- [Raloxifene - an unexploited possibility of prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis]. [Journal Article]
- VLVnitr Lek 2016; 62(10):781-788
- Long-term estrogen deficiency after menopause is responsible for different disorders, which not only make the quality of life in the older age worse but also are the major causes of womens mortality....
Long-term estrogen deficiency after menopause is responsible for different disorders, which not only make the quality of life in the older age worse but also are the major causes of womens mortality. It is especially the case for cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Aim of this review is to point at efficacy of raloxifene (a selective estrogen receptor modulator) in the long-term care of the women in their non-reproductive period of life, and namely in prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.Key words: bone turnover - breast cancer - postmenopausal osteoporosis - prevention - raloxifene.
- Fracture risk and healthcare resource utilization and costs among osteoporosis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without diabetes mellitus in Japan: retrospective analysis of a hospital claims database. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Musculoskelet Disord 2016 Nov 25; 17(1):489
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that comorbid T2DM increases fracture incidence in patients with osteoporosis, compared with patients without DM. Increases in fracture incidence were accompanied by greater costs and healthcare resource utilization, which are important considerations for clinical practice in Japan. Further research investigating the use of raloxifene for treatment of osteoporosis with comorbid T2DM may also be warranted.
- Quantification of pathway crosstalk reveals novel synergistic drug combinations for breast cancer. [Journal Article]
- CRCancer Res 2016 Nov 22
- Combinatorial therapeutic approaches are an imperative to improve cancer treatment, since it is critical to impede compensatory signaling mechanisms that can engender drug resistance to individual ta...
Combinatorial therapeutic approaches are an imperative to improve cancer treatment, since it is critical to impede compensatory signaling mechanisms that can engender drug resistance to individual targeted drugs. Currently approved drug combinations result largely from empirical clinical experience and cover only a small fraction of a vast therapeutic space. Here we present a computational network biology approach, based on pathway crosstalk inhibition, to discover new synergistic drug combinations for breast cancer treatment. In silico analysis identified 390 novel anti-cancer drug pairs belonging to 10 drug classes that are likely to diminish pathway crosstalk and display synergistic anti-tumor effects. Ten novel drug combinations were validated experimentally, and seven of these exhibited synergy in human breast cancer cell lines. In particular, we found that one novel combination, pairing the estrogen response modifier raloxifene with the c-Met/VEGFR2 kinase inhibitor cabozantinib, dramatically potentiated the drugs' individual anti-tumor effects in a mouse model of breast cancer. When compared to high-throughput combinatorial studies without computational prioritization, our approach offers a significant advance capable of uncovering broad-spectrum utility across many cancer types.
- Effectiveness of Osteoporosis Drug in Postmenopausal Women with Spinal Compression Fracture: Combined Consecutive Therapy of Teriparatide and Raloxifene versus Bisphosphonate Single. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Neurotrauma 2016; 12(2):123-127
- CONCLUSIONS: The combination therapy of teriparatide and SERM was very effective in treating the lumbar spine, compared to that of bisphosphonate. Although the period of teriparatide treatment has been relatively short, the preventive effects of compression fracture were considerable. Thus, combination therapy of teriparatide and SERM is highly recommended for patients who are concerned with spinal compression fracture from osteoporosis.
- Prevention of breast cancer. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Aust 2016 Nov 21; 205(10):475-479
- Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to runn...
Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.
- Metabolism and toxicological implications of commonly used chemopreventive drugs against breast cancer/carcinogenesis. [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Drug Metab 2016 Nov 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The aromatase inhibitors seem to be most appropriate when it comes to application by virtue of their metabolic functions and fates. The reason is that raloxifene and tamoxifen are not the ideal drugs to reduce the incidence of primary invasive breast cancer because their safety and efficacy don't reach the desired optimal agent level. However, adequate care should be taken while prescribing, as well as during and after treatment with constant close monitoring of patients for any possible biochemical and clinical manifestations vis-à-vis the issue of pharmacogenetics.
- Raloxifene increases prefrontal activity during emotional inhibition in schizophrenia based on estrogen receptor genotype. [Journal Article]
- ENEur Neuropsychopharmacol 2016 Nov 11
- People with schizophrenia show decreased prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during emotional response inhibition, a cognitive process sensitive to hormonal influences. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen ...
People with schizophrenia show decreased prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during emotional response inhibition, a cognitive process sensitive to hormonal influences. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, binds estrogen receptor alpha (ESR-α), improves memory, attention and normalizes cortical and hippocampal activity during learning and emotional face recognition in schizophrenia. Here, we tested the extent to which raloxifene restores neuronal activity during emotional response inhibition in schizophrenia. Since genetic variation in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR-1) determines cortical ESR-α production and correlates with cognition, we also predicted that genetic ESR-1 variation would differentially relate to increased cortical activity by raloxifene administration. Thirty people with schizophrenia participated in a thirteen-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over adjunctive treatment trial of raloxifene administered at 120mg/day. Effects of raloxifene on brain activation were assessed based on ESR-1 genotype using functional magnetic resonance imaging during emotional word inhibition. Raloxifene increased PFC activity during inhibition of response to negative words and the raloxifene related increased PFC activity was greater in patients homozygous for ESR-1 rs9340799 AA relative to G carriers. Comparison to 23 healthy controls demonstrated that PFC activity of people with schizophrenia receiving raloxifene was more similar to controls than to their own brain activity during placebo. Estrogen receptor modulation by raloxifene restores PFC activity during emotional response inhibition in schizophrenia and ESR-1 genotype predicts degree of increased neural activity in response to raloxifene. While these preliminary results require replication, they suggest the potential for personalized pharmacotherapy using ESR-1 and estrogen receptor targeting compounds in schizophrenia.
- Histamine H3 receptors and its antagonism as a novel mechanism for antipsychotic effect: a current preclinical & clinical perspective. [Review]
- IJInt J Health Sci (Qassim) 2016; 10(4):564-575
- Histamine H3 receptors are present as autoreceptors on histaminergic neurons and as heteroreceptors on nonhistaminergic neurones. They control the release and synthesis of histamine and several other...
Histamine H3 receptors are present as autoreceptors on histaminergic neurons and as heteroreceptors on nonhistaminergic neurones. They control the release and synthesis of histamine and several other key neurotransmitters in the brain. H3 antagonism may be a novel approach to develop a new class of antipsychotic medications given the gathering evidence reporting therapeutic efficacy in several central nervous system disorders. Several medications such as cariprazine, lurasidone, LY214002, bexarotene, rasagiline, raloxifene, BL-1020 and ITI-070 are being developed to treat the negative symptoms and cognitive impairments of schizophrenia. These medications works through diverse mechanisms which include agonism at metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3), partial agonism at dopamine D2, D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, antagonism at D2, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptors, combined dopamine antagonism with GABA agonist activity, inhibition of monoamine oxidase-B, modulation of oestrogen receptor, and activation of nuclear retinoid X receptor. However, still specific safe therapy for psychosis remains at large. Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder result both from hyper- and hypo-dopaminergic transmission causing positive and negative symptoms, respectively. Pharmacological stimulation of dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex has been a viable approach in treating negative symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia symptoms that are currently not well treated and continue to represent significant unmet medical challenges. Administration of H3 antagonists/inverse agonists increase extracellular dopamine concentrations in rat prefrontal cortex, but not in the striatum suggesting that antagonism via H3 receptor may be a potential target for treating negative symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Further, insights are emerging into the potential role of histamine H3 receptors as a target of antiobesity therapeutics which is one of the limiting adverse effects of second generation schizophrenia medications. The recent failures of two promising H3 compounds in clinical trial dampened the interest in seeking antipsychotic like activities of H3 receptor antagonists. However, due to the inconclusive nature of many of these studies, the development of H3 compounds via H3 antagonism/inverse agonism approach still hold lot of promises and may be developed as a novel class of drugs for schizophrenia and its related complications e.g. weight gain.
- Effects of raloxifene against letrozole-induced bone loss in chemically-induced model of menopause in mice. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Endocrinol 2016 Nov 08; 440:34-43
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates the potential of raloxifene in preventing and attenuating letrozole-induced bone loss. Further, these effects were found to be independent of a pharmacokinetic interaction between the two drugs.
New Search Next
- Ovariectomy-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Calcium Ion Influx Through TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 Are Prevented by 17β-Estradiol, Tamoxifen, and Raloxifene in the Hippocampus and Dorsal Root Ganglion of Rats. [Journal Article]
- MNMol Neurobiol 2016 Nov 10
- Relative 17β-estradiol (E2) deprivation and excessive production of mitochondrial oxygen free radicals (OFRs) with a high amount of Ca(2+) influx TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 activity is one of the main c...
Relative 17β-estradiol (E2) deprivation and excessive production of mitochondrial oxygen free radicals (OFRs) with a high amount of Ca(2+) influx TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 activity is one of the main causes of neurodegenerative disease in postmenopausal women. In addition to the roles of tamoxifen (TMX) and raloxifene (RLX) in cancer and bone loss treatments, regulator roles in Ca(2+) influx and mitochondrial oxidative stress in neurons have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMX and RLX interactions with TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in primary hippocampal (HPC) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron cultures of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty female rats were divided into five groups: a control group, an OVX group, an OVX+E2 group, an OVX+TMX group, and an OVX+RLX group. The OVX+E2, OVX+TMX, and OVX+RLX groups received E2, TMX, and RLX, respectively, for 14 days after the ovariectomy. E2, ovariectomy-induced TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 current densities, as well as accumulation of cytosolic free Ca(2+) in the neurons, were returned to the control levels by E2, TMX, and RLX treatments. In addition, E2, TMX, and RLX via modulation of TRPM2 and TRPV1 activity reduced ovariectomy-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptosis, and cytosolic OFR production. TRPM2, TRPV1, PARP, and caspase-3 and caspase-9 expressions were also decreased in the neurons by the E2, TMX, and RLX treatments. In conclusion, we first reported the molecular effects of E2, TMX, and RLX on TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 channel activation in the OVX rats. In addition, we observed neuroprotective effects of E2, RLX, and TMX on oxidative and apoptotic injuries of the hippocampus and peripheral pain sensory neurons (DRGs) in the OVX rats. Graphical Abstract Possible molecular pathways of involvement of DEX in cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and calcium accumulation through TRPA1, TRPM2 and TRPV1 in the hippocampus and DRG neurons of rats. The N domain of the TRPM2 contains ADP-ribose (ADPR) pyrophosphate enzyme, which is separately activated by ADPR and oxidative stress, although the channel is reversibly inhibited by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA). The TRPV1 is also activated by mitochondrial oxidative stress and capsaicin, and it is blocked by capsazepine (CPZ). TRPA1 is also activated by oxidative stress it is inhibited by AP18. Increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration through TRPA1, TRPM2 and TRPV1 in ovariectomized (OVX) rats may lead to neuronal toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) processes, and eventual cell death. 17β-Estradiol (E2), tamoxifen (TMX), and raloxifene (RLX) reduced oxidative stress, apoptosis (including caspase-3 and caspase-9), mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and Ca(2+) influx through the inhibition of TRPA1, TRPM2 and TRPV1 activation.