raloxifene glucuronides comprised ~99% of the circulating raloxifene dose in raloxifene-treated subjects, with ral-4'-Gluc comprising ~70% of raloxifene glucuronides. Plasma ral-6-Gluc (ptrend=0.0025), ral-4'-Gluc (ptrend=0.001), and total raloxifene glucuronides (ptrend=0.001) were increased in raloxifene-treated subjects who were predicted slow metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*3)] vs intermediate metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*1) or UGT1A8 (*1/*2)] vs fast metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*2/*2). These data suggest that raloxifene metabolism may be dependent on UGT1A8 genotype and that UGT1A8 genotype may play an important role in overall response to raloxifene.
- Heart failure in patients treated with bisphosphonates. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Intern Med 2013 May 16.
OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of heart failure in patients treated with bisphosphonates.
DESIGN:In this nationwide retrospective cohort study from Denmark, all users of bisphosphonates and raloxifene between 1996 and 2006 (n = 102,342) were included in the 'exposed' group and three age- and gender-matched subjects (n = 307.026) from the general population comprised the control group. The risk of heart failure was estimated by Cox proportional hazard analyses.
RESULTS:The mean follow-up times were 2.8, 5.5 and 4.9 years for alendronate-, etidronate- and raloxifene-treated patients, respectively. The absolute risk of heart failure was 4.4% in the exposed group and 3.7% in the control group (P < 0.01). The relative risk (RR) of heart failure was significantly increased in users of bisphophonates: crude RR 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.63-1.79]; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41 (95% CI 1.34-1.48). By comparison, raloxifene, which is used for the same indication but has a different mechanism of action, was not associated with an increased risk of heart failure: adjusted HR 1.07 (95% CI 0.76-1.50). When the two most commonly used bisphosphonates, alendronate and etidronate, were analysed separately, significant trends in the risk of heart failure were observed across refill compliance strata. The risk of heart failure increased significantly with increasing refill compliance for etidronate (P for trend <0.01), whereas decreased for alendronate (P for trend <0.01).
CONCLUSIONS:Bisphosphonate users were at increased risk of heart failure compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects. However, users of alendronate showed a dose-dependent reduction of this risk, suggesting that alendronate may reduce the risk of heart failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Vaginal effects of ospemifene in the ovariectomized rat preclinical model of menopause. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2013 May 9.
Ospemifene is a unique selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with demonstrated efficacy in Phase 3 studies of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). This report describes 4 preclinical studies on the effects of ospemifene in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of menopause. Ospemifene (10mg/kg/day) and the SERM comparator, raloxifene (10mg/kg/day) were administered for 2 weeks and both increased vaginal weight; ospemifene was more effective than raloxifene. In addition, ospemifene had a greater effect on increasing vaginal epithelial height compared with raloxifene. The effect on uterine weight was less pronounced for both ospemifene and raloxifene. The ED50 of ospemifene on vaginal epithelial height was 0.39mg/kg/day and the magnitude was nearly the same as was seen with the positive control, ethinyl estradiol (EE2). In a histological analysis of ospemifene-treated rat vaginas, basal cells were overlaid by 2- to 3-cell layers of thickened goblet-like mucified cells apically; however, the cornification observed with EE2 was absent. Estrogenic activity of ospemifene was confirmed by upregulation of progesterone receptors in vaginal epithelium and stroma. Ospemifene showed similar affinity for estrogen receptor (ER)-α and ER-β, but an overall lower affinity than estradiol. Ospemifene antagonized estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated transactivation on MCF-7 cells, confirming its anti-estrogenic activity in breast cancer cells. The dose response for ospemifene in the rat is consistent with that observed in clinical studies of ospemifene 30 and 60mg, showing that the OVX rat is a highly predictive model of SERM activity in postmenopausal VVA.
- The benefits of estrogen or selective estrogen receptor modulator on kidney and its related disease-chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder: Osteoporosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Chin Med Assoc 2013 May 9.
An umbrella concept addressing the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mineral and bone disorders has been developed in recent years. Given the high prevalence of osteoporosis-related fractures in postmenopausal women with CKD, especially those undergoing chronic hemodialysis, the strategy used in the prevention and management of CKD and its associated osteoporosis in these postmenopausal women has become a topic of substantial debate. This controversy has ongoing relevance because osteoporosis results in a significant economic burden secondary to increased morbidity and mortality. The perfect goal of treatment and prevention includes both bone protection and renal protection, or at least protection of one disease without compromising the other disease. Both CKD and osteoporosis are frequently observed in the same patients, and often have parallel progression in postmenopausal women. Estrogen, the main female hormone during reproductive age, has been reported to have a protective effect on kidney fibrosis in several animal models, and is also considered one of the most effective drugs in the management of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and prevention of osteoporosis. However, due to the many adverse events associated with the use of estrogen with and without progestin, some of which have contributed to significant morbidity and mortality, drug modification, which has had fewer reported incidences of adverse events without compromising the protective effect on both the kidney and bone, may have an easier road to acceptance. Therapeutic alternatives, such as the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), have shown the benefits of estrogen on bone, serum lipid levels, and renal protection, without any adverse effects on the breast and endometrium. The Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation trial (MORE) and its extension-Continuing Outcomes Relevant to Evista (CORE), a double-blind, randomized clinical trial encompassing postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, showed promising results in both bone and renal studies. Raloxifene increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and femoral neck and reduced the risk of vertebral fracture. In addition, raloxifene slowed the increase in the rate of serum creatinine and also significantly slowed the decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate; of most importance, raloxifene use was associated with significantly fewer kidney-related adverse events. Hemodialyzed women on raloxifene treatment demonstrated increased trabecular BMD, a decrease in bone resorption markers, and a decrease in the low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol value. Thus, raloxifene and, most likely, other SERMs could be better in place of estrogen in the management of postmenopausal women with CKD and its associated osteoporosis, although much evidence should be provided in the advanced-stage CKD, especially in the Stage 5 CKD patients on dialysis.
- Individualized fracture risk assessment: progresses and challenges. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Rheumatol 2013 May 7.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Fragility fracture is a major public health burden, because it is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality. Risk prediction models, including the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator (GFRC), have been developed to provide a useful clinical framework for communicating the risk of fracture. The present review examines the validation of risk prediction models in osteoporosis and identifies some major challenges.
RECENT FINDINGS:Recent validation studies suggested that the area under the ROC curve in fracture discrimination ranged from 0.61 to 0.83 for FRAX, and from 0.63 to 0.88 for GFRC, with hip fracture having a better discrimination than fragility fractures as a group. FRAX substantially underestimated the risk of fracture, whereas the predicted risk by GFRC was close to or slightly higher than the actual risk. Results of post-hoc analyses of clinical trials indicated the antifracture efficacy of alendronate, coronate, bazedoxifene, and denosumab was greater in patients with higher predicted risk of fracture. However, there was no correlation between antifracture efficacy and predicted fracture risk among patients on raloxifene and strontium ranelate.
SUMMARY:The prognostic performance of FRAX and GFRC for fracture prediction is not perfect, but these predictive models can aid patients and doctors to communicate about fracture risk in the medium term and to make rational decisions. However, the application of these predictive models in making decisions for an individual should take into account the individual's perception of the importance of the risk of fracture and its severity outcomes.
- Adjuvant raloxifene treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. [Letter]
- Asian J Psychiatr 2013 Jun; 6(3):254-5.
- Selective oestrogen receptor modulators in prevention of breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis of individual participant data. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lancet 2013 Apr 29.
BACKGROUND:Tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at elevated risk of disease, but the duration of the effect is unknown. We assessed the effectiveness of selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on breast cancer incidence.
METHODS:We did a meta-analysis with individual participant data from nine prevention trials comparing four selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs; tamoxifen, raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene) with placebo, or in one study with tamoxifen. Our primary endpoint was incidence of all breast cancer (including ductal carcinoma in situ) during a 10 year follow-up period. Analysis was by intention to treat.
RESULTS:We analysed data for 83 399 women with 306 617 women-years of follow-up. Median follow-up was 65 months (IQR 54-93). Overall, we noted a 38% reduction (hazard ratio [HR] 0·62, 95% CI 0·56-0·69) in breast cancer incidence, and 42 women would need to be treated to prevent one breast cancer event in the first 10 years of follow-up. The reduction was larger in the first 5 years of follow-up than in years 5-10 (42%, HR 0·58, 0·51-0·66; p<0·0001 vs 25%, 0·75, 0·61-0·93; p=0·007), but we noted no heterogeneity between time periods. Thromboembolic events were significantly increased with all SERMs (odds ratio 1·73, 95% CI 1·47-2·05; p<0·0001). We recorded a significant reduction of 34% in vertebral fractures (0·66, 0·59-0·73), but only a small effect for non-vertebral fractures (0·93, 0·87-0·99).
INTERPRETATION:For all SERMs, incidence of invasive oestrogen (ER)-positive breast cancer was reduced both during treatment and for at least 5 years after completion. Similar to other preventive interventions, careful consideration of risks and benefits is needed to identify women who are most likely to benefit from these drugs. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK.
- Raloxifene modifies the insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of postmenopausal insulin resistant women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 May 2.